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1 Sun new moon full moon Spring tide: lunar and solar tides add together …so highs very high, lows very low Neap tide: lunar and solar tides opposite,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Sun new moon full moon Spring tide: lunar and solar tides add together …so highs very high, lows very low Neap tide: lunar and solar tides opposite,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Sun new moon full moon Spring tide: lunar and solar tides add together …so highs very high, lows very low Neap tide: lunar and solar tides opposite, thus no additive effect …so highs close to lows Earth Sun first quarter moon third quarter moon Earth Tide Variations Note: tides exaggerated! distance to sun underestimated! diagram not to scale!

2 2 Exaggerating Depths Earth Diameter: 12,756 km Mount Everest: km Average Ocean Depth: Pacific km Atlantic Indian Arctic Maximum Ocean Depth: Pacific km Atlantic Indian Arctic The thickness of this black line is 2 times the depth of the Mariana Trench and would also easily contain Mount Everest…more than all of the surface relief of the Earth! Atmosphere: 75% found in Troposphere km In fact, the black line would encompass both the depth of the Mariana Trench and also the Troposphere above it! Line Thickness: km Moon 3, 478 km distance from Earth: 103 moon diameters!

3 3 Limestone Marine Rock or Sloped Sandy Bottom Extreme High Water Extreme Low Water Littoral Zone Extremes at Spring Tides Supralittoral Zone Infralittoral Zone Midlittoral Zone Infralittoral Fringe Supralittoral Fringe Splash Mean High Water Mean Low Water Tidal Zones Because San Salvador is located near the equator, the Littoral Zone may be quite thin, so wave height may be more important to organisms in the Littoral and Supralittoral Fringe

4 4 This tide table is provided from irbs.com/tides/calendar/month/4962.html?y=2005&m=5&d=22 San Salvador (Watling Island), Bahamas 24.05° N, 74.55° W All tides in ft relative to an index level…All times are EDT SundayMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday :59A L :12A Sunrise 7:58A H :46P L :37P Sunset 8:18P H 3.82 Full Moon 24 2:48A L :11A Sunrise 8:46A H :34P L :38P Sunset 9:06P H :37A L :11A Sunrise 9:36A H :25P L :38P Sunset 9:57P H :28A L :11A Sunrise 10:28A H :18P L :39P Sunset 10:51P H :21A L :11A Sunrise 11:24A H :16P L :39P Sunset 11:49P H :10A Sunrise 6:16A L :25P H :19P L :40P Sunset 29 12:49A H :10A Sunrise 7:13A L :29P H :28P L :40P Sunset 30 1:54A H :10A Sunrise 8:11A L :34P H :41P Sunset 8:40P L 0.97 Last Quarter 31 2:59A H :10A Sunrise 9:09A L :37P H :41P Sunset 9:50P L :02A H :10A Sunrise 10:04A L :37P H :42P Sunset 10:56P L :00A H :10A Sunrise 10:56A L :31P H :42P Sunset 11:54P L Tide Table May-June 2005 Comment: May-June Water Temperature 77-80°F = °C Shallow near-shore water may be warmer! Tidal Flux H-L spring neap spring- neap =0.4 ft = 4.8 in

5 5 Oceanic Island Ecology Ecology: study of organisms in environment

6 6 Where We Are… Oceanic Island Forms Provides Rich Habitat Diversity Has Climate and Environmental Factors Now we need the Organisms!

7 7 Trophic Pyramid 3° Consumer - Carnivore feeding on Carnivores 2° Consumer Carnivore 1° Consumer Herbivore Producer Photosynthesis Numbers Biomass Energy

8 8 Show Green Reefs Movie Here

9 9 The theme was: the reef is green because of overfishing. Science decisions are based on objective evidence. What was the evidence for greening? Did you see green? What fish were you shown swimming on the reef? Dr. Booth has visited San Salvador over some 30 years… what did he tell you about groupers? what did he tell you about long-spined sea urchin numbers? What did you NOT see in this video that you should have seen if over-fishing were a problem? Are there other explanations for lack of herbivores? Are there other explanations for algal overgrowth? Are we fertilizing the algae? What else is in the fertilizer? The very contagious white pox coral disease is caused by Serratia marcescens found in human feces. Is the problem on San Salvador really overfishing or something more complex? Critical Thinking About This Video

10 10 Trophic Pyramid 3° Consumer - Carnivore feeding on Carnivores 2° Consumer Carnivore 1° Consumer Herbivore Producer Photosynthesis Numbers Biomass Energy from?

