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Biogeography of Hawaii

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1 Biogeography of Hawaii
Volcano tops from Ocean Floor Remote Colonization Rare Adaptive Radiation of Founder Species Diagrams in this lecture are liberally adapted from: Wagner, W. L. and V. A. Funk Hawaiian biogeography: evolution on a hot spot archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

2 Origin of Island Archipelago
North America Meiji Seamount Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Emperor Seamounts Hawaiian Emperor Bend Kure Midway Layann Necker Nihoa Kauai Hawaiian Ridge Oahu Maui Hawaii Loihi Hot spot moves or plates move over hot spot Volcanoes build to surface then erode or subside Current islands arose after previous islands were already submerged Exceedingly limited island hopping

3 7.5 Million Years Ago 22° Gardner Pinnacles La Perouse Pinnacles 20° Necker Nihoa 18° 160° 158° 156° 154°

4 5 Million Years Ago 22° Necker Nihoa 20° Kauai Nihau Kaula 18° 160° 158° 156° 154°

5 2.5 Million Years Ago 22° Nihoa Kauai 20° Oahu Nihau Kaula 18° 160° 158° 156° 154°

6 1 Million Years Ago 22° Nihoa Kauai Oahu 20° Nihau Maui Kaula 18° 160° 158° 156° 154°

7 0.5 Million Years Ago Nihoa 22° Kauai Oahu Nihau Kaula Maui 20° Mahukona 18° 160° 158° 156° 154°

8 Present Kauai 22° Oahu Nihau Molokai Kaula Maui Lanai Kahoolawe Hawaii 20° Loihi Seamount 18° 160° 158° 156° 154°

9 Island Development Island Appears Colonized by Plants
Biota Establishes Biota Stabilizes Island Moves Away from Hot Spot Waif Founders Lack Competition Speciation: Adaptive Radiation to fill empty niches Endemic Species Sequence of Islands should reflect patterns of speciation Endemics found on just one island, one volcano Humans (about 10 BC) Introduced Exotic Species Endemics Poor Competitors…Extinct

10 Endemic Terrestrial Species
Taxon/Character Kauai to Hawaii Nihoa to Kure Insects 2,300 50 Land Snails 1,000 8 Land Birds 70 4 Ferns and Allies 120 Flowering Plants 850 12 Area (km2) 16,576 Endemics/10 km2 38 1

11 Cladistic Analysis 1960s Development of Cladistic Analysis
Determines Possible Pathways of Evolution Characters and Polarized Character States Anatomy, Morphology, Behavior, Chemical, Gene Sequence Plesiomorphies-Ancestral character states Apomorphies-Derived character states Construction of Cladogram-computers! Reveal homoplasies (parallel, convergent), reversals Most-parsimonious (fewest steps) cladogram Not necessarily unique!

12 Cladogram grade clade Equally parsimonious B D F G B F G D
6 6 7 5 4 3 2 1 Rotation Here Phenotypic Character (1-7) States (0/1) Taxon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B D F G Plesiomorphic-->Apomorphic Homoplasy

13 Island-Hopping Crickets!
Caconemobius Leptogryllus Thaumato-gryllus Prognatho-gryllus Trigonidium Prolaupala Laupala Nihoa 1 Kauai 2 3 16 27 7 Oahu 13 34 11 Molokai 5 Maui 4 30 8 Lanai Hawaii 6

14 Island Hopping Crickets
Prognathogryllus mauka puna spadix kohala weli waikemoi kipahulu kukui hana stridulans makai alternatus alapa opua kahea awili oahuensis elongatus epimeces hypomacron kahili parakahili alatus flavidus hea robustus pihea victoriae Hawaii Equivocal Island Formation Migration Time Maui Oahu Kauai

15 More Island Hopping Crickets
Laupala pruna cerasina kona hualalai fugax paranigra kohalaensis kolea nigra prosea eukolea vespertina pacifica tantalus hapapa kokeensis keahua Hawaii Island Formation Migration Time Equivocal Maui Oahu Kauai

