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How do you DO classification? 1.Get with a partner to form a team 2.Look over the cards you are given for your team 3.Every group gets the same set of.

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Presentation on theme: "How do you DO classification? 1.Get with a partner to form a team 2.Look over the cards you are given for your team 3.Every group gets the same set of."— Presentation transcript:

1 How do you DO classification? 1.Get with a partner to form a team 2.Look over the cards you are given for your team 3.Every group gets the same set of 8 cards Bob Sue Deb Lou Jen Cal Hal Val 4.Sort the cards into what you believe may be natural groups Names do not count, use only shapes shown on card 5.Decide who will tell the class how you sorted your groups What theme unites/defines each group Warmup!

2 How do you DO classification? Sharing our Results

3 1.This game is a cross-country race in a forest 2.All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance 3.The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest 4.Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish 5.There are many trails through the woods Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks Trails never join together or rejoin after forking 6.Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations 7.At each check-in station, a worker has a unique stamp 8.Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station 9.Runners are not allowed to retrace a path 10.All runners must finish the race 11.Using the punch cards handed in at the finish line: Sketch the trail map Show all station locations (on the straightaways) Mark the exit used by each runner The Forest Meet!

4 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalVal xxxxxxxx xxxxx xx x xxxx xx x xx x xxx x x The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

5 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

6 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start All of the runners passed the circle station, so this station must be near the start

7 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

8 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start Five of the runners passed the teardrop station, but three did not, so our 8 runners must have divided into two groups Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, ValBob, Deb, Cal

9 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

10 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start Four runners of the group of five passed the diamond station, but Hal did not, so he split away before this station Sue, Lou, Jen, Val Bob, Deb, Cal Hal Because paths do not rejoin, Hal is separated and thus we can draw him at the finish line Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, Val

11 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

12 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Finish Line Start Sue, Lou, Jen, Val Bob, Deb, Cal Hal Bob, Deb, and Cal all passed the triangle station so it was along the path they shared

13 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

14 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Finish Line Start Sue, Val Deb, Cal Hal Deb, and Cal passed the star station, but Bob did not, so the group divided Jen, Lou Bob Jen and Lou passed the heart station, but Sue and Val passed the spade station, so the group of four divided Bob, Deb, Cal Sue, Lou, Jen, Val

15 The Forest Meet The rest are autapomorphies BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1

16 The Forest Meet Autapomorphies! Start Hal Bob CalDebJenLouSueVal Deb, Cal Jen, LouSue, Val Notice the runners are in alphabetical order. But this is not the only solution All branches can be rotated: e.g.: Lou before Jen Sue-Val before Jen-Lou

17 But Wait! We have one really-slow runner just exiting! Here is his card…figure out his pathway The Forest Meet!

18 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValRoss xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx x xxxx xx xx xx x xxx x xx The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

19 The Forest Meet Start Hal Bob CalDebJenLouSueVal What did Ross do? What is parsimonious? Are our ideas wrong? Maybe Ross followed Hal.. Then hit a rougue station? Ross

20 1.This game is a cross-country race in a forest 2.All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance 3.The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest 4.Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish 5.There are many trails through the woods Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks Trails never join together or rejoin after forking 6.Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations 7.At each check-in station, a worker has a unique stamp 8.Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station 9.Runners are not allowed to retrace a path 10.All runners must finish the race 11.Using the punch cards handed in at the finish line: Sketch the trail map Show all station locations (on the straightaways) Mark the exit used by each runner The Clade Race! 1. This game represents the evolution of some related organisms 2. The organisms are believed to be a clade (w/common ancestor) 3. The organisms we are using are all extant (none are fossils) 5. We make few assumptions about the evolution pathway Cladogenesis divides one species into two species We assume there is no convergent or parallel evolution 6. Anagenesis is expected to occur between generations 7. Evolution shows its record of changes in the genotype 8. The record of evolution in genotype is shown in the phenotype 9. Evolution is permanent; we assume no reversals of states 10. In this study, we are using no fossils of extinct clade members 11. Using the phenotypes observed in the extant organisms: 4. We make no assumptions about possible phenotypes observed Sketch the cladogram Show the location of character state transitions Show the relationships among the taxa

21 How do you DO cladistics? 1.Look at a group of organisms that you think are related 2.Find a not-too-distantly related (primitive?) out-group 3.Select characters that will help to distinguish the organisms 4.Polarize the character states by: Stratigraphic sequence (fossil sequence) Developmental sequence (ontogeny recaps phylogeny) Outgroup comparison 5.Build a data matrix 6.Group by number of synapomorphies (shared derived) 7.Sketch possible cladograms 8.Seek simplest (most parsimonious) cladogram

22 OGA B CD E ABCDE 001001 000100 010000 011111 001000 010110 000110 010110 000110 011111

23 ABCDE 001001 000100 010000 011111 001000 010110 000110 010110 000110 011111 ABCDE -- wide wing -- long tail We start with our most- synapomorphic character

24 OGABCDE 001001 000100 010000 011111 001000 010110 000110 010110 000110 011111 -- wide wing -- long tail We continue with our next-most-synapomorphic character ACDBE -- heavy leg -- wide body

25 OGABCDE 001001 000100 010000 011111 001000 010110 000110 010110 000110 011111 -- wide wing -- long tail We continue with our least-synapomorphic character CD BE -- heavy leg -- wide body -- large eye -- long leg -- dark body A

26 OGABCDE 001001 000100 010000 011111 001000 010110 000110 010110 000110 011111 -- wide wing -- long tail We finish with our autapomorphic character C E -- heavy leg -- wide body -- large eye -- long leg -- dark body A -- black eye D -- wide neck -- long wing B

27 -- wide wing -- long tail Finally we format our cladogram with extant taxa at the top -- heavy leg -- wide body -- large eye -- long leg -- dark body -- black eye -- wide neck-- long wing OG E B A D C

28 -- wide wing -- long tail What do we do with the swapped out Clade Critter? -- heavy leg -- wide body -- large eye -- long leg -- dark body -- black eye -- wide neck-- long wing OG E B A D C E

29 -- wide wing -- long tail What do we do with the swapped out Clade Critter? -- heavy leg -- wide body -- large eye -- long leg -- dark body -- black eye -- wide neck-- long wing OG E B A D C dark -- body A homoplasy… A parallelism or…. A convergence E

30 -- wide wing -- long tail Is there an alternative explanation? -- heavy leg -- wide body -- large eye -- long leg -- dark body -- black eye -- wide neck -- long wing OG E B A D C E dark -- body A single evolution But two reversals -- dark body -- dark body R -- dark body R Two evolutions Is it easier to evolve or to lose the characteristic?


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