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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 Regulation of body fluids
Disposing of Wastes Regulation of body fluids

3 Tonicity of Cells conditions outside the cell Fig 6.16 Page106

4 Fluid elimination per minute (µm3/100µm3 of protoplasm)
Amoeba proteus 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 contractile vacuole Fluid elimination per minute (µm3/100µm3 of protoplasm) Osmotic concentration of medium (% of seawater concentration)

5 Plant cells respond to their environmental solution
The plant cell wall prevents bursting. A plant cell is normally bathed in a very hypotonic solution. It takes in water until the cell is full. cells in water cells moved to sucrose solution plasmolysis A plant cell placed in a hypertonic solution loses water. Ultimately outward flow stops when the cytosol concentration matches that of the solution.

6 Yearly changes in nitrogen and potassium concentrations in xylem sap of apple trees in New Zealand
blossom time 200 160 120 80 40 mid-summer K autumn fruit harvest µg element ml-1 sap spring N Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun sampling date The range of concentrations are far greater than animal cells could tolerate

7 Ion concentration in sea water and body fluids (mM)
Na+ Ca2+ K+ Mg2+ Cl- Sea Water 470 9.9 10.2 53.6 548 Marine invertebrates Jellyfish (Aurelia) 454 9.7 51.0 554 Sea urchin (Echinus) 444 9.6 50.2 522 Lobster (Homarus) 472 10.0 15.6 6.8 Crab (Carcinus) 468 12.1 17.5 23.6 524 Freshwater invertebrates Mussel (Anodonta) 14 0.3 11.0 12 Crayfish (Cambarus) 146 3.9 8.1 4.3 139 Terrestrial animals Cockroach (Periplaneta) 161 7.9 4.0 5.6 144 Honeybee (Apis) 11 31.0 18.0 21.0 -- Japanese beetle (Popillia) 20 16.0 39.0 19 Chicken (Gallus) 154 6 2.3 122 Human (Homo) 140 4.5 2.4 0.9 100 What conclusion do you draw from this?

8 Which invertebrate shows osmotic regulation?
Carcinus Which invertebrate shows osmotic regulation? Nereis Maia Osmotic concentration of body fluids Salt Water Brackish Water Fresh Water Osmotic concentration of medium

9 Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste.
This cartoon is shows a section of a bivalve. hinge and ligament shell heart nephridium intestine mantle gonad gills foot Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste.

10 Planaria excretory system Flame cell
NH3 Na+ H2O ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

11 Each earthworm segment has its own nephridium
Lumbricus terrestris Each earthworm segment has its own nephridium 1bachillerato/animal/imagenes/nervio/ lumbricus.jpg ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

12 Earthworm (Lumbricus) nephridium
Ion pumping removes Na+ Na+ Water follows osmotically H2O Reabsorption into capillaries nephrostome NH3 Concentrated urine empties through the outside body wall H2O Na+ NH3 Pressure forces coelomic fluid into opening nephridiopore

13 Insects use Malpighian tubules for waste elimination
midgut hindgut (intestine) crop anus rectum mouth salivary gland

14 Because insects have an open circulation system…
Waste elimination is more tied to digestion than to circulation ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Compare Figure 42.9 Page 944

15 Environmental conditions force the same structures to function quite
differently! hypotonic medium hypertonic medium Compare Figure 42.2 Page 936

16 The concentrations of nutrients are regulated by the human liver
The circulation via the portal vein goes to the capillaries in the liver. These regulate blood concentration. ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The capillaries of the stomach and intestine absorb nutrients.

17 This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation
The vertebrate liver absorbs excess glucose (forming glycogen) And it releases that glucose when needed later blood entering liver via portal vein high blood leaving liver to vena cava Blood Glucose normal liver removes excess liver supplies more low meal rest exercise Time (hours) This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation

18 The liver: O NH2 NH3 O=C HN ammonia =O urea NH uric acid
Regulates blood glucose levels via glycogen. Converts fermentation-produced lactic acid into glycogen. Interconverts carbohydrates into fats, conversions of fats, and amino acids into carbohydrates or fats. Deaminates amino acids and converts the resulting ammonia into urea and uric acid and releases these nitrogenous wastes into the bloodstream. NH3 ammonia urea uric acid NH2 O=C HN NH =O O Detoxifies a wide range of toxic chemicals including alcohol. Produces blood plasma proteins: fibrinogen, prothrombin, albumin, globulins…recycles aging red blood cells Produces bile for fat emulsification.

19 The renal excretory system in a male human (Homo sapiens)
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company prostate

20 renal circulation system
Longitudinal section diagram of a human kidney renal circulation system ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

21 renal functional system
Longitudinal section diagram of a human kidney renal functional system filtration and concentration unit for blood **contains all of the structures in next slide collection and ducting for urine

22 Nephron Structure and Function: similar to a nephridium
renal cortex renal medulla to renal pelvis ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

23 Glomerulus function: the capillary leaks water, ions, and waste molecules into Bowman’s capsule
©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

24 Glomerulus structure: the proteins and blood cells are retained, but water, electrolytes and other small molecules are filtered out. ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

25 K/Na antiport ATPase transport protein
Loop of Henle: Active transport of Na+ against its concentration gradient Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ phospho- lipid bilayer ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company K/Na antiport ATPase transport protein Na+ Na+ + Pi Na+ This is obviously not only active transport but also an antiport system

26 Functions of the nephron:
filtration active and passive recovery of salt osmosis of water concentration of urine ducting for ammonia and uric acid elimination Bowman’s capsule proximal tubule distal tubule cortex 10 12 8 6 4 3 1 solute concentration in hundreds of milliosmoles per liter H2O Na+ Cl- collecting duct outer medulla Na+ Cl- descending loop of Henle urea ascending loop of Henle inner medulla to renal pelvis

27 Nephron: renal capillaries recover sodium and water into the blood after filtration of small molecules proximal tubule distal tubule Bowman’s capsule renal artery glomerulus collecting duct renal vein loop of Henle ureter

28

29 A longitudinal slice of a chiton and three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). dorsal aorta gonad heart valve plates hemocoel radula mantle mouth anus foot digestive gland stomach nephridium nephridiopore ventral nerve cord (not shown) gonopore

30 The vacuole moves to the cell membrane and empties by exocytosis
Contractile vacuole filling water ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company salts The vacuole moves to the cell membrane and empties by exocytosis


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