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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 The Organism as a Unit of Life Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many! Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N 2 fix, ferment, etc.) Growth = irreversible change in size Movement…includes internal, limbs, locomotion Reproduction…failure = extinction Acclimatization-short term responses = behavior Adaptation-long term responses = evolution

3 Biology is multidimensional Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cell This array is an example of what dimension? Levels of Organization What fields of biology are at each extreme? Biophysics and Biochemistry In this course our focus will be upon… The Organism! This level of organization is also… Hierarchial / Multidimensional!

4 Carolus Linnaeus (aka Carl von Linné) Swedish Botanist, Physician, and Zoologist Developed a hierarchial classification scheme that we use to this day!

5 Taxonomy is also Hierarchial! The Organisms are Diverse: Taxonomy Domain BacteriaArchaeaEukarya Kingdom Eubacteria Gram + Archaea Protista (Chromista) PlantaeFungiAnimalia Phylum Proteobacteria Eury- archaeota Phaeophyta Anthophyta Magnolio- phyta Basidio- mycota Chordata Class Gamma- proteobacteria -- Phaeo- phyceae Dicoty- ledonae Hymeno- mycetes Mammalia Order Entero- bacteriales Halo- bacteriales FucalesRosalesAgaricalesPrimates Family Entero- bacteriaceae Halo- bacteriaceae FucaceaeRosaceaeAgaricaceaeHominidae Genus Escherichia Halo- bacterium FucusRosaAgaricusHomo Species E. coliH. salinarumF. distichusR. multifloraA. bisporusH. sapiens Common DH5 Halophytic archaeon RockweedWild RoseMushroomHuman

6 Figure 1-5 Page 7 of 3 rd edition of your book (deleted from current edition) KINGDOM (Animalia) PHYLUM (Chordata) CLASS (Mammalia) ORDER (Primates) FAMILY (Hominidae) GENUS (Homo) SPECIES (Homo sapiens) Not plants, fungi, etc. Not invertebrates Not birds, reptiles, etc. Not bison, etc. Not lemurs, monkeys etc. Not chimps, gorillas, etc. Not H. neanderthalensis, H. floresiensis, etc.

7 Homo sapiens Learn your own Latin binomial. Our genus means self not gender identity Our epithet: we think that we think! Our epithet always ends in s: One Homo sapiens is the instructor. There are many Homo sapiens in class. Print in italics, underscore in manuscript. I am a Homo sapiens.

8 How many organisms are there? Good Question! Lets exclude extinct species! Many extant are unknown so we estimate! Bacteria: 10,000 Archaea: 1,000 Protista: 20,000 (includes Stramenopila and Rhodophyta) Plantae: 285,000 (mostly flowering) Fungi: 110,000 Animalia: 1,400,000 (mostly arthropods)

9 How many organisms are there? What is a species? Animal species concept… if offspring are fertile then same species… does not apply to species of other kingdoms: Prokaryotes (no sex) Allopolyploidy in plants

10 Horse: Equus caballusDonkey: Equus asinus Mule: Sterile Hybrid X

11 Coyote Canis latrans German Shepherd Dog Canis familiaris Wolf Canis lupus Coydog Wolfdog Fertile Hybrids! XX

12 What is a Species? The Case of Bread Wheat AA (diploid wheat) x DD (diploid grass) AD (sterile diploid) similar to mule! AADD (fertile tetraploid) Triticum urartuAegilops tauschii colchicine or spontaneous BB (diploid grass) BAD (sterile triploid) colchicine or spontaneous BBAADD Fertile hexaploid Bread Wheat Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat Created 7500 BC with spontaneous doubling of DNA Levy A. A. and M. Feldman The impact of polyploidy on grass genome evolution. Plant Physiol. 130: Aegilops speltoides

13 How many kingdoms are there? Good Question! The relationships among known organisms are not completely understood. Are you a lumper or a splitter? Newer information appears to back up the taxonomic decisions of splitters! Historical shifts from 2, to 3, to 4, to 5, to 6 and now to many more in just the last 40 years!

