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Shifting Kingdoms 23568 Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes.

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Presentation on theme: "Shifting Kingdoms 23568 Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shifting Kingdoms Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes Tracheophytes Protozoans Myxozoans Multicellular Animals Lumpers Splitters

2 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only

3 How Long Ago? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only BYBPOrigin of Life Cyanobacterial Oxygen First Eukaryotes Multicellular PlantsLand!

4 Evidence Categories History - clearer recently, more obscure anciently Fossils - stratigraphic depth, isotope decay, etc. Chemical - metabolic products such as O 2, S s Molecular - DNA sequence alterations, etc. Developmental sequences - onto- phylo- geny Biogeography - Pangea, Gondwana & Laurasia

5 How do we know the Evolution Pathway? Phylogenetic Systematics Inferences from comparison of extant organisms Characters-Attributes of the organism » Anatomy » Morphology » Development » Physiology » Macromolecule Sequences Polarizing Character States Plesiomorphies-Ancient, shared by descendants Apomorphies-More-recent derivatives » Synapomorphy-Shared among related organisms » Autapomorphy-Found only in one organism Use of outgroup to compare to ingroup


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