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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 Disposing of Wastes Regulation of body fluids

3 Tonicity of Cells conditions outside the cell Fig 6.16 Page106

4 Fluid elimination per minute (µm 3 /100µm 3 of protoplasm) Osmotic concentration of medium (% of seawater concentration) contractile vacuole Amoeba proteus

5 A plant cell placed in a hypertonic solution loses water. Ultimately outward flow stops when the cytosol concentration matches that of the solution. Plant cells respond to their environmental solution The plant cell wall prevents bursting. A plant cell is normally bathed in a very hypotonic solution. It takes in water until the cell is full. skrat/slike/slike_drobnogled/Elodea/Elodea_list02.jpg plasmolysis cells in water cells moved to sucrose solution

6 Yearly changes in nitrogen and potassium concentrations in xylem sap of apple trees in New Zealand The range of concentrations are far greater than animal cells could tolerate µg element ml -1 sap blossom time fruit harvest Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun N K sampling date spring mid-summer autumn

7 What conclusion do you draw from this? Na + Ca 2+ K+K+ Mg 2+ Cl - Sea Water Marine invertebrates Jellyfish (Aurelia) Sea urchin (Echinus) Lobster (Homarus) Crab (Carcinus) Freshwater invertebrates Mussel (Anodonta) Crayfish (Cambarus) Terrestrial animals Cockroach (Periplaneta) Honeybee (Apis) Japanese beetle (Popillia) Chicken (Gallus) Human (Homo) Ion concentration in sea water and body fluids (mM)

8 Osmotic concentration of body fluids Salt Water Brackish Water Fresh Water Osmotic concentration of medium Maia roductes/fitxa_productes/cabra.jpg ns/thumb/1/18/Nereis_succinea_(epitoke).jpg /800px-Nereis_succinea_(epitoke).jpg Nereis NIMPIS/Carcinus_maenas2.jpg Carcinus Which invertebrate shows osmotic regulation?

9 This cartoon is shows a section of a bivalve. Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste. hinge and ligament nephridium mantle shell gills foot gonad intestine heart

10 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Flame cell NH 3 Na + H2OH2O Planaria excretory system

11 Each earthworm segment has its own nephridium 1bachillerato/animal/imagenes/nervio/ lumbricus.jpg Lumbricus terrestris ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

12 Pressure forces coelomic fluid into opening Ion pumping removes Na + Na + Water follows osmotically H2OH2O H2OH2O Na + NH 3 Concentrated urine empties through the outside body wall nephridiopore Earthworm (Lumbricus) nephridium nephrostome Reabsorption into capillaries

13 anus hindgut (intestine) Malpighian tubules midgut crop rectum salivary gland mouth Insects use Malpighian tubules for waste elimination

14 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Because insects have an open circulation system… Waste elimination is more tied to digestion than to circulation Compare Figure 42.9 Page 944

15 hypertonic medium hypotonic medium Environmental conditions force the same structures to function quite differently! Compare Figure 42.2 Page 936

16 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The concentrations of nutrients are regulated by the human liver The capillaries of the stomach and intestine absorb nutrients. The circulation via the portal vein goes to the capillaries in the liver. These regulate blood concentration.

17 The vertebrate liver absorbs excess glucose (forming glycogen) And it releases that glucose when needed later This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation blood entering liver via portal vein blood leaving liver to vena cava high low normal Blood Glucose Time (hours) mealrestexercise liver removes excess liver supplies more

18 The liver: Regulates blood glucose levels via glycogen. Converts fermentation-produced lactic acid into glycogen. Interconverts carbohydrates into fats, conversions of fats, and amino acids into carbohydrates or fats. Deaminates amino acids and converts the resulting ammonia into urea and uric acid and releases these nitrogenous wastes into the bloodstream. Detoxifies a wide range of toxic chemicals including alcohol. Produces blood plasma proteins: fibrinogen, prothrombin, albumin, globulins…recycles aging red blood cells Produces bile for fat emulsification. NH 3 ammonia urea uric acid NH 2 O=C HN NH =O NH O O

19 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company prostate The renal excretory system in a male human (Homo sapiens)

20 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Longitudinal section diagram of a human kidney renal circulation system

21 Longitudinal section diagram of a human kidney renal functional system filtration and concentration unit for blood collection and ducting for urine **contains all of the structures in next slide

22 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Nephron Structure and Function: similar to a nephridium renal cortex renal medulla to renal pelvis

23 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Glomerulus function: the capillary leaks water, ions, and waste molecules into Bowmans capsule

24 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Glomerulus structure: the proteins and blood cells are retained, but water, electrolytes and other small molecules are filtered out.

25 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Loop of Henle: Active transport of Na + against its concentration gradient Na + This is obviously not only active transport but also an antiport system + P i phospho- lipid bilayer K/Na antiport ATPase transport protein

26 to renal pelvis Functions of the nephron: filtration active and passive recovery of salt osmosis of water concentration of urine ducting for ammonia and uric acid elimination proximal tubule distal tubule Bowmans capsule cortex outer medulla inner medulla collecting duct descending loop of Henle ascending loop of Henle solute concentration in hundreds of milliosmoles per liter H2OH2O Na + Cl - urea

27 Nephron Nephron: renal capillaries recover sodium and water into the blood after filtration of small molecules proximal tubule distal tubule Bowmans capsule glomerulus renal artery renal vein collecting duct ureter loop of Henle

28

29 mouth radula valve plates gonad heart mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach ventral nerve cord (not shown) A longitudinal slice of a chiton and three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta

30 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company salts water Contractile vacuole filling The vacuole moves to the cell membrane and empties by exocytosis


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