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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

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Presentation on theme: "Antonie van Leeuwenhoek"— Presentation transcript:

1 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Developed microscopes for observing living organisms 1674 discovered protists 1677 discovered spermatozoa 1682 discovered striated muscle fibers

2 http://www. molecularexpressions

3 Schematic Human Sperm Cell

4 Human (Homo sapiens) Sperm Photograph

5 Mammalian Syngamy: Plasmogamy

6 Calcium release spreading across an egg cell during syngamy

7 Amphioxus (lancelet) adult, zygote, and early cleavage
not to scale!

8 Amphioxus (lancelet) cleavage

9 Amphioxus (lancelet) gastrulation and adult
not to scale!

10 Morphogenetic movements of cells during development

11 Amphioxus (lancelet) nerulation

12 Primary Tissue Layer Tissue or Organ Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm
Origin of some mammalian tissues or organs Primary Tissue Layer Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Epidermis Muscle Lungs Hair Bone Liver Nails Blood Pancreas Eye lens Notochord Digestive lining Nerve system Kidneys Bladder Nasal oral mucosae Gonads Tissue or Organ

13 Frog (Rana pipiens) embryology

14 Frog (Rana pipiens) zygote

15 Frog (Rana pipiens) embryo: early cleavage

16 Frog (Rana pipiens) embryo: later cleavage

17 Chicken (Gallus gallus) zygote and early cleavage
blastodisc yolk

18 Chicken (Gallus gallus) gastrulation

19 Chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo after 4 days of incubation

20 Human (Homo sapiens) embryo

21 Human (Homo sapiens) embryo

22 Human (Homo sapiens) embryo

23 Human (Homo sapiens) embryo

24 Comparison of vertebrate embryos of six species at 3 stages
Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny

25 Typical sigmoid (S-shaped) growth curve: logistic curve
plateau phase log phase Weight lag phase Age

26 Weight growth in a mouse (Mus musculus)
Puberty 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Weight in grams Weaning Days after birth

27 Weight growth in an insect (Malanoplus) with 5 molts
adult 150 100 50 Sudden increase when body lacks exoskeleton (soft shell crab) Weight (mg) 5 Nymphal instars: feeding 3 4 2 1 zygote Age in days How does weight increase suddenly when not feeding?

28 Does growth continue indefinitely?
Differential growth in weight of the Homo sapiens body and its parts 20 15 10 5 Body Does growth continue indefinitely? Why does the curve inflect here? Heart Multiples of weight at birth Brain Age in years

29 Average decline in a Homo sapiens from age 30 to 75 years
Characteristic Percent Decline Weight of brain 44 Number of nerve cells in spinal cord 37 Velocity of nerve impulse 10 Number of taste buds 64 Blood supply to brain 20 Output of heart at rest 30 Speed of return to normal pH of blood after displacement 83 Number of filtering subunits in kidney Filtration rate of kidney 31 Capacity of lungs Maximum O2 uptake during exercise 60

30 Three larval stages and a sea star adult (Asterias vulgaris) gastrula
gastrula benthic adult planktonic larvae bipinnaria brachiolaria

31 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: zygote (“egg”)
Danaus plexippus

32 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: larva
Danaus plexippus

33 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: larva
Danaus plexippus

34 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: larva
Danaus plexippus

35 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: pupa
Danaus plexippus

36 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: adult
Danaus plexippus

37 Monarch butterfly complete metamorphosis: adult
Danaus plexippus

38 Incomplete (gradual) metamorphosis in grasshoppers
zygote Incomplete (gradual) metamorphosis in grasshoppers Brachystola magna

39 Relative DNA repair rate among mammals
100 (Homo sapiens) Human (Loxodonta africana) Elephant (Bos taurus) Cattle Life span in years (log scale) 10 Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Mouse (Mus musculus) 1 Shrew (Suncus murinus) Relative rate of DNA repair

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