Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
3Biology: What is Life? life study of Properties of Life Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or manyMetabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energyGrowth: cell enlargement, cell numberMovement: intracellular, movement, locomotionReproduction: avoid extinction at deathBehavior: short term response to stimuliEvolution: long term adaptation
5Prokaryotic Growth Cells are generally very small Cells may double in size but only before binary fissionGrowth mostly in terms of cell number or colony size, etc.Doubling time in cell numbers may be 20 minutes in ideal conditionsCould quickly take over the earth if conditions could remain idealVery competitive in ideal environmentsUltimate survivors billion years!
6Binary Fission: Bacteria and Archaea cytokinesis by furrowingreplicationmigrationProcess called binary fissionNOT mitosis!Genome and copy are identicalGenome is haploidThere is no synapsisThere is no recombinationIn archaeons, there are multiple DNA circles in the genome to start, and how their replication and movements are coordinated so that all progeny contain one of each circle is not known.Compare Fig Pg. 230
8Eukaryotic Growth Cells are generally much larger than prokaryotes Cells may double in size before mitosisGrowth can be by increasing cell numbers and/or by increasing cell size…body complexity is another dimension of eukaryotic growthMitosis only refers to nuclear division and must be coordinated with or preceded by binary fission of chloroplasts and mitochondria (the endosymbionts) to ensure that all progeny cells have complete cell componentsEukaryotic genomes are distributed over several linear DNA molecules, are associated with histone proteins, and these must be replicated and moved in a coordinated way to avoid cells with incomplete genomesThere are several styles of cytokinesis among eukaryotic organisms (including furrowing)
10Eukaryotic Cell Cycle cytokinesis mitosis PMAT postsynthesis gap M Interphase nucleus looks normal with intact nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus, active transcriptionPMATpostsynthesis gapMpresynthesis gapG2G1nucleus smaller, chromatin lighter, one nucleolusinterphaseSbinary fission of mitochondria, chloroplasts and centriole in interphase!nucleus larger, chromatin darker, two nucleoliDNA synthesis
11Mitosis = PMAT early late ------Prophase--------- Prophase: chromosomecentromere------ProphaseMitosis = PMAT2 sister chromatidsProphase:Transcription stopsDuplicated chromosomes condenseNucleolus disappearsNuclear envelope disappearsChromosomes in cytosolG2InterphaseG1
12SEM of prophase chromosome The coiled loops making up the chromosome consist of DNA wrapped around histone proteins, and then coiled together tightly to form the two sister chromatids
13Artificially dyed SEM of the human prophase chromosomes The human karyotype shows 46 (23 pairs) of chromosomes
14An organized karyotype of a dividing cell from a female human A SEM image of the male human’s Y chromosomeCompare Fig Pg. 252
15The male sex chromosome combination: one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
16GENES ON THE Y CHROMOSOME Adapted from11.3211.3111.211.1P11.2111.2211.2312QGENES ON THE Y CHROMOSOMETestis Determining Factor (TDF)Gadgetry (MAC-locus)Channel flipping (FLP)Catching and throwing (BLZ-1)Self-confidence (BLZ-2) [unlinked to ability]Ability to remember and tell jokes (GOT-1)Sports page affinity (BUD-E)Addiction to death and destruction movies (T-2)Air guitar behavior (RIF)Aircraft identification memory (DC10)Youth fascination with Arachnida, Reptilia (MOM-4U)Spitting behavior (P2E)Reading on the john (SIT)Inability to express affection over the phone (ME-2)Selective hearing loss (HUH?)Lack of recall after dates (OOPS)The x-chromosome has 1000 genes critical to both males and females.The y-chromosome has 86 genes for only 23 different proteins.SRY is the gene modifying early development to convert the female body into a male.The other 85 are male-specific genes dealing with spermatogenesis or sperm function.Inherited from father to son, the sequences found on this chromosome can show genealogy of humansOBVIOUS SPOOF!
17Note: the location of haplogroups on earth are still indicative of what are believed to be ancient migration routes of Homo sapiens.
18Mitosis = PMAT Mitosis = PMAT early late ------Prophase--------- MetaphaseMitosis = PMATMitosis = PMATMetaphase:Spindle microtubules form at polesSpindle fibers from each pole attach to centromeresSpindle fibers push chromosomes to equatorial planeG2InterphaseG1
19Mitosis = PMAT early late ------Prophase--------- Metaphase Anaphase: Spindle microtubules shorten probably by depolymerization at endsCentromeres break down, freeing sister chromatidsSister chromatids are pulled to opposite polesG2InterphaseG1Anaphase
20Mitosis = PMAT early late ------Prophase--------- Metaphase late early Nuclear envelope reappearsChromosomes decondenseTranscription resumeslateearlyG2InterphaseG1cell plate cytokinesisAnaphaseTelophase
21Mitosis = PMAT early late ------Prophase--------- Metaphase late early G2InterphaseG1cell plate cytokinesisAnaphaseTelophase