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© Prentice Hall 20041 E-commerce Business Models Business models—a method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself Examples: Name your price Find the best price Dynamic brokering Affiliate marketing
© Prentice Hall 20042 E-commerce Business Plans and Cases Business plan: a written document that identifies the business goals and outlines the plan of how to achieve them Business case: a written document that is used by managers to garner funding for specific applications or projects; its major emphasis is the justification for a specific investment
© Prentice Hall 20043 Structure of Business Models Business model: A method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself
© Prentice Hall 20044 Structure of Business Models (cont.) Revenue model: description of how the company or an EC project will earn revenue Sales Transaction fees Subscription fees Advertising Affiliate fees Other revenue sources
© Prentice Hall 20045 Structure of Business Models (cont.) Value proposition: The benefits a company can derive from using EC search and transaction cost efficiency complementarities lock-in novelty aggregation and interfirm collaboration
© Prentice Hall 20046 Exhibit 1.4: Common Revenue Models
© Prentice Hall 20047 The EC Framework, Classification, and Content Two major types of e-commerce: : online transactions are made between businesses and individual consumers business-to-consumer (B2C) : online transactions are made between businesses and individual consumers business-to-business (B2B): businesses make online transactions with other businesses intrabusiness EC: EC conducted inside an organization (e.g., business-to- employees B2E)
© Prentice Hall 20048 The EC Framework, Classification, and Content (cont.) Computer environments Internet: global networked environment Intranet: a corporate or government network that uses Internet tools, such as Web browsers, and Internet protocols Extranet: a network that uses the Internet to link multiple intranets
© Prentice Hall 20049 EC Framework EC applications are supported by infrastructure and by five support areas: People Public policy Marketing and advertising Support services Business partnerships
© Prentice Hall 200410 Exhibit 1.2: A Framework for Electronic Commerce
© Prentice Hall 200411 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions : online transactions are made between businesses and individual consumers business-to-consumer (B2C) : online transactions are made between businesses and individual consumers business-to-business (B2B): businesses make online transactions with other businesses e-tailing: online retailing, usually B2C
© Prentice Hall 200412 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.) business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C): e-commerce model in which a business provides some product or service to a client business that maintains its own customers consumer-to-business (C2B): e-commerce model in which individuals use the Internet to sell products or services to organizations or individuals seek sellers to bid on products or services they need
© Prentice Hall 200413 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.) consumer-to-consumer (C2C): e-commerce model in which consumers sell directly to other consumers peer-to-peer (P2P): technology that enables networked peer computers to share data and processing with each other directly; can be used in C2C, B2B, and B2C e-commerce
© Prentice Hall 200414 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.) mobile commerce ((m-commerce): e-commerce transactions and activities conducted in a wireless environment location-based commerce (l-commerce): m-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times
© Prentice Hall 200415 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.) intrabusiness EC: e-commerce category that includes all internal organizational activities that involve the exchange of goods, services, or information among various units and individuals in an organization business-to-employees (B2E): e-commerce model in which an organization delivers services, information, or products to its individual employees
© Prentice Hall 200416 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.) collaborative commerce (c-commerce): e-commerce model in which individuals or groups communicate or collaborate online e-learning: the online delivery of information for purposes of training or education exchange (electronic): a public electronic market with many buyers and sellers
© Prentice Hall 200417 Classification of EC by Transactions or Interactions (cont.) exchange-to-exchange (E2E): e-commerce model in which electronic exchanges formally connect to one another the purpose of exchanging information e-government: e-commerce model in which a government entity buys or provides goods, services, or information to businesses or individual citizens
