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How Long Ago? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes.

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Looking Back at Prerequisites Science: a methodical approach to the acquisition of knowledge Observation: Use the metric (SI) units to measure your world!

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Presentation on theme: "How Long Ago? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Long Ago? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only BYBPOrigin of Life Cyanobacterial Oxygen First Eukaryotes Multicellular AnimalsLand!

2 Evidence Categories History - clearer recently, more obscure anciently Fossils - stratigraphic depth, isotope decay, etc. Chemical - metabolic products such as O 2, S s Molecular - DNA sequence alterations, etc. Developmental sequences - onto- phylo- geny Biogeography - Pangea, Gondwana & Laurasia

3 How do we know the Evolution Pathway? Phylogenetic Systematics Inferences from comparison of extant organisms Characters-Attributes of the organism » Anatomy » Morphology » Development » Physiology » Macromolecule Sequences Polarizing Character States Plesiomorphies-Ancient, shared by descendants Apomorphies-More-recent derivatives » Synapomorphy-Shared among related organisms » Autapomorphy-Found only in one organism Use of outgroup to compare to ingroup

4 Typical Cladogram Common Ancestor Extant APresent Ancient Extinct Transitional Forms Time A A A This straight line of evolution is called anagenesis. Extant B This branching of evolution is called cladogenesis. A is the common ancestor of extant A and extant B

5 Typical Cladogram Common Ancestor Extant AExtant BPresent Ancient Time A A A Extant C A C are a grade (is paraphyletic) A C A A B are a clade A A B is the sister group of C A A B constitute a clade

6 Typical Cladogram Common Ancestor Extant AExtant CExtant BPresent Ancient Time A A A A Extinct! Extant DExtant E A D A E are a ? clade Common ancestor + A D E are a ? grade The ABC clade may be, say, a genus. The DE clade may be another genus… in the same family The ABCDE clade would be the family

7 Typical Cladogram Common Ancestor Extant AExtant CExtant DExtant EExtant BPresent Ancient Time A A A A Extinct! A On the other hand… AB are a genus C is a monotypic genus DE are a genus ABC might be one family DE are in another family ABCDE might constitute an order

8 Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algaeBrown AlgaeGreen Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Living organisms are part of one clade Eukaryotic organisms are a clade Prokaryotic organisms are a grade (paraphyletic) Protists are polyphyletic (unnatural taxon) Plants are a clade (monophyletic) Animals and Fungi are a clade!

9 How do you DO classification? 1.Get with a partner to form a team 2.Look over the cards you are given for your team 3.Every group gets the same set of 8 cards Bob Sue Deb Lou Jen Cal Hal Val 4.Sort the cards into what you believe may be natural groups Names do not count, use only shapes shown on card 5.Decide who will tell the class how you sorted your groups What theme unites/defines each group Warmup!

10 How do you DO classification? Sharing our Results

11 1.This game is a cross-country race in a forest 2.All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance 3.The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest 4.Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish 5.There are many trails through the woods Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks Trails never join together or rejoin after forking 6.Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations 7.At each check-in station, a worker has a unique stamp 8.Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station 9.Runners are not allowed to retrace a path 10.All runners must finish the race 11.Using the punch cards handed in at the finish line: Sketch the trail map Show all station locations (on the straightaways) Mark the exit used by each runner The Forest Meet!

12 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalVal xxxxxxxx xxxxx xx x xxxx xx x xx x xxx x x The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

13 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

14 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start All of the runners passed the circle station, so this station must be near the start

15 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

16 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start Five of the runners passed the teardrop station, but three did not, so our 8 runners must have divided into two groups Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, ValBob, Deb, Cal

17 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

18 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge Start Four runners of the group of five passed the diamond station, but Hal did not, so he split away before this station Sue, Lou, Jen, Val Bob, Deb, Cal Hal Because paths do not rejoin, Hal is separated and thus we can draw him at the finish line Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, Val

19 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

20 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Finish Line Start Sue, Lou, Jen, Val Bob, Deb, Cal Hal Bob, Deb, and Cal all passed the triangle station so it was along the path they shared

21 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

22 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Finish Line Start Sue, Val Deb, Cal Hal Deb, and Cal passed the star station, but Bob did not, so the group divided Jen, Lou Bob Jen and Lou passed the heart station, but Sue and Val passed the spade station, so the group of four divided Bob, Deb, Cal Sue, Lou, Jen, Val

23 The Forest Meet The rest are autapomorphies BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValTotal xxxxxxxx8 xxxxx5 xx2 x1 xxxx4 xx2 x1 xx2 x1 xxx3 x1 x1

24 The Forest Meet Autapomorphies! Start Hal Bob CalDebJenLouSueVal Deb, Cal Jen, LouSue, Val Notice the runners are in alphabetical order. But this is not the only solution All branches can be rotated: e.g.: Lou before Jen Sue-Val before Jen-Lou

25 But Wait! We have one really-slow runner just exiting! Here is his card…figure out his pathway The Forest Meet!

26 BobSueDebLouJenCalHalValRoss xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx x xxxx xx xx xx x xxx x xx The Forest Meet Sharing our Results

27 The Forest Meet Start Hal Bob CalDebJenLouSueVal What did Ross do? What is parsimonious? Are our ideas wrong? Maybe Ross followed Hal.. Then hit a rougue station? Ross

28 1.This game is a cross-country race in a forest 2.All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance 3.The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest 4.Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish 5.There are many trails through the woods Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks Trails never join together or rejoin after forking 6.Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations 7.At each check-in station, a worker has a unique stamp 8.Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station 9.Runners are not allowed to retrace a path 10.All runners must finish the race 11.Using the punch cards handed in at the finish line: Sketch the trail map Show all station locations (on the straightaways) Mark the exit used by each runner The Clade Race! 1. This game represents the evolution of some related organisms 2. The organisms are believed to be a clade (w/common ancestor) 3. The organisms we are using are all extant (none are fossils) 5. We make few assumptions about the evolution pathway Cladogenesis divides one species into two species We assume there is no convergent or parallel evolution 6. Anagenesis is expected to occur between generations 7. Evolution shows its record of changes in the genotype 8. The record of evolution in genotype is shown in the phenotype 9. Evolution is permanent; we assume no reversals of states 10. In this study, we are using no fossils of extinct clade members 11. Using the phenotypes observed in the extant organisms: 4. We make no assumptions about possible phenotypes observed Sketch the cladogram Show the location of character state transitions Show the relationships among the taxa

29 How do you DO cladistics? 1.Look at a group of organisms that you think are related 2.Find a not-too-distantly related (primitive?) out-group 3.Select characters that will help to distinguish the organisms 4.Polarize the character states by: Stratigraphic sequence (fossil sequence) Developmental sequence (ontogeny recaps phylogeny) Outgroup comparison 5.Build a data matrix 6.Group by number of synapomorphies (shared derived) 7.Sketch possible cladograms 8.Seek simplest (most parsimonious) cladogram


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