Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
21.1 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.4 starting with including including first then Roadmap Chapter 1 Page 1In this chapter you will learn aboutKey themes to structure your thinking about Biologystarting withincludingincludingWhat does it meanto say that somethingis alive?Two of the greatestunifying ideas in BiologyThe process ofdoing Biology1.11.5firstthenThe theory ofevolution bynatural selectionThe cell theory1.21.3predictsThe tree of life1.4
3If this is a Science Course, then the first thing we should learn is what Science is, right? tumblr_mczd4kLOuo1qgsgebo1_1280.jpgWith apologies to: Nightmare Before Christmas
4DOING BIOLOGY Big Picture Page 17 Figure 1.4 Observations (planned or involves theCharacteristics ofliving thingsfocuses onrevealsThe Tree of LifeEvidence-based study of life1.1Describes theevolutionaryrelationshipsamong speciesEnergyCellsInformationReplicationEvolutionbegins with1.4, Ch 28, Unit 61.1Observations(planned orchance)Exploringthe literatureSharing ideaswith otherscientistsInspirationprovidesText section whereyou can find moreinformationBioSkills 14leads tolead toDefining a problemandforming a questionleads toSociety
5Consistent experimental conditions Big Picture Page 17 Figure 1.5Defining a problemandforming a questionleads toStating a hypothesisand a null hypothesis,and making predictionsleads toDesigning a study(either observationalor experimental)to test predictionsCharacteristicsof goodexperimentaldesignusuallyinvolvesleads toControlsConsistent experimental conditionsLarge sample sizesGathering data1.5
6Big Picture Page 17 Figure 1.6 Scientific communitySocietyStating a hypothesisand a null hypothesis,and making predictionsDiscussions with colleaguesScientific meetingsPeer-reviewed publicationsrejecthypothesis;proposealternativehypothesistoleads toBioSkills 14Designing a study(either observationalor experimental)to test predictionstorevisitassumptionsof studyCommunicatefindingsleads tothenGathering datathenTheoryExplains fundamental aspects of natureConsistently shown to be correct after extensive testingServes as a frame- work for developing new hypothesesleads torelate tolargerAnalyzing andinterpreting dataBioSkills 1, 3, 4, 7, 91.2evaluatedby askingsuch asDo the data supportthe hypothesis?Cell theoryif NOif YES1.2andTheory of naturalselection1.3, Ch 25
7Science: a methodical approach to the acquisition of knowledge Observation: Use the metric (SI) units to measure your world!Question: Be curious-the bad question is the one you fail to ask!Hypothesis: Make falsifiable educated guess to answer questionPrediction: If the hypothesis is true… then the dependent variable will respond… when I manipulate the independent variable.Experiment: Manipulate the independent variable=treatment Compare the response to an unmanipulated controlAnalysis: Use statistical test and allow % for statistical error Type 1: rejecting a true H -- Type2: failing to reject false HDecision: Reject hypothesis or Cannot reject hypothesis
8Scientific Method Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction ExperimentAnalysisDecisionrevisere-test from differentperspectiveRejectCannot Rejectafter many cycles without rejectionHypothesis becomes Theory
9We are all born as scientists and do the scientific method innately. As an example, we will walk through a more adult experience, and see how your natural reactions to the situation include almost instant application of multiple cycles of the scientific method!
10Scientific Method Bulb In? Bulb Burned Out? Power On? Switch Broken? Wire Shorted?Plugged In?Paid Bill?Bulb loose?after many cycles without rejectionHypothesis becomes TheoryTheory of EvolutionLaw of Conservation of MatterLaw of Conservation of EnergyAn Alternative Lamp Theory?
11Louis Pasteur: Testing The Question of Spontaneous Generation French Biochemist and MicrobiologistGerm Theory of DiseasePasteurization of Food (60°C 30 min)Vaccinations against Rabies and Anthrax
12Do cells arise spontaneously or from other cells? Page 4 Figure 1.2Do cells arise spontaneously or from other cells?Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving materials.Cells are produced only when preexisting cells grow and divide.Pasteur experiment with straight-necked flask:Pasteur experiment with swan-necked flask:1. Place nutrient broth instraight-necked flask.1. Place nutrient broth inswan-necked flask.CellsCells2. Boil to sterilize theflask (killing any livingcells that were in thebroth).2. Boil to sterilize the flask(killing any living cells thatwere in the broth).Condensation settlesin neckNo cellsCellsNo cellsCells3. Preexisting cellsenter flask from air.3. Preexistingcells from airare trapped inswan neck.Cells will appear in broth.Cells will appear in broth.Cells will appear in broth.Cells will not appear in broth.SpontaneousgenerationhypothesisrejectedBoth hypothesessupportedCellsNo cellsCells arise from preexisting cells, not spontaneously from nonliving material.
13A friend of yours calls to say that his car would not start this morning. He asks for your help. You tell him the battery must be dead, and that if so, then jump-starting the car from a good battery should solve the problem. In doing so, you are _____.summarizing observations about why the car won’t start.stating a scientific theory for why the car won’t start.offering a specific hypothesis and associated prediction to explain why the car won’t start.performing an experimental test of a hypothesis for why the car won’t start.Answer: C
14How does the word theory in science differ from its use in everyday English? There is no difference—the usages are interchangeable.A scientific theory is always right and never changes.Scientific theories are testable explanations, not speculative guesses.A scientific theory can be confirmed by a single experiment designed to prove its accuracy.Answer: C
15Observations: Figure 1-11 Page 13-14 Wild chilies produce fruits that contain seeds.Cactus mice are seed eaters.Curve-billed thrashers are fruit eaters.