Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Biogeography of Hawaii Volcano tops from Ocean Floor Remote Colonization Rare Adaptive Radiation of Founder Species Diagrams in this lecture are liberally.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Biogeography of Hawaii Volcano tops from Ocean Floor Remote Colonization Rare Adaptive Radiation of Founder Species Diagrams in this lecture are liberally."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Biogeography of Hawaii Volcano tops from Ocean Floor Remote Colonization Rare Adaptive Radiation of Founder Species Diagrams in this lecture are liberally adapted from: Wagner, W. L. and V. A. Funk Hawaiian biogeography: evolution on a hot spot archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

2 2 Origin of Island Archipelago Hot spot moves or plates move over hot spot Volcanoes build to surface then erode or subside Current islands arose after previous islands were already submerged Exceedingly limited island hopping North America Hawaiian Emperor Bend Hawaiian Ridge Kure Midway Layann Necker Nihoa Kauai Oahu Maui Hawaii Loihi Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Meiji Seamount Emperor Seamounts

3 3 22° 20° 18° 160°158°156°154° Gardner Pinnacles La Perouse Pinnacles Necker Nihoa 7.5 Million Years Ago

4 4 22° 20° 18° 160°158°156°154° Necker Kauai 5 Million Years Ago Nihoa Nihau Kaula

5 5 22° 20° 18° 160°158°156°154° Kauai 2.5 Million Years Ago Nihoa Nihau Kaula Oahu

6 6 22° 20° 18° 160°158°156°154° Kauai 1 Million Years Ago Nihoa Nihau Kaula Oahu Maui

7 7 22° 20° 18° 160°158°156°154° Kauai 0.5 Million Years Ago Nihoa Nihau Kaula Oahu Maui Mahukona

8 8 22° 20° 18° 160°158°156°154° Kauai Present Nihau Kaula Oahu Maui Loihi Seamount Molokai Lanai KahoolaweHawaii

9 9 Island Development Island Appears Colonized by Plants Biota Establishes Biota Stabilizes Island Moves Away from Hot Spot Waif Founders Lack Competition Speciation: Adaptive Radiation to fill empty niches Endemic Species Sequence of Islands should reflect patterns of speciation Endemics found on just one island, one volcano Humans (about 10 BC) Introduced Exotic Species Endemics Poor Competitors…Extinct

10 10 Endemic Terrestrial Species Taxon/CharacterKauai to HawaiiNihoa to Kure Insects2,30050 Land Snails1,0008 Land Birds704 Ferns and Allies1200 Flowering Plants85012 Area (km 2 )16,5768 Endemics/10 km 2 381

11 11 Cladistic Analysis 1960s Development of Cladistic Analysis –Determines Possible Pathways of Evolution Characters and Polarized Character States –Anatomy, Morphology, Behavior, Chemical, Gene Sequence –Plesiomorphies-Ancestral character states –Apomorphies-Derived character states Construction of Cladogram-computers! –Reveal homoplasies (parallel, convergent), reversals –Most-parsimonious (fewest steps) cladogram –Not necessarily unique!

12 12 Cladogram B DFG gradeclade B FGD Taxon B D F G Equally parsimonious Rotation Here Phenotypic Character (1-7) States (0/1) Plesiomorphic-->Apomorphic Homoplasy

13 13 Island-Hopping Crickets! Island CaconemobiusLeptogryllusThaumato- gryllus Prognatho -gryllus TrigonidiumProlaupalaLaupala Nihoa Kauai Oahu Molokai Maui Lanai Hawaii

14 14 mauka puna spadix kohala weli waikemoi kipahulu kukui hana stridulans makai alternatus alapa opua kahea awili oahuensis elongatus epimeces hypomacron kahili parakahili alatus flavidus hea robustus pihea victoriae Prognathogryllus Kauai Oahu Maui Hawaii Island Formation Migration Time Island Hopping Crickets Equivocal

