Presentation on theme: "How did life begin on Earth ? The Bible teaches that God created all life on earth. But evolution teaches that life started by a purely natural process."— Presentation transcript:
How did life begin on Earth ? The Bible teaches that God created all life on earth. But evolution teaches that life started by a purely natural process. What does the scientific evidence tell us ?
Achievements of Science Physics –Law of Gravity (Newton) –Law of Electromagnetism (Maxwell) –Structure of the atom (Bohr, and others) Chemistry –Periodic table – chemical properties –Organic chemistry Molecular-biology –DNA structure –Cell chemistry How does science discover these truths ???
How science discovers the truth Science tries to find explanations for things we can observe Scientific method: 1.Observe and gather information 2.Propose a theory (a good guess) 3.Devise experiments to test the theory 4.See if results of experiments check out with the theory 5.If not, change theory and try again 6.If so, theory becomes a law
How life began: Theory of Evolution Science has studied the question How did life begin on earth Science has learn a lot about what living organisms are made of and how living organisms work in Biology and Chemistry But science has not yet discovered how life began... Science is still guessing... The scientific theory (guess) on how life begin is called Theory of Evolution
MSNBC Poll on Evolution (Jan 2003) What do you think of the evidence regarding evolutionary theory? –The evidence is so strong that the theory is beyond doubt. 56% –The evidence is not sufficient to support the theory. 28% –Neither of the above. 16% Poll audience…
So is Evolution a proven theory ??? A recent PBS TV series on Evolution claims that: –All known scientific evidence support evolution –Virtually every reputable scientist in the world support evolution School text books on evolution all proclaim that Evolution is a proven fact Many people who once believed that God created the world turned away from God after they learned about the Theory of Evolution... (anyone here ?)
Evolution is NOT a proven theory Immediately after the PBS TV series, 100 scientists (from well-known universities like MIT, Yale, Emory, etc) published a 2-page ad in the newspaper The Weekly Standard: –Public TV programs, education policy statements, and science textbooks have asserted that Theory of Evolution fully explains the complexity of living things. The public has been assured, most recently by spokespersons for PBS's Evolution series, that "all known scientific evidence support evolution" as does "virtually every reputable scientist in the world The following scientists DISPUTE the first claim and stand as LIVING TESTIMONY in contradiction to the second.. (followed by the names of these 100 scientists)
Before we discuss Evolution Before I can talk about Evolution, I need to explain what living things are made of... I have tried to keep things as simple as possible, but… If something is unclear, please stop me anytime and ask questions !!!
What are living things made of ? 0.01 mm Cell
Structure of a living cell We now know the cell is extremely complex: In Darwin days, they thought the cell was simply a blob, like dough (bad microscopes)
What is a cell made of ? Cell Millions of protein molecules Amino-acid molecule Chain of 100s of amino-acid molecules
20 different amino-acid molecules in cells: Each protein molecule is made of different combinations of amino-acids: Q: How many different protein molecules ? Amino-acids: building blocks of life Example protein molecule: Another example:
Protein molecules used in cells There can be infinitely many different protein molecules –Analogy: –10 digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) –Each number is made of different combination of 10 digits (123, 27632, 67, …) –We can make up infinite many different numbers Living cells use over thousands of different kinds of protein molecules
What do you need to do to make life ? 1 Cell Millions of protein molecules Lots and lots and lots of different kinds of amino-acid molecules Lots and lots of diff kinds of protein molecules
What do you need to do to make life ? Make billions of amino-acid molecules (of different kinds) Amino-acid molecules come in 2 flavors: left handed and right-handed. Life only use left-handed molecules
What do you need to do to make life ? Pick the right kinds of amino-acid molecules in the right order to make millions of protein molecules Some protein molecules have over 1000 amino-acids ! Pick only left-handed ones !Put in the right order !
What do you need to do to make life ? Pick the right kinds of protein molecules and put them together in the right way to build ONE SINGLE cell Tens of thousands different kinds of proteins Millions of protein molecules Cell: your worst 3D Chinese Jigsaw puzzle nightmare...
