Presentation on theme: "How did life begin on Earth ?"— Presentation transcript:
1How did life begin on Earth ? The Bible teaches that God created all life on earth. But evolution teaches that life started by a purely natural process. What does the evidence say ?
2What is ScienceScience tries to find explanations for things we can observeScientific method:Observe and gather informationPropose a theory (a “good” guess)Devise experiments to test the theorySee if result of experiments checks out with theoryIf not, change theory and try againIf so, theory becomes a “law”
3Example:Here is an example from Mathematics. We observe from 3 different polyhedrons that the #sides + #corners is always equal to the #edges + 2. So we propose the Theorem that “#sides + #corners = #edges + 2”. Then we test the Theorem with bizarre examples. Then to our surprise, we found a strange looking polyhedron that does not satisfy the Theorem. The theory must be changed.
4Science and the Question of Origin Science has studied the question “How did life begin on earth”Science has learn a lot about “what living organisms are made of” and “how living organisms work”But science has not found out how life began on earthThe present scientific theory (a guess !!!) on how life begin is called “Theory of Evolution”This theory has problems because it cannot explain many observations (in other words: this scientific theory may be wrong)Before we can talk about Evolution, I need to explain what living things are made off...
5What are living things made off ? All living organisms (animals, plants) are made of “cells”:
6What is a cell made off ? Chain of amino-acid molecules ProteinmoleculesChain of amino-acid molecules
7Amino-acids: building blocks of life 20 different amino-acid molecules in cells:Each protein molecule is made of different combinations of amino-acids:Q: How many different protein molecules ?Example protein molecule:Another example:
8How did life begin according to Evolution Early earth’s atmosphere contains Hydrogen, Methane, Ammonia, NitrogenLightning provided energy to fuse the gases into different Amino-acid moleculesAmino-acid molecules collide with one another to for protein moleculesProtein molecules collide with one another to form a living cell
9First stage of life according to evolution At first, life was very simple and consist of “self replicating molecules”Later, life learn to store genetic information in DNA molecules: single cell organismsAnd later, single cell organisms developed into simple multi-cell orgasms (Example: coral polyp)
10How organisms change according to evolution “DNA” molecules inside a cell store information on how to construct the cellRadiation, chemicals and copy mistakes can change the DNA moleculesWhen the DNA is changed, the cell will be “different”Many random different cells will be created by DNA mutations
11Later development: adaptation When more and more living organisms are on earth, they compete for their foodThe stronger (faster, smarter, etc) animals will have a better chance to survive and reproduceThis process of adaptation is called “natural selection”
12Science: always check the evidence A scientific theory is only a guess – it can be wrong !The principle in science is to always check the theory against the evidenceThe evidence is never wrongIf the evidence contradicts a result of the theory, the theory needs to be changed !!!So do we have strong evidence for the Theory of Evolution ?
13“Making life” according to Evolution Put Hydrogen, Methane, Ammonia, Nitrogen togetherUse lightning (electric sparks) to fuse the gases into different Amino-acid moleculesCan this be done ???
14Making Amino-acids: Miller’s experiment Miller put water, nitrogen, methane, ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in a flaskThe mixture was zapped for a week by high voltage sparksMiller was able to make a number of different types of amino-acid moleculesSome scientists saw this as “proof” that life began on earth through evolution
15Evidence for a common ancestor: embryos According to the “Theory” of Evolution, all life has one single common ancestorHaeckle drew some embryos at different stages of their development in 1874Haeckle’s drawing shows that embryos from different species look alike at the start of their developmentMany biology text books claim that this shows that all living things had the same beginning: a common ancestor
16Evidence for adaptation: Finches Finches’ beak has been adapted to eat certain food to survive
17Evidence for adaptation: moths Lighter-colored moths resting on tree barks can be easily spotted by birdsWhen trees in England got darker due to pollution, population of lighter-colored moths descreased
18Is Evolution a proven theory ??? So do these evidences provide the proof for the Theory of Evolution ?Some scientists think so...A recent PBS TV series on Evolution claims that:All known scientific evidence support evolutionvirtually every reputable scientist in the world support evolutionSchool text books on evolution all proclaim that “Evolution is a proven fact”Many people who once believed that God created the world turned away from God after they learned about the Theory of Evolution.
19Evolution is NOT a proven theory Immediately after the PBS TV series, 100 scientists (from well-known universities like MIT, Yale, Emory, etc) published a 2 page ad in the news paper “The Weekly Standard”:Public TV programs, education policy statements, and science textbooks have asserted that Theory of Evolution fully explains the complexity of living things. The public has been assured, most recently by spokespersons for PBS's Evolution series, that "all known scientific evidence support evolution" and does "virtually every reputable scientist in the world.” The following scientists DISPUTE the first claim and stand as LIVING TESTIMONY in contradiction to the second.. (followed by the names of these 100 scientists)We look at the controversy of Evolution next
20What’s wrong with Miller’s experiment When you do science, you must get the starting condition right; otherwise, the result of the experiment is uselessScientists have discovered that Earth’s early atmosphere did not contain hydrogen, methane and ammoniaWhen Miller’s experiment is repeated, all it produced were very harmful chemicals !