15 15 pruna cerasina kona hualalai fugax paranigra kohalaensis kolea nigra prosea eukolea vespertina pacifica tantalus hapapa kokeensis keahua Laupala Kauai Oahu Maui Hawaii Island Formation Migration Time More Island Hopping Crickets Equivocal

16 16 Amazing Fruit Flies! 511 of 2,300 endemic insects are drosophiloids DNA sequences show 10 MYBP arrived Necker Necker has subsided and lost habitat…now n=0 All 511 endemic species are a single clade! Analyzed by morphology, karyotype, molecular analysis Drosophila sproati

17 17 D. melanogaster D. robusta D. melanica D. funebris D. pinicola D. imigrans D. repleta E. crassifemur S. exigua D. mimica D. sproati Zaprionus Chymomyza Hirtodrosophila Scaptodrosophila Outgroups Hawaiian Continental Numbers of mtDNA base transitions Drosophilid Comparisons Purine A G Pyrimidine C T

18 18 Primitive Phylogram of Drosophiloids bostrychadisjuncta affinidisjuncta grimshawl recticilia musaphilia hawaiiensis gradata spectabilis setosimentum clavisetae adiastola peniculipedis cilifera planitibiasilvestris heteroneura hemipeza cyrtoloma neoperkinsi neopicta hanaulae oahuensis nigribasis melanocephala obscuripes picticornis mimica arcuatus longiseta adunca cognatayooni tanythrix differens chromosomal changes

19 19 Drosophilid Area Cladogram Continental Oahu Molokai West Maui East Maui 1 East Maui 2 Hawaii Kona Hawaii Hilo Just as observed among crickets, these fruit flies radiate in ways that correlate with the biogeography of the Hawaiian Islands

20 20 Spiders Spinning Southeast! T. kauaiensis T. tantalus T. waikamoi T. polychromata T. macracantha T. brevignatha T. stelarobusta T. pallescens T. restricta T. quasimodo T. kamakou T. perreirai T. pilosa N Tetragnatha

21 21 Honeycreepers of Hawaii Vestiaria coccinea Hemignathus virens Extreme isolation limits vertebrate fauna No native amphibians No native reptiles 1mammal (bat) 1 bird established and radiated into 33 extant and 14 extinct species! Telespiza cantans Vestiaria coccinea Hemignathus parvus Palmeria dolei Oreomystis bairdi s/laysanfinch.jpg

22 22 Loxops caeruleirostris Loxops coccineus Hemignathus virens virens Hemignathus virens wilsoni Hemignathus virens steinegeri Palmeria dolei Himatione sanguinea Vestiaria coccinea Hemignathus parvus Oreomystis bairdi Telespiza cantans Paroreomyza montana Carpodacus mexicanus OG 9 Honeycreeper Cladogram mtDNA RFLP

23 23 How about Plants? Hibiscadelphus distans Kauai wilderianus Maui crucibracteatus Lanai giffardianus Hawaii hualalaiensis Hawaii bombycinus Hawaii The phylogram is also an area cladogram showing the positive correlation between evolution and oceanic island biogeography. Hibiscadelphus distans Photo Source: Unknown…If yours, please send to

24 24 Silverswords N Kauai-11 endemic Oahu-2 endemic Maui Nui-7 endemic Hawaii-3 endemic Wilkesia gymnoxiphium Dubautia paleata Argyroxiphium sandwicense Plus 5 indigenous species

25 25 Silversword Origins Closest relatives are California tarweeds 3,900 km open ocean crossing Fruits too thin-walled to survive bird gut Fruits do not float in sea water Fruits too heavy to float on wind Hairy and sticky sepals suggest bird attachment Preened off on Kauai, then radiated and migrated

26 26 Tarweed (California USA) OG Dubautia paleata Kauai Dubautia waialealae Kauai Dubautia laxa indigenous Wilkesia gymnoxiphium Kauai Wilkesia hobdyi Kauai Argyroxiphium caliginis Maui Argyroxiphium grayanum Maui Argyroxiphium virescens Maui Argyroxiphium sanwicense M&H Argyroxiphium kauense Hawaii Silversword Cladogram (simplified)