So can we make a living cell ? With all our current advanced knowledge and technologies, we cannot make a living cell from scratch... Suppose we would break apart a living cell, we could not put the cell back together again...
Now we can talk about Evolution What I describe next is the theory orguess that science has proposed to explain how life began on earth I will describe the theory in its entirety first As for all science, a theory (guess) must be supported by evidence – I will present the scientific evidence after presenting the Theory of Evolution (and explain whats wrong with the theory)
Evolution: How did life begin (1) Early earths atmosphere contains Hydrogen, Methane, Ammonia, Nitrogen gases Lightning provided energy to fuse the gases into different Amino-acid molecules Amino-acid molecules collide with one another to for protein molecules Protein molecules collide with one another to form a living cell
Evolution: How did life begin (2) At first, life was very simple and consist of self replicating molecules Later, life learn to store genetic information in DNA molecules: single cell organisms (bacteria) And later, single cell organisms developed into simple multi-cell orgasms (Example: coral polyp)
Evolution: How did life diversify ? Life changes slowly over long time… Billions of years
Evolution: how did life diversify ? When more and more living organisms are on earth, they compete for their food The stronger (faster, smarter, etc) animals will have a better chance to survive and reproduce This process of adaptation is called natural selection
Science: always check the evidence A scientific theory is only a guess – it can be wrong ! The principle in science is to always check the theory against the evidence The evidence is never wrong So do we have strong evidence for the Theory of Evolution ?
Making amino-acid according to Evolution Put Hydrogen, Methane, Ammonia, Nitrogen together Use lightning (electric sparks) to fuse the gases into different Amino-acid molecules Any evidence that this can be done ?
Making Amino-acids: Millers experiment Miller put water, nitrogen, methane, ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in a flask The mixture was zapped for a week by high voltage sparks Miller was able to make a number of different types of amino-acid molecules Some scientists saw this as proof that life began on earth through evolution
Whats wrong with Millers experiment When you do science, you must get the starting condition right; otherwise, the result of the experiment is flawed Scientists have discovered that Earths early atmosphere did not contain hydrogen, methane and ammonia When Millers experiment is repeated, all it produced were very harmful chemicals !
More problems with Millers experiment Millers experiment cannot produce enough amino-acids (electrical sparks destroy the amino-acids !!!) Millers (and later) experiment can only create proteins made with up to 30 amino-acids (some proteins have more than 1000 amino-acids !!!) Proteins made in Millers experiment contain both left-handed and right- handed variants of amino-acids (living cells only use left-handed ones)
What some scientists say... The physicist Fred Hoyle had this to say: –"This scenario (a huge number of amino-acid molecules bouncing against each other and creating a living cell) is about as likely as a tornado whirling through a junkyard and accidentally assembling a fully functional Boeing 747"... In a recent debate, Miller was asked if he believed life could have started according to his experiment, Miller said: No comment...
Evolution: life have common ancestor All life started from a common ancestor Is there any evidence for this fact ???
Evidence 1 for common descend: embryos Haeckle showed embryos at different stages of their development (1874) Haeckles drawing shows that embryos from different species look alike at the start of their development Many biology text books claim that this shows that all living things had a common ancestor
Evidence 2 for common descend: structure The skeleton of vertebrates have a common design: looks like coming from one common ancestor
Non-evidence 1: Haeckles fraud ! You GOTTA to smell fish if biology text books in 2004 use a drawing from 1874 In 1997, Richardson took pictures of real embryos Richardson: –it's turning out to be one of the most famous FAKES in Biology… Many biology text books still contain this lie !!!
More real embryos Pictures of real embryos clearly show embryos differ greatly at early stage Embryos does NOT support the theory of one common ancestor
Dubious evidence 2: one Creator ? We see common structure in other things: These common structure shows a common designer (humans), not necessarily a common ancestor.