21Haeckle: a liar and a fraud ! One has to smell fish if biology text books still use a drawing from 1874In 1997, Richardson took pictures of the real embryosThe result according to Richardson:it's turning out to be one of the most famous FAKES in BiologyMost biology text books stillcontain this lie !!!
22More real embryos Pictures of real embryos clearly show embryos differ greatly at early stageEmbryos does NOT support the theory of one commonancestor
23More problems: Fossil Record When some animals died a catastrophic death (e.g., volcano eruption), their bodies are encapsulated in stone/dirt and become a fossil:
24Fossil Record Fossils are deposited in rock in layers: Recent fossils The deeper a layer, the older the fossils !Recent fossilsAncient fossils
25Fossil record according to Evolution According to the Theory of Evolution, there is one kind of living organisms in the beginning and animals change slowly over time (billions of years !)So, according to the Theory of Evolution, the number of different kinds of animals (species) grows slowly over a long period of timeTime
26What do we find in the Fossil Record ? We find the fossils buried in the rock layers this way:Before a certain period (Cambrium layer), there is only fossils from a few species (simple animals)After this period, fossils from all kinds of animals appear within a few million years (very short for evolution)Scientists call this “Cambrium explosion”Time
27What does the Fossil record tell us ? The Fossil Record is a strong evidence that the Theory of Evolution is wrong:According the evolution, the fossil record is gradually increasingActual fossils show an abrupt beginningIn fact, the Fossil Record supports creationAll the fossils found have well-formed featuresThere are no fossils with “transitional form” (for example, an arm that is changing into a wing)All animals appear within a short time – as if someone designed them all at once !
28Adaptation: confirmed fact So far, the evidences supporting the Theory of Evolution have been wrong or worst: liesAmino-acids cannot be formed on earth with the gasses in earth’s early atmosphereEmbryos from different animals do not look alike when they are very youngThe only part of the Theory of Evolution that is supported by strong evidence is adaptationYes, animals do change to survive
29The truth about adaptation Adaptation is not the same thing as evolution:Adaptation is change (shape and color) within one animal specieChanges in finches’ beak does not change the finch into a chicken or turkey !!!Color change in a moth does not change the moth into a butterfly or bee !!!Evidence for adaptation is NOT evidence for evolution !!!
30Making new animals: the great fly experiment Starting in 1906, for more than 40 years, Thomas Hunt Morgan, a Columbia University zoologist tried to create a new type of animal from fruit fliesFruit flies were ideal because their eggs hatch in 12 short daysMorgan used X-rays on the flies to speed up mutations (changes in cells):?X-ray
31Result of the Fruit Fly experiment Bar eyesVestigialwingsCurledwingsExtra wings (immobile)The fruit fly never became anything but a fruit flyResult does NOT support the theory that one kind of animal can change into another kind !
32Designed or Evolved ? Morse code: A B C D E . F ..-.Morse code is made up of unique combinations of short and long pulsesTo send the word “bad” in Morse code:-…“dee dot dot dot” “dot dee” “dee dot dot”Morse code was designed by intelligent life forms (humans) for communication (this was before the telephone was invented)
33Designed or Evolved ? Genetic CODE ! Most likely designed !!! Remember that a protein molecule is made up of a number of different amino-acid molecules?Different sequence of amino-acid molecules will make a different proteinHow does your body know which amino-acid molecule to pick to make the right protein ?Genetic CODE !Most likely designed !!!Every 3 “base”molecule in DNAidentifies one amino-acidmolecule in a protein
34Created or Evolved ?Some things in nature are almost impossible to have been “built” without any intelligent makerSuppose you see the following contraption:Would you believe it came about by itself ?
35Created or Evolved ? Humans can’t make engines so E. Coli bacteria are one-cell creatures that have a very ingenious motion mechanismThey have a flagellum (wip-like tail) that rotates around like a propellerThis “propeller” can turn 20,000 times per second (car engines can’t go faster than 8000)It’s built like an electric engine:Humans can’t make engines sosmall. Can a machine come about by itself ?
36SummaryThe Theory of Evolution is being taught in school text books as trueBut more and more professors from universities are finding more and more problems with this theoryMany evidence that evolutionists used to support the Theory of Evolution were untrue (lies and even frauds !)Animal adaptation (change to survive better) is supported by evidence, but adaptation is not the same as evolution: no new animals are created in adaptation