14 Shifting Kingdoms Bacteria Archaea Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes Tracheophytes Protozoans Myxozoans Multicellular Animals Lumpers Splitters

15 halle.de/zool/mol_ecol/Bilder/DarwinBild.jpg Charles Darwin - British Naturalist Formal Studies: Medicine and Theology Descent with Modification Species evolved from generation to generation over time HMS Beagle Voyage 1880 The Power of Movement in Plants 1871 Descent of Man 1859 Origin of Species

16 Darwins Tree of Life (1859) the only figure in: On the Origin of Species The Roman numerals each represent 1000 generations The letters A-L represent hypothetical progenitor species within a single genus past time present future time Notice the very large number of extinctions! many more

17 Question 14 Page 15 Turn back to the tree of life shown in Figure 1.5. Note that Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes, while Eukarya are eukaryotes. On the simplified tree below, draw an arrow that points to the branch where the structure called the nucleus originated. Explain your reasoning. DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EUKARYA before nucleustrue nucleus

18 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only First Eukaryote!

19 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only First Eukaryote!

20 Here is a phylogeny that covers some of the animals:

21 Figure 1-9 Page 10 of 3 rd Edition Plants, fungi, and animals are small branch tips on the tree of life This node represents the common ancestor of archaea and eukaryotes This node represents the common ancestor of all organisms alive today

22 Page 7 Figure 1.5 Mycoplasma Firmicutes Cyanobacteria Actinobacteria Spirochaetes Chlamydiae Bacteriodetes -Proteobacteria Thaumarchaeota Crenarchaeota Korarchaeota Euryarchaeota DOMAIN ARCHAEA This node represents the common ancestor of all organisms alive today This node represents the common ancestor of archaea and eukaryotes DOMAIN EUKARYA Slime molds Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Euglenids Parabasilids Diplomonads Red algae Green algae Land plants Foraminiferans Ciliates Dinoflagellates Apicomplexans Water molds Diatoms Brown algae Fungi, animals, and plants are small branch tips on the tree of life DOMAIN BACTERIA In spite of this graphic image, and the highlighted point on the lower right, your book, like most others, is organized as if there were only two kingdoms (Plantae and Animalia), as if nothing happened since Linnaeus! How is this graphic from your book the same, and how is it different from the other depictions of the Tree of Life you have seen so far? In which direction is the axis of time shown? The long list of organisms down the right are? The three twigs highlighted on the tree are showing which level of modern Linnean taxonomy?

23 David Hillis tree of life based on total genome sequences (at the time) Eukaryotes Archaeons Prokaryotes How many twigs would be on this diagram if ALL the extant organisms were shown? ? Time Dimension?

24 David Hillis tree of life based on rRNA sequence analysis (at press time) Because this analysis is easier/faster, more species can be included! Rhodophyta Stramenopila origin

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings/Addison-Wesley Why did the five-kingdom system of classification fall out of favor? A.It was too complexthe original two-kingdom system of Linnaeus was more useful. B.Many organisms were difficult to classify because they had characteristics of more than one kingdom. C.There were too many prokaryotes to be included in a single kingdom. D.It did not reflect the actual evolutionary relationships among organisms very well.

26 Linnaean Classification is hierarchical: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Organisms have names: Common names are redundant and multiple, Latin binomials are universal and almost unique Species of organisms have a recognized binomial: Genus name and specific epithet There are more than a million species of organisms on our planet-- most are arthropods Many species on Earth are unknown or virtually unstudied Organisms are grouped into a few kingdoms The number of kingdoms has increased over time on the planet, and in biology over time too Phylogenic Cladistics relates organisms based on evolutionary pathways rather than on taxa All organisms on this planet evolved from a single ancestor and so are a clade Most of the recognized Kingdoms are close to natural groupings based on shared ancestry Kingdom Protista needs further dissection to become a natural grouping Summary Points for Taxonomic/Phylogenetic Classification

27 For Figuring Biological Data This Week! Bring your Biologist at Work Worksheet (completed?) Bring your Figuring Biological Data Worksheet (read!) Bring your Laptop with Excel installed…if you have one Bring your Flash Drive if you do not have a laptop Download the Course Data file from the course website: To your Laptop with Excel…OR To your Flash Drive


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