Presentation on theme: "Oceans and Fisheries Dr. John T. Everett National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration United States Department of."— Presentation transcript:
Oceans and Fisheries Dr. John T. Everett National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration United States Department of Commerce
About the Ocean Half of Americans live and work within 50 miles of the coast Coastal areas are only 11 percent of our land An acre of coastal waters or wetlands can produce more food than the best farm land Commercial and recreational fisheries support more than 1.3 million jobs, and in 1995 added more than $20 billion to the economy 80 % of ocean pollution comes from the land Coastal tourism provides 28 million jobs
Functions of Oceans Climate Regulator Resources and Products –fish and shellfish, marine mammals, and seaweeds –petroleum, sand and gravel, sulfur, hot brines, manganese nodules, and polymetallic sulfides at spreading centers –include water and unconventional energy resources Waste Reception and Recycling Recreation and Tourism Transportation
Pollution The ocean is so big. Is pollution a problem?
Recreation Is all recreation harmless to the ocean?
What are some ways to harm the ocean? Touching coral, running through beach grass, leaving trash, catching too many fish, chasing whales Recreation No-Nos
The ocean is so big. Arent there plenty of fish? Fishing
Sustainable Fisheries Some fisheries have lasted for 100s of years Many have disappeared quickly How do we bring them all back to full production?
Aquaculture and USA figures are non-additive Fisheries Production
Being a Fisheries Scientist What kinds of fish are there? How many fish are there? Where? When? How fast do they grow? What should the quota be? What diseases are there? What causes them? What are the ecosystem relationships? What habitats are needed?
Getting the Education Are you interested in fish or marine mammals? Are you interested in biology, ecology, or math? Get BS and MS in marine biology and/or math PhD needed for college teaching and senior scientist Shortage in stock assessment scientists
Apparent Oceanwide Synchrony in Pacific Basin Sardines Historical catches in the sardine fisheries of Japan, California and Peru-Chile have exhibited parallel patterns, possibly in response to global-scale changes in climate (modified from Kawasaki, 1992). Year California Sardine Catch (Thousand Metric Tons) Japan and Peru/Chile Sardine Catch (Million Metric Tons) Sources: U.S. GLOBEC, FAO 1995, NMFS/Our Living Oceans 1996 Peru/Chile California Japan
Normalized Catch Time Series Comparison of pink salmon catch in the Gulf of Alaska with coho salmon catch in the Washington, Oregon, California region (Francis and Sibley, 1991). Year Standard Index
Getting the Information Surveys with research vessels –Trawls, long lines, pots, gill nets, sonar Surveys with aircraft –LIDAR, observation Catch statistics Phone interviews with creel census Observers on fishing vessels
Research Tools Laboratories and Equipment Research Vessels Satellite Remote Sensing Computers People Money
Infrastructure - Labs Montlake Auke Bay Sandy Hook Miami
Fisheries Ships OREGON II - AGE: 31 TOWNSEND CROMWELL - AGE: 34 AGE: 30 ALBATROSS IV - AGE: 34
El Niño ENSO makes weather vary in much of the world Every 3 to 10 years; in recent years more frequently Will ENSO change with global warming?
Ocean Currents Will ocean currents change?
What Can You Do? Learn all you can. Read, surf the web, and go to the ocean. Be a smart shopper. Learn more about your seafood. Conserve water. Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway. Use less household chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides and cleaners. Reduce waste. Dispose of trash properly. Recycle, re-use, and compost. Reduce automobile pollution. Fix leaks. Protect ocean wildlife. Don't dispose of fishing lines, nets or plastic in or near the water. Be considerate of sealife habitats. Don't feed sea birds or mammals or disturb their nest areas. Get involved. Take part in a beach cleanup. Care! Tell others!
Where to Put the City Near healthy stocks of fish On firm bottom Near warm water to reduce energy needs Outside shipping routes Near a supply center Near an energy source, at least for backup.