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Published byHelen Dickerson Modified over 5 years ago

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Motion Ch. 1

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Motion- a change in position

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Frame of Reference Frame of Reference (reference point)- Whenever you describe something that is moving you compare it to something that is usually stationary This background or object that is used for comparison is called the frame of reference Earth is the most common frame of reference.

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Are you in motion? If you and your friend are walking down the hall together at the same speed, in the same direction. - Is she moving relative to you? -Are you moving relative to her? -Are either of you moving relative to the earth?

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Distance The length of the route you travel. start finish

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Displacement The direction and difference in the position between your starting and ending points start 2.7 km to the South END

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Speed- the rate at which an object moves Speed = Distance ÷ Time Example: A car travels 300km in 6 hours. What is the speed of the car?

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3 Steps to Solve Speed Problems Step 1: Write the Formula Step 2: Plug in the numbers (including the units) Step 3: Solve (including the units)

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A car travels 300km in 6 hours. What is the speed of the car? (Speed = distance ÷ time) Step 1: S = D/T Step 2: S = 300km ÷ 6 hours Step 3: S = 50km/hr

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Velocity Velocity- speed in a given direction Merry go round-always changing velocity why? Ex: A runner moves eastward at 10 m/s. What is the speed? What is the velocity? Why is velocity important?

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Constant Speed Constant Speed-(rare) speed which is the same throughout the movement, does not change throughout the journey When you calculate the speed of an object traveling at constant speed, you are figuring out it ’ s speed at every point in it ’ s path-(at every point the speed is the same) Graph-straight diagonal line

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Average Speed Average Speed-usually speed changes many times through a journey … speed equals distance divided by time S= D T Speed varies so you find average speed

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On a distance vs. time graph … *1. Distance is on the y-axis and time is on the x-axis. Distance (m) Time (sec)

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distance-time graphs…. 2. The steeper the line means the faster the object/person is moving.

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3. A straight diagonal line means speed is constant.

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4.A straight horizontal line means the object or person is not moving (at rest).

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5. At any given point the speed can be calculated

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At point A in the Speed graph, it represents the object/ person on its way back to the original starting point. Notice the y-axis is labeled position, it is the same as distance. A Distance v. Time

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Acceleration Acceleration- rate of change in velocity A= S f -S i T

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Acceleration 3 Types: Speeding Up Slowing Down Changing Position

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Acceleration Acceleration measured in meters per second per second or m/s/s or m/s 2 For example, during the running lab if a student had an acceleration of 5 m/s/s then for every second that went by his speed increased 5 m/s When an object slows down, it is decelerating or negative acceleration-still accelerating but decreasing

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On a speed vs. time graph (graph that shows acceleration of an object): 1. Speed is labeled on the vertical y axis. 2. Time is labeled on the horizontal x axis.

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Acceleration graph

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3. A straight horizontal line on the graph represents constant speed (no acceleration).

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4. When the diagonal line rises (slopes upward), the object is speeding up (positive acceleration).

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5. When the diagonal line is falling (slopes downward), the object is slowing down (negative acceleration or deceleration).

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