5 Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas Have a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. Bases
6 Some Properties of Acids þ Produce H + (as H 3 O + ) ions in water (the hydronium ion is a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule) þ Taste sour þ Corrode metals þ Electrolytes þ React with bases to form a salt and water þ pH is less than 7 þ Turns blue litmus paper to red “Blue to Red A-CID”
7 Acid Nomenclature Review No Oxygen w/Oxygen An easy way to remember which goes with which… “In the cafeteria, you ATE something ICky”
9 HBr (aq)HBr (aq) H 2 CO 3H 2 CO 3 H 2 SO 3H 2 SO 3 hydrobromic acid carbonic acid sulfurous acid Acid Nomenclature Review
10 Name ‘Em! HI (aq)HI (aq) HCl (aq)HCl (aq) H 2 SO 3H 2 SO 3 HNO 3HNO 3 HIO 4HIO 4
11 Some Properties of Bases Produce OH - ions in water Taste bitter, chalky Are electrolytes Feel soapy, slippery React with acids to form salts and water pH greater than 7 Turns red litmus paper to blue “Basic Blue”
12 Some Common Bases NaOHsodium hydroxidelye KOHpotassium hydroxideliquid soap Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxidestabilizer for plastics Mg(OH) 2 magnesium hydroxide“MOM” Milk of magnesia Al(OH) 3 aluminum hydroxideMaalox (antacid) Al(OH) 3 aluminum hydroxideMaalox (antacid)
13 Acid/Base definitions Definition #1: Arrhenius (traditional) Acids Acids – produce H + ions (or hydronium ions H 3 O + ) Bases – produce OH - ions (problem: some bases don’t have hydroxide ions!)
14 Acid/Base Definitions Definition #2: Brønsted – Lowry Acids – proton donor Bases – proton acceptor A “proton” is really just a hydrogen atom that has lost it’s electron!
15 A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor acid conjugate base base conjugate acid
16 ACID-BASE THEORIES The Brønsted definition means NH 3 is a BASE in water — and water is itself an ACID H 2 O H + + OH -
17 The pH scale is a way of expressing the strength of acids and bases. Instead of using very small numbers, we just use the NEGATIVE power of 10 on the Molarity of the H + (or OH - ) ion. Under 7 = acid 7 = neutral Over 7 = base
19 HNO 3, HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 are among the only known strong acids. Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Strong and Weak Acids/Bases The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION. HONORS ONLY!
20 Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK ones.Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK ones. STRONG ACID: HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) ---> H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) HNO 3 is about 100% dissociated in water. HONORS ONLY!
21 Weak acids are much less than 100% ionized in water.Weak acids are much less than 100% ionized in water. One of the best known is acetic acid = CH 3 CO 2 H Strong and Weak Acids/Bases HONORS ONLY!
22 Strong Base: 100% dissociated in water.Strong Base: 100% dissociated in water. NaOH (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) NaOH (aq) ---> Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Other common strong bases include KOH and Ca(OH) 2. CaO (lime) + H 2 O --> Ca(OH) 2 (slaked lime) Ca(OH) 2 (slaked lime) CaO HONORS ONLY!
23 Weak base: less than 100% ionized in waterWeak base: less than 100% ionized in water One of the best known weak bases is ammonia NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Strong and Weak Acids/Bases HONORS ONLY!
25 Types of Acid/Base Reactions: Summary HONORS ONLY!
26 pH testing There are several ways to test pHThere are several ways to test pH –Blue litmus paper (red = acid) –Red litmus paper (blue = basic) –pH paper (multi-colored) –pH meter (7 is neutral, 7 base) –Universal indicator (multi-colored) –Indicators like phenolphthalein –Natural indicators like red cabbage, radishes
27 Paper testing Paper tests like litmus paper and pH paperPaper tests like litmus paper and pH paper –Put a stirring rod into the solution and stir. –Take the stirring rod out, and place a drop of the solution from the end of the stirring rod onto a piece of the paper –Read and record the color change. Note what the color indicates. –You should only use a small portion of the paper. You can use one piece of paper for several tests.
29 pH meter Tests the voltage of the electrolyteTests the voltage of the electrolyte Converts the voltage to pHConverts the voltage to pH Very cheap, accurateVery cheap, accurate Must be calibrated with a buffer solutionMust be calibrated with a buffer solution
30 pH indicators Indicators are dyes that can be added that will change color in the presence of an acid or base. Some indicators only work in a specific range of pH Once the drops are added, the sample is ruined Some dyes are natural, like radish skin or red cabbage
31 ACID-BASE REACTIONS Titrations H 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) ---> acid base acid base Na 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(liq) Carry out this reaction using a TITRATION. Oxalic acid, H 2 C 2 O 4
33 TitrationTitration 1. Add solution from the buret. 2. Reagent (base) reacts with compound (acid) in solution in the flask. 3.Indicator shows when exact stoichiometric reaction has occurred. (Acid = Base) This is called NEUTRALIZATION. This is called NEUTRALIZATION.
34 Soaps and Detergents Soaps are organic salts NaOH + Fats = solid soaps KOH + fats = liquid soaps Detergents – organic salts with structure similar to soap Soap + hardwater = soap scum Detergent + hardwater = no soap scum Which are soaps? Which are detergents?
35 Organic Acids and Esters Ester – compound formed from organic acid (like acetic acid) + alcohol –Require a catalyst (often sulfuric acid) Provide nice odors, flavors of flowers and fruits Sometimes added to gelatin desserts or candy Poly esters - fabrics Creatine E2 contains Creatine Ethyl Ester – 1 st ingredient listed Organic esters are responsible for the unique taste of grapes