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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 Seed Germination Analysis Worksheet

3 Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life

4 Growing Cell Division

5 Prokaryotic Growth Cells are generally very small Cells may double in size but only before binary fission Growth mostly in terms of cell number or colony size, etc. Doubling time in cell numbers may be 20 minutes in ideal conditions Could quickly take over the earth if conditions could remain ideal Very competitive in ideal environments Ultimate survivors billion years!

6 Binary Fission: Bacteria and Archaea In archaeons, there are multiple DNA circles in the genome to start, and how their replication and movements are coordinated so that all progeny contain one of each circle is not known. replication migration cytokinesis by furrowing Process called binary fission NOT mitosis! Genome and copy are identical Genome is haploid There is no synapsis There is no recombination Compare Fig Pg. 230

7 We know what is going on in this slide, right?

8 Eukaryotic Growth Cells are generally much larger than prokaryotes Cells may double in size before mitosis Growth can be by increasing cell numbers and/or by increasing cell size…body complexity is another dimension of eukaryotic growth Mitosis only refers to nuclear division and must be coordinated with or preceded by binary fission of chloroplasts and mitochondria (the endosymbionts) to ensure that all progeny cells have complete cell components Eukaryotic genomes are distributed over several linear DNA molecules, are associated with histone proteins, and these must be replicated and moved in a coordinated way to avoid cells with incomplete genomes There are several styles of cytokinesis among eukaryotic organisms (including furrowing)

9 mitosis cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell Cycle presynthesis gappostsynthesis gap DNA synthesis PMAT S G2 G1 interphase M Compare Fig Pg. 227

10 mitosis cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell Cycle presynthesis gap postsynthesis gap DNA synthesis PMAT S G2 G1 interphase M Interphase nucleus looks normal with intact nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus, active transcription nucleus larger, chromatin darker, two nucleoli nucleus smaller, chromatin lighter, one nucleolus binary fission of mitochondria, chloroplasts and centriole in interphase!

11 Interphase Prophase earlylate G1 G2 Mitosis = PMAT Prophase: 1.Transcription stops 2.Duplicated chromosomes condense 3.Nucleolus disappears 4.Nuclear envelope disappears 5.Chromosomes in cytosol 2 sister chromatids centromere chromosome

12 SEM of prophase chromosome The coiled loops making up the chromosome consist of DNA wrapped around histone proteins, and then coiled together tightly to form the two sister chromatids

13 Artificially dyed SEM of the human prophase chromosomes The human karyotype shows 46 (23 pairs) of chromosomes

14 Compare Fig Pg An organized karyotype of a dividing cell from a female human A SEM image of the male humans Y chromosome

15 The male sex chromosome combination: one X chromosome and one Y chromosome

16 Adapted from P Q GENES ON THE Y CHROMOSOME Testis Determining Factor (TDF) Gadgetry (MAC-locus) Channel flipping (FLP) Catching and throwing (BLZ-1) Self-confidence (BLZ-2) [unlinked to ability] Ability to remember and tell jokes (GOT-1) Sports page affinity (BUD-E) Addiction to death and destruction movies (T-2) Air guitar behavior (RIF) Aircraft identification memory (DC10) Youth fascination with Arachnida, Reptilia (MOM-4U) Spitting behavior (P2E) Reading on the john (SIT) Inability to express affection over the phone (ME-2) Selective hearing loss (HUH?) Lack of recall after dates (OOPS) The x-chromosome has 1000 genes critical to both males and females. The y-chromosome has 86 genes for only 23 different proteins. SRY is the gene modifying early development to convert the female body into a male. The other 85 are male- specific genes dealing with spermatogenesis or sperm function. Inherited from father to son, the sequences found on this chromosome can show genealogy of humans OBVIOUS SPOOF!

17 Note: the location of haplogroups on earth are still indicative of what are believed to be ancient migration routes of Homo sapiens.

18 Metaphase: 1.Spindle microtubules form at poles 2.Spindle fibers from each pole attach to centromeres 3.Spindle fibers push chromosomes to equatorial plane Interphase Prophase Metaphase earlylate G1 G2 Mitosis = PMAT

19 Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase earlylate G1 G2 Anaphase: 1.Spindle microtubules shorten probably by depolymerization at ends 2.Centromeres break down, freeing sister chromatids 3.Sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles Mitosis = PMAT

20 Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase earlylate early late G1 G2 cell plate cytokinesis Mitosis = PMAT 1.Nuclear envelope reappears 2.Chromosomes decondense 3.Transcription resumes

21 Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase earlylate early late G1 G2 cell plate cytokinesis Mitosis = PMAT

22 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Mitosis in the African Blood Lily (Scadoxus multiflorus) Can you identify the phases of the cell cycle? Compare Fig Pg. 231

23 Animal mitosis: Frog heart endothelium Can you identify the phases of the cell cycle shown here? ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Compare Fig Pg. 231

24 Evolution of the role of the nuclear envelope among eukaryotes ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Dinoflagellates early late Common Eukaryotes Centriole association with the spindles only ensures cells receive one in species where centrioles are needed (flagellated)…are we?

25 Nuclear membrane role during mitosis in fungi (Catenaria) Catenaria zoospores proliferating in zygote (egg) of a midge and inside the body of a nematode ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

26 Different modes of cytokinesis among eukaryotes Animal cell furrowing Plant cell phragmoplast phycoplast Algal cell budding Fungal cell

27 Cytokinesis: Furrowing cleavage in a frog zygote ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

28 Saccharomyces: yeast from kingdom Fungi Mitosis nearly complete Cytokinesis via extrusion: budding! ? ? ? ?

29 A phragmoplast developing between two cells of root meristem in corn (Zea mays) This potassium permanganate preparation for TEM shows membranes almost exclusively, so cytoplasm looks simple as do mitochondria. Note: nice Golgi (dictyosomes)! ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Cytokinesis

30

31 mitosis cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Control DNA synthesis PMAT S G2 G1 interphase M cscs cdk S cdk I inactive cdk cmcm cdk M PO 4 cscs cmcm C m destroyed cdk I PO 4 signal cdk M cmcm PO 4 cmcm cdk M C s destroyed cscs cdk S PO 4 cdk S cscs PO 4 signal cdk I [ C s ] rises active cdk S messenger phosphorylation [ C m ] rises inactive cdk active cdk M messenger phosphorylation


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