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Seed Germination Analysis Worksheet
Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life
Growing Cell Division
Prokaryotic Growth Cells are generally very small Cells may double in size but only before binary fission Growth mostly in terms of cell number or colony size, etc. Doubling time in cell numbers may be 20 minutes in ideal conditions Could quickly take over the earth if conditions could remain ideal Very competitive in ideal environments Ultimate survivors billion years!
Binary Fission: Bacteria and Archaea In archaeons, there are multiple DNA circles in the genome to start, and how their replication and movements are coordinated so that all progeny contain one of each circle is not known. replication migration cytokinesis by furrowing Process called binary fission NOT mitosis! Genome and copy are identical Genome is haploid There is no synapsis There is no recombination Compare Fig Pg. 230
We know what is going on in this slide, right?
Eukaryotic Growth Cells are generally much larger than prokaryotes Cells may double in size before mitosis Growth can be by increasing cell numbers and/or by increasing cell size…body complexity is another dimension of eukaryotic growth Mitosis only refers to nuclear division and must be coordinated with or preceded by binary fission of chloroplasts and mitochondria (the endosymbionts) to ensure that all progeny cells have complete cell components Eukaryotic genomes are distributed over several linear DNA molecules, are associated with histone proteins, and these must be replicated and moved in a coordinated way to avoid cells with incomplete genomes There are several styles of cytokinesis among eukaryotic organisms (including furrowing)
mitosis cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell Cycle presynthesis gappostsynthesis gap DNA synthesis PMAT S G2 G1 interphase M Compare Fig Pg. 227
mitosis cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell Cycle presynthesis gap postsynthesis gap DNA synthesis PMAT S G2 G1 interphase M Interphase nucleus looks normal with intact nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus, active transcription nucleus larger, chromatin darker, two nucleoli nucleus smaller, chromatin lighter, one nucleolus binary fission of mitochondria, chloroplasts and centriole in interphase!
SEM of prophase chromosome The coiled loops making up the chromosome consist of DNA wrapped around histone proteins, and then coiled together tightly to form the two sister chromatids
Artificially dyed SEM of the human prophase chromosomes The human karyotype shows 46 (23 pairs) of chromosomes
Compare Fig Pg An organized karyotype of a dividing cell from a female human A SEM image of the male humans Y chromosome
The male sex chromosome combination: one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
Adapted from P Q GENES ON THE Y CHROMOSOME Testis Determining Factor (TDF) Gadgetry (MAC-locus) Channel flipping (FLP) Catching and throwing (BLZ-1) Self-confidence (BLZ-2) [unlinked to ability] Ability to remember and tell jokes (GOT-1) Sports page affinity (BUD-E) Addiction to death and destruction movies (T-2) Air guitar behavior (RIF) Aircraft identification memory (DC10) Youth fascination with Arachnida, Reptilia (MOM-4U) Spitting behavior (P2E) Reading on the john (SIT) Inability to express affection over the phone (ME-2) Selective hearing loss (HUH?) Lack of recall after dates (OOPS) The x-chromosome has 1000 genes critical to both males and females. The y-chromosome has 86 genes for only 23 different proteins. SRY is the gene modifying early development to convert the female body into a male. The other 85 are male- specific genes dealing with spermatogenesis or sperm function. Inherited from father to son, the sequences found on this chromosome can show genealogy of humans OBVIOUS SPOOF!
Note: the location of haplogroups on earth are still indicative of what are believed to be ancient migration routes of Homo sapiens.
Metaphase: 1.Spindle microtubules form at poles 2.Spindle fibers from each pole attach to centromeres 3.Spindle fibers push chromosomes to equatorial plane Interphase Prophase Metaphase earlylate G1 G2 Mitosis = PMAT
Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase earlylate G1 G2 Anaphase: 1.Spindle microtubules shorten probably by depolymerization at ends 2.Centromeres break down, freeing sister chromatids 3.Sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles Mitosis = PMAT
mitosis cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Control DNA synthesis PMAT S G2 G1 interphase M cscs cdk S cdk I inactive cdk cmcm cdk M PO 4 cscs cmcm C m destroyed cdk I PO 4 signal cdk M cmcm PO 4 cmcm cdk M C s destroyed cscs cdk S PO 4 cdk S cscs PO 4 signal cdk I [ C s ] rises active cdk S messenger phosphorylation [ C m ] rises inactive cdk active cdk M messenger phosphorylation