16 Amazing Fruit Flies! 511 of 2,300 endemic insects are drosophiloids
DNA sequences show 10 MYBP arrived Necker Necker has subsided and lost habitat…now n=0 All 511 endemic species are a single clade! Analyzed by morphology, karyotype, molecular analysis Drosophila sproati

17 Drosophilid Comparisons
15 D. melanogaster D. robusta D. melanica D. funebris D. pinicola D. imigrans D. repleta E. crassifemur S. exigua D. mimica D. sproati Zaprionus Chymomyza Hirtodrosophila Scaptodrosophila 16 Continental 16 8 9 9 7 7 6 Numbers of mtDNA base transitions 8 10 10 7 14 6 7 Purine AG 11 7 13 Pyrimidine CT 8 10 Hawaiian 10 11 11 38 Outgroups 16

18 Primitive Phylogram of Drosophiloids
chromosomal changes recticilia bostrycha disjuncta musaphilia gradata affinidisjuncta hawaiiensis grimshawl planitibia silvestris spectabilis differens heteroneura adiastola peniculipedis cilifera setosimentum hemipeza cyrtoloma picticornis clavisetae hanaulae oahuensis neoperkinsi arcuatus neopicta longiseta nigribasis melanocephala adunca mimica obscuripes yooni tanythrix cognata

19 Drosophilid Area Cladogram
Continental Oahu Molokai West Maui East Maui 1 East Maui 2 Hawaii Kona Hawaii Hilo Just as observed among crickets, these fruit flies radiate in ways that correlate with the biogeography of the Hawaiian Islands

20 Spiders Spinning Southeast!
Tetragnatha 5 T. pilosa 1 T. kauaiensis 6 T. perreirai 4 4 2 T. tantalus T. kamakou 4 3 T. kamakou 4 3 3 2 2 1 T. quasimodo T. waikamoi T. quasimodo 3 T. quasimodo 1 6 3 1 4 T. polychromata T. quasimodo 3 T. restricta 4 6 1 T. macracantha T. restricta 2 3 N T. brevignatha 4 1 T. brevignatha 3 T. stelarobusta 4 T. pallescens

21 Honeycreepers of Hawaii
Honeycreepers of Hawaii Vestiaria coccinea Palmeria dolei Extreme isolation limits vertebrate fauna No native amphibians No native reptiles 1mammal (bat) 1 bird established and radiated into 33 extant and 14 extinct species! Hemignathus virens Telespiza cantans Hemignathus parvus Vestiaria coccinea Oreomystis bairdi

22 Honeycreeper Cladogram
9 Loxops caeruleirostris Loxops coccineus Hemignathus virens virens Hemignathus virens wilsoni Hemignathus virens steinegeri Palmeria dolei Himatione sanguinea Vestiaria coccinea Hemignathus parvus Oreomystis bairdi Telespiza cantans Paroreomyza montana Carpodacus mexicanus OG 10 15 mtDNA RFLP 11 19 6 7 11 17 7 7 8 11 23 11 11 8 19 29 6 33 26 37

23 How about Plants? Hibiscadelphus
Hibiscadelphus distans distans Kauai wilderianus Maui crucibracteatus Lanai giffardianus Hawaii hualalaiensis Hawaii bombycinus Hawaii The phylogram is also an area cladogram showing the positive correlation between evolution and oceanic island biogeography. Photo Source: Unknown…If yours, please send to

24 Wilkesia gymnoxiphium
Silverswords Kauai-11 endemic Oahu-2 endemic Wilkesia gymnoxiphium Dubautia paleata Maui Nui-7 endemic Argyroxiphium sandwicense Hawaii-3 endemic N Plus 5 indigenous species

25 Silversword Origins Closest relatives are California tarweeds
3,900 km open ocean crossing Fruits too thin-walled to survive bird gut Fruits do not float in sea water Fruits too heavy to float on wind Hairy and sticky sepals suggest bird attachment Preened off on Kauai, then radiated and migrated