11 11 Trophic Funnel! 3° Consumer - Carnivore feeding on Carnivores 2° Consumer Carnivore 1° Consumer Herbivore Producer Photosynthesis Energy Biomass Numbers 2nd Law of Thermodynamics So this is a leaky funnel!

12 12 Photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O O 2 + CH 2 O carbon dioxide + wateroxygen + carbohydrate chlorophyll Primary Producers: Plants, Algae, Cyanobacteria Food for Consumers!

13 13 Trophic Calendar! 3° Consumer - Carnivore feeding on Carnivores 2° Consumer Carnivore 1° Consumer Herbivore Producer Photosynthesis Time Colonize and Establish Large Population Food Supply for Ecosystem Habitats for Others Population of Generalists Small Pop

14 14 1.This game is a cross-country race in a forest 2.All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance 3.The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest 4.Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish 5.There are many trails through the woods Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks Trails never join together or rejoin after forking 6.Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations 7.At each check-in station, a worker has a unique stamp 8.Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station 9.Runners are not allowed to retrace a path 10.All runners must finish the race 11.Using the punch cards handed in at the finish line: Sketch the trail map Show all station locations (on the straightaways) Mark the exit used by each runner The Forest Cross-Country Meet! Liberally dapted from: David W. Goldsmith The great clade race: presenting cladistic thinking to biology majors and general science students. The American Biology Teacher 65:

15 15 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalVal xxxxxxxx xxxxx xx x xxxx xx x xx x xxx x x The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

16 16 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

17 17 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start All of the runners passed the circle station, so this station must be near the start

18 18 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

19 19 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start Five of the runners passed the teardrop station, but three did not, so our 8 runners must have divided into two groups Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, ValBob, Deb, Cal

20 20 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

21 21 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start Four runners of the group of five passed the diamond station, but Hal did not, so he split away before this station Sue, Lou, Jen, Val Bob, Deb, Cal Hal Because paths do not rejoin, Hal is separated and thus we can draw him at the finish line Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, Val

22 22 The Forest Meet Start Hal Bob CalDebJenLouSueVal Notice the runners are in alphabetical order. But this is not the only solution All branches can be rotated: e.g.: Lou before Jen Sue-Val before Jen-Lou

23 23 Translating the Forest Meet to Evolution on an Island The forest represents the time-space continuum on the island Time is shown by the runners moving from south to north The entrance represents an arrival of a pioneer colonizer on-island The north finish line represents the present time The names at the finish line represent extant organisms on-island The meet cards represent the phenotypes of extant organisms The stamp marks are the genotype changes leading to phenotype The branching trails show adaptive radiation (speciation) pathways The shared marks are the synapomorphies (shared derived traits) you used to determine the evolutionary pathways You carried out a cladistic analysis… intuitively very little help from me. Congratulations!

24 24 1.This game is a cross-country race in a forest 2.All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance 3.The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest 4.Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish 5.There are many trails through the woods Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks Trails never join together or rejoin after forking 6.Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations 7.At each check-in station, a worker has a unique stamp 8.Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station 9.Runners are not allowed to retrace a path 10.All runners must finish the race 11.Using the punch cards handed in at the finish line: Sketch the trail map Show all station locations (on the straightaways) Mark the exit used by each runner The Clade Race! 1. This game represents the evolution of some related organisms 2. The organisms are believed to be a clade (w/common ancestor) 3. The organisms we are using are all extant (none are fossils) 5. We make few assumptions about the evolution pathway Cladogenesis divides one species into two species We assume there is no convergent or parallel evolution 6. Anagenesis is expected to occur between generations 7. Evolution shows its record of changes in the genotype 8. The record of evolution in genotype is shown in the phenotype 9. Evolution is permanent; we assume no reversals of states 10. In this study, we are using no fossils of extinct clade members 11. Using the phenotypes observed in the extant organisms: 4. We make no assumptions about possible phenotypes observed Sketch the cladogram Show the location of character state transitions Show the relationships among the taxa

25 25 How do you DO cladistics? 1.Look at a group of organisms that you think are related 2.Find a not-too-distantly related (primitive?) out-group 3.Select characters that will help to distinguish the organisms 4.Polarize the character states by: Stratigraphic sequence (fossil sequence) Developmental sequence (ontogeny recaps phylogeny) Outgroup comparison 5.Build a data matrix 6.Group by number of synapomorphies (shared derived) 7.Sketch possible cladograms 8.Seek simplest (most parsimonious) cladogram


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