12Primary Tissue Layer Tissue or Organ Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Origin of some mammalian tissues or organsPrimary Tissue LayerEctodermMesodermEndodermEpidermisMuscleLungsHairBoneLiverNailsBloodPancreasEye lensNotochordDigestive liningNerve systemKidneysBladderNasal oral mucosaeGonadsTissue or Organ
26Weight growth in a mouse (Mus musculus) Puberty161412108642Weight in gramsWeaningDays after birth
27Weight growth in an insect (Malanoplus) with 5 molts adult15010050Sudden increase when body lacks exoskeleton(soft shell crab)Weight (mg)5Nymphal instars:feeding3421zygoteAge in daysHow does weight increase suddenly when not feeding?
28Does growth continue indefinitely? Differential growth in weight of the Homo sapiens body and its parts2015105BodyDoes growth continue indefinitely?Why does the curve inflect here?HeartMultiples of weight at birthBrainAge in years
29Average decline in a Homo sapiens from age 30 to 75 years CharacteristicPercent DeclineWeight of brain44Number of nerve cells in spinal cord37Velocity of nerve impulse10Number of taste buds64Blood supply to brain20Output of heart at rest30Speed of return to normal pH of blood after displacement83Number of filtering subunits in kidneyFiltration rate of kidney31Capacity of lungsMaximum O2 uptake during exercise60
30Three larval stages and a sea star adult (Asterias vulgaris) gastrula gastrulabenthic adultplanktonic larvaebipinnariabrachiolaria
38Incomplete (gradual) metamorphosis in grasshoppers zygoteIncomplete (gradual) metamorphosis in grasshoppersBrachystola magna
39Relative DNA repair rate among mammals 100(Homo sapiens) Human(Loxodonta africana) Elephant(Bos taurus) CattleLife span in years (log scale)10Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)Rat (Rattus norvegicus)Mouse (Mus musculus)1Shrew (Suncus murinus)Relative rate of DNA repair