26 Silversword Cladogram (simplified)
Tarweed (California USA) OG Dubautia paleata Kauai Dubautia waialealae Kauai Dubautia laxa indigenous Wilkesia gymnoxiphium Kauai Wilkesia hobdyi Kauai Argyroxiphium caliginis Maui Argyroxiphium grayanum Maui Argyroxiphium virescens Maui Argyroxiphium sanwicense M&H Argyroxiphium kauense Hawaii

27 Not all cladograms tell the same story!
Geranium arboreum Geranium (pandemic) OG arboreum E. Maui subalpine multiflorum E. Maui subalpine cuneatum Hawaii sub-alpine tridens E. Maui alpine hanaense E. Maui bog humile W. Maui bog kauaiense Kauai bog Geranium colonized “late” E. Maui and radiated and migrated speciating most recently on Kauai with ecological correlations! Geranium cuneatum Geranium hanaense

28 Not all cladograms tell the same story!
Tetramolopium colonized “late” E. Maui and radiated and migrated to the other islands humile E. Maui capillare W. Maui remyi W. Maui, Lanai rockii Molokai sylvae Molokai, Maui tenerrimum Oahu arenarium E. Maui consanguineum Hawaii conyzoides Maui Nui, Hawaii lepidolum E. Maui, Lanai, Oahu Not all cladograms tell the same story! Tetramolopium humile


30 Biotic Factors Symbioses (living together)
Mutualism: zooxanthellae/corals/forams Commensalism: bromeliads on trees Parasitism: epiphytic woevine on shrubs Competitors: Epiphytes, Allelopathy, Exotics Herbivory Pollination, Seed Dispersal Partners required for reproduction

31 Abiotic Factors Light-wavelength (color), amplitude (intensity)
Water absorbs low energy wavelengths…leaving blue Turbidity (milkiness) vs Turbulence (mixing) Chlorophyll (purple, blue, yellow, red) Carotenoids (green) Phycobilins (green to red) depending on type/depth Gas Availability (N2=78%, O2=21%, CO2<1%) Oxygen poisons photosynthesis (photorespiration) CO2 highly soluble in water, O2 virtually insoluble Most algae are C3, many terrestrials C4 or CAM

32 Abiotic Factors Temperature-plants are essentially poikilotherms
Water in tidepools rises rapidly Eurythermal = wide tolerance, Stenothermal = narrow tolerance Dunes heat unless leaves shade them or burrow deeply Ice damage, frost, heat shock Large body size: thermal insulation vs heat load Surface:Volume ratio (Neither Fucus nor Ascophyllum here!) Desiccation: evaporation, osmotic stress Saccate thallus (Colpomenia or Valonia) Mucilaginous sheath, Waxy Cuticle, Hairy Epidermis

33 Abiotic Factors Salinity: osmotic stress, Na+ or Cl- toxicity
Salinity in small tidepools rises with evaporation Salinity in small tidepools falls with rainfall Euryhaline = wide tolerance, Stenohaline = narrow tolerance Halophytes Exudation: Avicennia via hydathodes (salt glands) Exclusion: Rhizophora ion pumps keep salt out Shedding: Spartina, annual dicots, leaves abscise taking salt out Acclimitization: mannitol, sucrose, betaine, etc. Soil Minerals Oligotrophic Waters are Depauperate in Minerals (N, P, Fe) Eutrophic Estuarine waters: Algal Blooms

34 Greater diversity and abundance in Estuarine waters
Abiotic Factors Surge Stress, Drag Stress, Shear Stress Turbulence in Rocky Intertidal Scouring in Sandy Intertidal Euryhaline = wide tolerance, Stenohaline = narrow tolerance Benefits Predator Restriction Parasite Removal Equalize Salinity and Temperature Adds CO2 for photosynthesis, but also adds O2 Rhodoliths in deep waters…detached coralline red algae Phytoplankton in Photic Zone of open ocean only 5000 spp! Greater diversity and abundance in Estuarine waters

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