27 27 Geranium (pandemic) OG arboreum E. Maui subalpine multiflorum E. Maui subalpine cuneatum Hawaii sub-alpine tridens E. Maui alpine hanaense E. Maui bog humile W. Maui bog kauaiense Kauai bog Not all cladograms tell the same story! Geranium arboreum Geranium hanaense Geranium cuneatum Geranium colonized late E. Maui and radiated and migrated speciating most recently on Kauai with ecological correlations! ulty/carr/images/ger_arb.jpg /faculty/carr/images/ger_han_ cu.jpg /carr/images/ger_cun_cu.jpg

28 28 humile E. Maui capillare W. Maui remyi W. Maui, Lanai rockii Molokai sylvae Molokai, Maui tenerrimum Oahu arenarium E. Maui consanguineum Hawaii conyzoides Maui Nui, Hawaii lepidolum E. Maui, Lanai, Oahu Not all cladograms tell the same story! Tetramolopium humile Tetramolopium colonized late E. Maui and radiated and migrated to the other islands

29 29

30 30 Biotic Factors Symbioses (living together) –Mutualism: zooxanthellae/corals/forams –Commensalism: bromeliads on trees –Parasitism: epiphytic woevine on shrubs Competitors: Epiphytes, Allelopathy, Exotics Herbivory Pollination, Seed Dispersal –Partners required for reproduction

31 31 Abiotic Factors Light-wavelength (color), amplitude (intensity) –Water absorbs low energy wavelengths…leaving blue –Turbidity (milkiness) vs Turbulence (mixing) –Chlorophyll (purple, blue, yellow, red) –Carotenoids (green) –Phycobilins (green to red) depending on type/depth Gas Availability (N 2 =78%, O 2 =21%, CO 2 <1%) –Oxygen poisons photosynthesis (photorespiration) –CO 2 highly soluble in water, O 2 virtually insoluble –Most algae are C3, many terrestrials C4 or CAM

32 32 Abiotic Factors Temperature-plants are essentially poikilotherms –Water in tidepools rises rapidly Eurythermal = wide tolerance, Stenothermal = narrow tolerance –Dunes heat unless leaves shade them or burrow deeply –Ice damage, frost, heat shock –Large body size: thermal insulation vs heat load –Surface:Volume ratio (Neither Fucus nor Ascophyllum here!) Desiccation: evaporation, osmotic stress –Saccate thallus (Colpomenia or Valonia) –Mucilaginous sheath, Waxy Cuticle, Hairy Epidermis

33 33 Abiotic Factors Salinity: osmotic stress, Na + or Cl - toxicity –Salinity in small tidepools rises with evaporation –Salinity in small tidepools falls with rainfall Euryhaline = wide tolerance, Stenohaline = narrow tolerance –Halophytes Exudation: Avicennia via hydathodes (salt glands) Exclusion: Rhizophora ion pumps keep salt out Shedding: Spartina, annual dicots, leaves abscise taking salt out Acclimitization: mannitol, sucrose, betaine, etc. Soil Minerals –Oligotrophic Waters are Depauperate in Minerals (N, P, Fe) –Eutrophic Estuarine waters: Algal Blooms

34 34 Abiotic Factors Surge Stress, Drag Stress, Shear Stress –Turbulence in Rocky Intertidal –Scouring in Sandy Intertidal Euryhaline = wide tolerance, Stenohaline = narrow tolerance –Benefits Predator Restriction Parasite Removal Equalize Salinity and Temperature Adds CO 2 for photosynthesis, but also adds O 2 –Rhodoliths in deep waters…detached coralline red algae –Phytoplankton in Photic Zone of open ocean only 5000 spp! Greater diversity and abundance in Estuarine waters

Download ppt "1 Biogeography of Hawaii Volcano tops from Ocean Floor Remote Colonization Rare Adaptive Radiation of Founder Species Diagrams in this lecture are liberally."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google