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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723 Developed microscopes for observing living organisms 1674 discovered protists 1677 discovered spermatozoa 1682 discovered.

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Presentation on theme: "Antonie van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723 Developed microscopes for observing living organisms 1674 discovered protists 1677 discovered spermatozoa 1682 discovered."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723 Developed microscopes for observing living organisms 1674 discovered protists 1677 discovered spermatozoa 1682 discovered striated muscle fibers

2 http://www.molecularexpressions.com/primer/images/introduction/leeuwenhoek.jpg http://students.ou.edu/J/Renee.E.Jones-1/Van%20leeuwenhoek%20Scope.jpg http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Physics/Optics/OpticalInst ruments/Microscope/GlassSphere/usph_01.gif http://cell.sio2.be/introduction/images/microleeuw.jpg

3 Schematic Human Sperm Cell http://academic.evergreen.edu/v/vivianoc/homunculus.gif Homunculus

4 Human (Homo sapiens) Sperm Photograph

5 Mammalian Syngamy: Plasmogamy

6 Calcium release spreading across an egg cell during syngamy

7 Amphioxus (lancelet) adult, zygote, and early cleavage not to scale!

8 Amphioxus (lancelet) cleavage

9 Amphioxus (lancelet) gastrulation and adult not to scale!

10 Morphogenetic movements of cells during development

11 Amphioxus (lancelet) nerulation

12 Origin of some mammalian tissues or organs EctodermMesodermEndoderm EpidermisMuscleLungs HairBoneLiver NailsBloodPancreas Eye lensNotochord Digestive lining Nerve system KidneysBladder Nasal oral mucosae Gonads Primary Tissue Layer Tissue or Organ

13 Frog (Rana pipiens) embryology

14 Frog (Rana pipiens) zygote

15 Frog (Rana pipiens) embryo: early cleavage

16 Frog (Rana pipiens) embryo: later cleavage

17 Chicken (Gallus gallus) zygote and early cleavage yolk blastodisc

18 Chicken (Gallus gallus) gastrulation

19 Chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo after 4 days of incubation

20 Human (Homo sapiens) embryo

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24 Comparison of vertebrate embryos of six species at 3 stages Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny

25 Typical sigmoid (S-shaped) growth curve: logistic curve Weight Age lag phase log phase plateau phase

26 Weight growth in a mouse (Mus musculus) http://www.sasionline.org/antsfiles/articles/images/Dino/mouse.jpg http://www.c-wilkie.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/jokes/images/mouse_sex.gif Weight in grams 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Days after birth Weaning Puberty

27 0 20 40 60 Weight growth in an insect (Malanoplus) with 5 molts adult zygote Nymphal instars: 1 2 3 4 5 Sudden increase when body lacks exoskeleton (soft shell crab) feeding How does weight increase suddenly when not feeding? 150 100 50 Weight (mg) Age in days

28 Differential growth in weight of the Homo sapiens body and its parts Why does the curve inflect here? Does growth continue indefinitely? 0 5 10 15 20 Age in years Multiples of weight at birth 20 15 10 5 Body Heart Brain

29 Average decline in a Homo sapiens from age 30 to 75 years CharacteristicPercent Decline Weight of brain44 Number of nerve cells in spinal cord37 Velocity of nerve impulse10 Number of taste buds64 Blood supply to brain20 Output of heart at rest30 Speed of return to normal pH of blood after displacement 83 Number of filtering subunits in kidney44 Filtration rate of kidney31 Capacity of lungs44 Maximum O 2 uptake during exercise60

30 Three larval stages and a sea star adult (Asterias vulgaris) http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/biog105/labs/deuts/media/echinowatervasc.jpg planktonic larvae http://www.cbu.edu/~aross/embryo/s-gastrula-2.jpg gastrula http://www.snv.jussieu.fr/bmedia/oursinMDC/coursours3/bipinn2leg.gif bipinnaria http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/olympusmicd/gallerie s/brightfield/images/starfishbrachiolarialarva.jpg brachiolaria benthic adult http://alpha2.bigelow.org/mitzi/images/library/subtidal%20ani mals/Sub-An-B_039.jpg

31 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: zygote (egg) http://www.monarchwatch.org/update/2003/egg_glue1.jpg Danaus plexippus

32 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: larva Danaus plexippus

33 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: larva Danaus plexippus

34 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: larva Danaus plexippus

35 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: pupa Danaus plexippus

36 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: adult Danaus plexippus

37 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: adult Danaus plexippus

38 http://www.ent.iastate.edu/images/orthoptera/lubber.jpg Incomplete (gradual) metamorphosis in grasshoppers zygote Brachystola magna

39 Relative DNA repair rate among mammals Life span in years (log scale) 100 10 1 Relative rate of DNA repair (Homo sapiens) Human (Loxodonta africana) Elephant (Bos taurus) Cattle Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Mouse (Mus musculus) Shrew (Suncus murinus)


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