© Prentice Hall 200418 Typical Business Models in EC 1. 1.Online direct marketing 2. 2.Electronic tendering systems tendering (reverse auction): model in which a buyer requests would-be sellers to submit bids, and the lowest bidder wins 3. 3.Name your own price: a model in which a buyer sets the price he or she is willing to pay and invites sellers to supply the good or service at that price
© Prentice Hall 200419 Typical Business Models in EC (cont.) 4.Affiliate marketing: an arrangement whereby a marketing partner (a business, an organization, or even an individual) refers consumers to the selling company’s Web site 5.Viral marketing: word-of-mouth marketing in which customers promote a product or service to friends or other people
© Prentice Hall 200420 Typical Business Models in EC (cont.) 6.Group purchasing: quantity purchasing that enables groups of purchasers to obtain a discount price on the products purchased 7.SMEs: small to medium enterprises 8.Online auctions
© Prentice Hall 200421 Typical Business Models in EC (cont.) 8.Product and service customization customization: creation of a product or service according to the buyer’s specifications 8. 8.Electronic marketplaces and exchanges 9. 9.Value-chain integrators 10. 10.Value-chain service providers
© Prentice Hall 200422 Typical Business Models in EC (cont.) 12. 12.Information brokers 13. 13.Bartering 14. 14.Deep discounting 15. 15.Membership 16. 16.Supply chain improvers Business models can be independent or they can be combined amongst themselves or with traditional business models
© Prentice Hall 200423 Chapter 2 E-MARKETPLACES: STRUCTURE, MECHANISMS, ECONOMICS, AND IMPACTS
© Prentice Hall 200424 Electronic Marketplaces Markets play a central role in the economy facilitating the exchange of: informationgoodsservicespayments Markets create economic value for: buyers sellers market intermediaries society at large
© Prentice Hall 200425 Electronic Marketplaces (cont.) Three main functions of markets 1.matching buyers and sellers 2.facilitating the exchange of information, goods, services, and payments associated with market transactions 3.providing an institutional infrastructure, such as a legal and regulatory framework, that enables the efficient functioning of the market
© Prentice Hall 200426 Electronic Marketplaces (cont.) In recent years markets have seen a dramatic increase in the use of IT—EC has: increased market efficiencies by expediting or improving functions been able to significantly decrease the cost of executing these functions
© Prentice Hall 200427 Marketspace Marketspace: A marketplace in which sellers and buyers exchange goods and services for money (or for other goods and services), but do so electronically
© Prentice Hall 200428 Marketspace Components CustomersSellersProductsInfrastructure Front end Back end Intermediaries Other business partners Support services
© Prentice Hall 200429 Marketspace Components ( cont.) Digital products: Goods that can be transformed to digital format and delivered over the Internet Front end: The portion of an e-seller’s business processes through which customers interact, including the seller’s portal, electronic catalogs, a shopping cart, a search engine, and a payment gateway
© Prentice Hall 200430 Marketspace Components (cont.) Back end: The activities that support online order-taking. It includes fulfillment, inventory management, purchasing from suppliers, payment processing, packaging, and delivery Intermediary: A third party that operates between sellers and buyers
© Prentice Hall 200431 Types of Electronic Markets Electronic storefront: A single or company Web site where products and services are sold Mechanisms necessary for conducting the sale: electronic catalogs search engine e-auction facilities e-auction facilities payment gateway shipment court customer services
© Prentice Hall 200432 Types of Electronic Markets (cont.) e-mall (online mall): An online shopping center where many stores are located some are merely directories some provide shared services (e.g., choicemall.com). some are actually large click-and-mortar retailers some are virtual retailers (e.g., buy.com)
© Prentice Hall 200433 Types of Electronic Markets (cont.) Types of stores and malls General stores/malls Specialized stores/malls Regional versus global stores Pure online organizations versus click- and-mortar stores
© Prentice Hall 200434 Types of Electronic Markets (cont.) e-marketplace: An online market, usually B2B, in which buyers and sellers exchange goods or services; the three types of e-marketplaces are private, public, and consortia Private e-marketplaces: Online markets owned by a single company; can be either sell-side or buyside marketplaces Sell-side e-marketplace: A private e-market in which a company sells either standard or customized products to qualified companies