Fossils When some animals died a catastrophic (quick) death (e.g., volcano eruption), their bodies can be encapsulated in stone/dirt and become a fossil:
Fossil Record Fossils are deposited in rock in layers: The deeper a layer, the older the fossils ! Recent fossils Ancient fossils Millions of year later
Fossil record according to Evolution According to Evolution: – there is one kind of living organisms in the beginning and animals change slowly over time (millions of years !) –The number of different kinds of animals (species) grows slowly over a long period of time Time
Fossil record in reality Bacteria (procaryotic cells) 3,500 millions years ago Complex (eucaryotic cells) 2,000 millions years ago Multicellular animals (jelly fish) 670 millions years ago Shell-bearing animals (insects) 540 millions years ago Vertebrates (simple fishes) 490 millions years ago Amphibians (frogs) 350 millions years ago Reptiles (lizards) 310 millions years ago Mammals 200 millions years ago Nonhuman primates 60 millions years ago Earliest apes 25 millions years ago Modern humans 0.15 millions years ago Over 100,000 species of insects appeared suddenly
Fossil Record in Reality We find the fossils buried in the rock layers this way: –Before a certain period (Cambrium layer), there is only fossils from a few species (simple animals) –After this period, fossils from all kinds of animals appear within a few million years (very short for evolution) Scientists call thisCambrium explosion Time
What does the Fossil record tell us ? According the evolution, number of species in fossil record changes slowly –Actual fossils show thousands of different kinds of insects appear at the about same time ! The Fossil Record better supports creation –All the fossils of species found have well- formed features (complete wings) –Many species appear within a short time – like someone designed them all at once !
Evidence for Natural Selection: moths Lighter-colored moths resting on dark tree barks can be easily spotted by birds and eaten
Natural selection: confirmed fact Good news for the Theory of Evolution: –Natural selection is a (the only) fact that is confirmed by scientific evidence Yes, animals do change to survive BUT !!!...
The truth about natural selection Natural selection is not the same thing as evolution: –Natural selection can make small changes (shape and color) within one animal specie –Natural selection cannot change one specie into another –Color change in a moth does not change the moth into a butterfly or bee !!! Evidence for natural selection is NOT evidence for evolution !!!
Making new animals: the great fly experiment Starting in 1906, for more than 40 years, Thomas Hunt Morgan, a Columbia University zoologist tried to create a new type of animal from fruit flies Fruit flies were ideal because their eggs hatch in 12 short days – ideal for evolution experiment Morgan used X-rays on the flies to speed up mutations (changes in cells): X-ray ?
Result of the Fruit Fly experiment The fruit fly never became anything but a fruit fly Result does NOT support the theory (guess) that one kind of animal can change into another kind ! Bar eyes Vestigial wings Curled wings Extra wings (immobile)
Is Life Designed or Evolved ? Morse code: –A.- B -... C -.-. D -.. E. F..-. Combination of short and long pulse identify a unique letter To send the word bad in Morse code: -… dee dot dot dot dot dee dee dot dot Morse code was designed by intelligent life forms (humans) for communication (this was before the telephone was invented)
Is Life Designed or Evolved ? Remember that a protein molecule is made up of a number of different amino-acid molecules? Different sequence of amino-acid molecules will make a different protein How does your body know which amino-acid molecule to pick to make the right protein ? Every 3 base molecule in DNA (gene) identifies one amino-acid molecule in a protein Genetic CODE ! Just like Morse code !!!
Created or Evolved ? Some things in nature are almost impossible to have been built without any intelligent maker Suppose you see the following contraption: Would you believe it came about by itself ?
Is Life Created or Evolved ? E. Coli bacteria are one-cell creatures that have a very ingenious motion mechanism They have a flagellum (wip-like tail) that rotates around like a propeller This propeller is driven by a molecular electrical engine that can revolve 20,000 RPM (car engines cant go faster than 8000 RPM) Humans cant make engines so small. Can this ingenious machine come about by itself ?
Summary The Theory of Evolution is being taught in school text books as if it is true But many researchers in universities are finding problems with this theory Many evidence that evolutionists used to support the Theory of Evolution are untrue Only natural selection (change to survive better) is supported by evidence Evolution is not a proven theory !