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Roadmap Chapter 1 Page 1 In this chapter you will learn about Key themes to structure your thinking about Biology starting with including firstthen including What does it mean to say that something is alive? Two of the greatest unifying ideas in Biology The cell theory The theory of evolution by natural selection The process of doing Biology The tree of life 1.4 predicts
If this is a Science Course, then the first thing we should learn is what Science is, right? tumblr_mczd4kLOuo1qgsgebo1_1280.jpg With apologies to: Nightmare Before Christmas
Big Picture Page 17 Figure 1.4 DOING BIOLOGY BioSkills 14 focuses on 1.1 Text section where you can find more information Observations (planned or chance) Defining a problem and forming a question Characteristics of living things Energy Cells Information Replication Evolution Exploring the literature Sharing ideas with other scientists Inspiration Society Evidence-based study of life The Tree of Life Describes the evolutionary relationships among species involves the begins with reveals lead to provides leads to , Ch 28, Unit 6
Big Picture Page 17 Figure 1.5 Defining a problem and forming a question Characteristics of good experimental design Controls Consistent experimental conditions Large sample sizes leads to Gathering data usually involves leads to Stating a hypothesis and a null hypothesis, and making predictions Designing a study (either observational or experimental) to test predictions 1.5
Big Picture Page 17 Figure 1.6 Analyzing and interpreting data Discussions with colleagues Scientific meetings Peer-reviewed publications leads to Gathering data relate to larger leads to Stating a hypothesis and a null hypothesis, and making predictions Designing a study (either observational or experimental) to test predictions 1.3, Ch 25 BioSkills 1, 3, 4, 7, 9 if NO evaluated by asking Do the data support the hypothesis? revisit assumptions of study then to reject hypothesis; propose alternative hypothesis if YES Scientific community Society Communicate findings BioSkills 14 Explains fundamental aspects of nature Consistently shown to be correct after extensive testing Serves as a frame- work for developing new hypotheses Theory 1.2 Cell theory 1.2 such as and Theory of natural selection
Science: a methodical approach to the acquisition of knowledge Observation: Use the metric (SI) units to measure your world! Question: Be curious-the bad question is the one you fail to ask! Hypothesis: Make falsifiable educated guess to answer question Prediction: If the hypothesis is true… then the dependent variable will respond… when I manipulate the independent variable. Experiment: Manipulate the independent variable=treatment Compare the response to an unmanipulated control Analysis: Use statistical test and allow % for statistical error Type 1: rejecting a true H -- Type2: failing to reject false H Decision: Reject hypothesis or Cannot reject hypothesis
Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Analysis Decision RejectCannot Reject re-test from different perspective Scientific Method after many cycles without rejection Hypothesis becomes Theory revise
jpg We are all born as scientists and do the scientific method innately. As an example, we will walk through a more adult experience, and see how your natural reactions to the situation include almost instant application of multiple cycles of the scientific method!
Bulb In? Bulb Burned Out? Power On? Switch Broken? Wire Shorted? Plugged In? Paid Bill? Bulb loose? Scientific Method after many cycles without rejection Hypothesis becomes Theory Theory of Evolution Law of Conservation of Matter Law of Conservation of Energy An Alternative Lamp Theory?
Louis Pasteur: Testing The Question of Spontaneous Generation French Biochemist and Microbiologist Germ Theory of Disease Pasteurization of Food (60°C 30 min) Vaccinations against Rabies and Anthrax
Page 4 Figure 1.2 Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving materials. Cells are produced only when preexisting cells grow and divide. Do cells arise spontaneously or from other cells? Pasteur experiment with straight-necked flask: 1. Place nutrient broth in straight-necked flask. 2. Boil to sterilize the flask (killing any living cells that were in the broth). 3. Preexisting cells enter flask from air. No cells Cells Cells will appear in broth. Cells Cells arise from preexisting cells, not spontaneously from nonliving material. No cells Spontaneous generation hypothesis rejected Cells will not appear in broth. Cells will appear in broth. 1. Place nutrient broth in swan-necked flask. Cells Pasteur experiment with swan-necked flask: Cells No cells 2. Boil to sterilize the flask (killing any living cells that were in the broth). Condensation settles in neck 3. Preexisting cells from air are trapped in swan neck. Both hypotheses supported