© Prentice Hall 200435 Types of Electronic Markets (cont.) Buy-side e-marketplace: A private e-market in which a company makes purchases from invited suppliers Public e-marketplaces: B2B markets, usually owned and/or managed by an independent third party, that include many sellers and many buyers; also known as exchanges Consortia: E-marketplaces owned by a small group of large vendors, usually in a single industry
© Prentice Hall 200436 Information Portals Information portal: a single point of access through a Web browser to business information inside and/or outside an organization
© Prentice Hall 200437 Information Portals (cont.) Six types of portals 1.Commercial (public) portals 2.Corporate portals 3.Publishing portals 4.Personal portals 5.Mobile portals: a portal accessible via a mobile device 6.Voice portals: a portal accessed by telephone or cell phone
© Prentice Hall 200438 Intermediation and Syndication in E-Commerce Intermediaries (brokers) provide value- added activities and services to buyers and sellers Intermediaries in the physical world are wholesalers and retailers Infomediaries: electronic intermediaries that control information flow in cyberspace, often aggregating information and selling it to others
© Prentice Hall 200439 Exhibit 2.2 Infomediaries and Information Flow Model
© Prentice Hall 200440 Intermediation and Syndication in E-Commerce (cont.) Roles and value of intermediaries in e-markets Search costs Lack of privacy Incomplete information Contract risk Pricing inefficiencies
© Prentice Hall 200441 Intermediation and Syndication in E-Commerce (cont.) E-distributors in B2B e-distributor: An e-commerce intermediary that connects manufacturers (suppliers) with buyers by aggregating the catalogs of many suppliers in one place—the intermediary’s Web site Maintenance, repair, and operation items (MROs): Routine items that are usually not under regular contract with suppliers
© Prentice Hall 200442 Intermediation and Syndication in E-Commerce (cont.) Disintermediation and reintermediation Disintermediation: Elimination of intermediaries between sellers and buyers Reintermediation: Establishment of new intermediary roles for traditional intermediaries that were disintermediated
© Prentice Hall 200443 Intermediation and Syndication in E-Commerce (cont.) Syndication as an EC mechanism Syndication: The sale of the same good (e.g., digital content) to many customers, who then integrate it with other offerings and resell it or give it away free
© Prentice Hall 200444 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms Auction: A market mechanism by which a seller places an offer to sell a product and buyers make bids sequentially and competitively until a final price is reached Auctions can be done: onlineoff-line at public sites (eBay) at private sites (by invitation)
© Prentice Hall 200445 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) Electronic auctions (e-auctions): Auctions conducted online Host sites on the Internet serve as brokers, offering services for sellers to post their goods for sale and allowing buyers to bid on those items Conventional business practices that traditionally have relied on contracts and fixed prices are increasingly being converted into auctions with bidding for online procurements
© Prentice Hall 200446 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) Dynamic pricing: Prices that change based on supply and demand relationships at any given time
© Prentice Hall 200447 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) Four major categories of dynamic pricing 1.One buyer, one seller 2.One seller, many potential buyers 3.One buyer, many potential sellers 4.Many sellers, many buyers
© Prentice Hall 200448 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) 1.One buyer, one seller Forward auction: An auction in which a seller entertains bids from buyers One seller, many potential buyers Forward auctions used for fast liquidation and as a selling channel. Price is increasing; the highest bidder wins
© Prentice Hall 200449 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) 2.One buyer, many potential suppliers Reverse auction (bidding or tendering system): Auction in which the buyer places an item for bid (tender) on a request for quote (RFQ) system, potential suppliers bid on the job, with price reducing sequentially, and the lowest bid wins; primarily a B2B or G2B mechanism Auction in which the buyer places an item for bid (tender) on a request for quote (RFQ) system, potential suppliers bid on the job, with price reducing sequentially, and the lowest bid wins; primarily a B2B or G2B mechanism
© Prentice Hall 200450 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) 3.One buyer, many potential sellers (special model) “name-your-own-price” model: Auction model in which a would-be buyer specifies the price (and other terms) they are willing to pay to any willing and able seller. It is a C2B model, pioneered by Priceline.com
