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1Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2Regulation of body fluids Disposing of WastesRegulation of body fluids
3Tonicity of Cellsconditionsoutside thecellFig 6.16 Page106
4Fluid elimination per minute (µm3/100µm3 of protoplasm) Amoeba proteus7654321contractile vacuoleFluid elimination per minute(µm3/100µm3 of protoplasm)Osmotic concentration of medium(% of seawater concentration)
5Plant cells respond to their environmental solution The plant cell wall prevents bursting. A plant cell is normally bathed in a very hypotonic solution. It takes in water until the cell is full.cells in watercells moved to sucrose solutionplasmolysisA plant cell placed in a hypertonic solution loses water. Ultimately outward flow stops when the cytosol concentration matches that of the solution.
6Yearly changes in nitrogen and potassium concentrations in xylem sap of apple trees in New Zealand blossom time2001601208040mid-summerKautumnfruit harvestµg element ml-1 sapspringNAug Oct Dec Feb Apr Junsampling dateThe range of concentrations are far greater than animal cells could tolerate
7Ion concentration in sea water and body fluids (mM) Na+Ca2+K+Mg2+Cl-Sea Water4709.910.253.6548Marine invertebratesJellyfish (Aurelia)4549.751.0554Sea urchin (Echinus)4449.650.2522Lobster (Homarus)47210.015.66.8Crab (Carcinus)46812.117.523.6524Freshwater invertebratesMussel (Anodonta)140.311.012Crayfish (Cambarus)14188.8.131.5239Terrestrial animalsCockroach (Periplaneta)1617.94.05.6144Honeybee (Apis)1131.018.021.0--Japanese beetle (Popillia)2016.039.019Chicken (Gallus)15462.3122Human (Homo)1404.52.40.9100What conclusion do you draw from this?
8Which invertebrate shows osmotic regulation? CarcinusWhich invertebrate shows osmotic regulation?NereisMaiaOsmotic concentration of body fluidsSalt Water Brackish Water Fresh WaterOsmotic concentration of medium
9Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste. This cartoon is shows a section of a bivalve.hinge and ligamentshellheartnephridiumintestinemantlegonadgillsfootNephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste.
12Earthworm (Lumbricus) nephridium Ion pumping removes Na+Na+Water follows osmoticallyH2OReabsorption into capillariesnephrostomeNH3Concentrated urine empties through the outside body wallH2ONa+NH3Pressure forces coelomic fluid into openingnephridiopore
13Insects use Malpighian tubules for waste elimination midguthindgut (intestine)cropanusrectummouthsalivary gland
17This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation The vertebrate liver absorbs excess glucose (forming glycogen)And it releases that glucose when needed laterblood entering liver via portal veinhighblood leaving liver to vena cavaBlood Glucosenormalliver removes excessliver supplies morelowmealrestexerciseTime (hours)This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation
18The liver: O NH2 NH3 O=C HN ammonia =O urea NH uric acid Regulates blood glucose levels via glycogen.Converts fermentation-produced lactic acid into glycogen.Interconverts carbohydrates into fats, conversions of fats, and amino acids into carbohydrates or fats.Deaminates amino acids and converts the resulting ammonia into urea and uric acid and releases these nitrogenous wastes into the bloodstream.NH3ammoniaureauric acidNH2O=CHNNH=OODetoxifies a wide range of toxic chemicals including alcohol.Produces blood plasma proteins: fibrinogen, prothrombin, albumin, globulins…recycles aging red blood cellsProduces bile for fat emulsification.
21renal functional system Longitudinal section diagram of a human kidneyrenal functional systemfiltration and concentration unit for blood**contains all ofthe structuresin next slidecollection and ducting for urine
26Functions of the nephron: filtrationactive and passive recovery of saltosmosis of waterconcentration of urineducting for ammonia and uric acid eliminationBowman’s capsuleproximal tubuledistal tubulecortex101286431solute concentration in hundreds of milliosmoles per literH2ONa+ Cl-collecting ductouter medullaNa+ Cl-descending loop of Henleureaascending loop of Henleinner medullato renal pelvis
27Nephron: renal capillaries recover sodium and water into the blood after filtration of small moleculesproximal tubuledistal tubuleBowman’s capsulerenal arteryglomeruluscollecting ductrenal veinloop of Henleureter
29A longitudinal slice of a chiton and three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves).dorsal aortagonadheartvalve plateshemocoelradulamantlemouthanusfootdigestive glandstomachnephridiumnephridioporeventral nerve cord(not shown)gonopore