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How Did We Make This Chart? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae.

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Presentation on theme: "How Did We Make This Chart? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Did We Make This Chart? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only BYBPOrigin of Life Cyanobacterial Oxygen First Eukaryotes Multicellular PlantsLand! cyanobacterial endosymbiosis

2 unique flagellum, phycoplast open spindle, phragmoplast -eyespot oogamy, archegonium, plasmodesmata embryo, cuticle, apical growth stomata protovascular, aerial sporophyte, wind spores true vascular, branching true root, true leaf heterospory monopodial branching pollen, 1 megaspore/megasporangium, seeds vessels reduced gametophyte flowers, fruits -flagella heterospory Chlorophytagreen algae Hepaticophytaliverworts Anthocerotophytahornworts Bryophytamosses Lycophytaclub mosses Sphenophytahorsetails Pterophytaferns Cycadophytacycads Ginkgophytaginkgo Coniferophytaconifers Gnetophytawelwitschia etc. Anthophytaflowering plants heterospory The Plant Kingdom Clade

3 How do we know the Evolution Pathway? Phylogenetic Systematics Inferences from comparison of extant organisms Characters-Attributes of the organism » Anatomy » Morphology » Development » Physiology » Macromolecule Sequences Polarizing Character States Plesiomorphies-Ancient, shared by descendants Apomorphies-More-recent derivatives » Synapomorphy-Shared among related organisms » Autapomorphy-Found only in one organism Use of outgroup to compare to ingroup

4 OGA B C D E Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals 2. Petals 3. Petals 4. Petals 5. Sepals Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE

5 A B C D E Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total

6 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total ABCDE 2

7 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total BCDE 2 4

8 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total CDE 2 4 1

9 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total CDE Problem: Sepals would be naturally next, but this will not resolve easily!

10 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total DE Solution 1: Could evolve sepals twice on lines to B and C… a homoplasy! *5

11 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total DE Solution 2: Could evolve sepals once before B and reverse it after C… a more biological parsimonious homoplasy! 5* 5R*5R*

12 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total * 5R*5R* autapomorphy 3 Problem: Taxa are not arranged by complexity

13 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total * 5R*5R* autapomorphy 3 Problem: It is more parsimonious if homoplasy is for a simple character.

14 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE Total * 5 1R*1R* autapomorphy 3 Solution: Look to make homoplasy in pigmentation or a growth character.

15 OG A E D C B 1 Gray R* 5 Sepals Present 3 Pointed Petals 1 Gray Petals * 4 Long Petals 2 Six Petals This cladogram has six steps and one reversal homoplasy in a simple character

16 OGA B CDE Character: Apomorphic State 1. Petals Gray 2. Petals Six 3. Petals Pointed 4. Petals Long 5. Sepals Present Phylogeny Flowers: OGABCDE *1*1*1*1*1* 2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2* 3 4*4*4*4*4*4*4*4* 5*5*5*5* This cladogram has fifteen steps and ten homoplasies! Special creation is not parsimonious.


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