© Prentice Hall 200451 Auctions as EC Market Mechanisms (cont.) 4.Many sellers, many buyers Double auction: Auctions in which multiple buyers and their bidding prices are matched with multiple sellers and their asking prices, considering the quantities on both sides
© Prentice Hall 200452 Exhibit 2.5 The Reverse Auction Process
© Prentice Hall 200453 Benefits of E-Auctions
© Prentice Hall 200454 Limitations of E-Auctions (cont.) Limitations of e-auctions Lack of security Possibility of fraud Limited participation Impacts of auctions Auctions as a coordination mechanism Auctions as a highly visible distribution mechanism. Auctions as a component in e-commerce
© Prentice Hall 200455 E-Commerce in the Wireless Environment: M-Commerce Mobile computing: Permits real-time access to information, applications, and tools that, until recently, were accessible only from a desktop computer Mobile commerce (m-commerce): E-commerce conducted via wireless devices m-business: The broadest definition of m-commerce, in which e- business is conducted in a wireless environment
© Prentice Hall 200456 E-Commerce in the Wireless Environment: M-Commerce (cont.) Promise of m-commerce Mobility significantly changes the manner in which people and trading partners interact, communicate, and collaborate Mobile applications are expected to change the way we live, play, and do business Much of the Internet culture may change to one based on mobile devices M-commerce creates new business models for EC, notably location-based applications
© Prentice Hall 200457 E-Commerce in the Wireless Environment: M-Commerce (cont.) DoCoMo’s (nttdocomo.com) i- Mode—pioneering wireless service— with a few clicks on a handset, i-Mode users can conduct a large variety of m- commerce activities Shopping guides Maps and transportation Ticketing News and reports Personalized movie service Entertainment Dining and reservations Additional services
© Prentice Hall 200458 Issues in E-Markets: Liquidity, Quality, and Success Factors Early liquidity: Achieving a critical mass of buyers and sellers as fast as possible, before a start-up company’s cash disappears Quality uncertainty: The uncertainty of online buyers about the quality of non-commodity type products that they have never seen, especially from an unknown vendor Microproduct: A small digital product costing a few cents
© Prentice Hall 200459 E-Market Success Factors Product Characteristics Digitizable products can be electronically distributed to customers, resulting in very low distribution costs, allowing order- fulfillment cycle time “to be minimal” Industry Characteristics Electronic markets are most useful when they are able to directly match buyers and sellers
© Prentice Hall 200460 E-Market Success Factors (cont.) Seller Characteristics Electronic markets reduce search costs, allowing consumers to find sellers offering lower prices Consumer Characteristics e-markets require a certain degree of effort on the part of the consumer, e-markets are more conducive to consumers who do some comparison and analysis before buying
© Prentice Hall 200461 Economics of E-Marketplaces
© Prentice Hall 200462 Economics of E-Marketplaces (cont.)
© Prentice Hall 200463 Economics of E-Marketplaces (cont.)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Transactions, Intermediation, and Processes in EC
E-Marketplaces: Structures, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts
E-MARKETPLACES: STRUCTURE, MECHANISMS, ECONOMICS, AND IMPACTS
E-MARKETPLACES: STRUCTURE, MECHANISMS, ECONOMICS,
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Electronic Commerce 2008, Efraim Turban, et al. Chapter 2 E-Marketplaces: Structures, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts.
Chapter 2 E-Marketplaces: Structures and Mechanisms.
E-Marketplaces: Structures and Mechanisms
EC Business Models. EC 2006Prentice Hall 2 EC Business Models business model A method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain.
E-commerce Business Models
© 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Electronic Commerce 2008, Efraim Turban, et al. Chapter 1 Overview of Electronic Commerce.
1 Pertemuan 1 Understanding e-Commerce and e-Business Matakuliah: J0324 / Sistem e-Bisnis Tahun: 2005 Versi: 02/02.
Chapter 2 E-Marketplaces: Structures, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts.
1 Pertemuan 2 Understanding e-Commerce and e-Business Matakuliah: J0324 / Sistem e-Bisnis Tahun: 2005 Versi: 02/02.
1 Pertemuan 3 Understanding e-Marketplaces Matakuliah: J0324 / Sistem e-Bisnis Tahun: 2005 Versi: 02/02.
1 Pertemuan 4 Understanding e-Marketplaces Matakuliah: J0324 / Sistem e-Bisnis Tahun: 2005 Versi: 02/02.
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