Presentation on theme: "Designed or Evolved ? Is life evolved without a goal ? Or is life designed with a purpose ?"— Presentation transcript:
Designed or Evolved ? Is life evolved without a goal ? Or is life designed with a purpose ?
Problems of Evolution Evolution steps must be small (otherwise new specie has no mate ….) Problem 1: Life exhibits many irreducibly complex systems that are not likely to have evolved by small steps Problem 2: Researchers have found many look-alike animals evolved from completely different ancestors – implying that many independent evolution paths have converged
Irreducibly Complex Systems Biological systems that can only be developed by a chain of evolutionary steps where each intermediate step creates an apparently useless system and only the final step results in a useful system
Example Irreducibly Complex System Mouse trap: Every part must be in right place Every part must have right dimension
Irreducibly complex system Bombardier beetle: This beetle has a chemical cannon in his abdomen that helps it defend itself
Chemical reaction in beetle: This chemical reaction takes place inside the Bombardier beetle abdomen: Hydroquinone is a powerful reductor Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxidator
Firing the chemical cannon: Chemicals stored in upper chamber. Inhibitor prevents Hydroquinones and Hydrogen peroxide from reacting. Two enzymes stored in lower chamber: Peroxidase Catalase
Evolving the chemical cannon …. Step 1: beetle learned to produce Hydrogen Peroxide Question: what's would the beetle use Hydrogen Peroxide for ???? Net result: Zilt... Beetle is no more better off in defending itself …
Evolving the chemical cannon … Step 2: beetle learned to produce Hydroquinone Problem: Hydroquinone reacts Hydrogen Peroxide inside the beetle … we ll have suicidal beetles... Solution: beetle stored chemicals separately Net result: Still zilt... Beetle is no more better in defending itself …
Evolving the chemical cannon … Step 3: beetle learned to produce inhibitor for Hydroquinone and Hydrogen Peroxide Beetle can now store Hydroquinone and Hydrogen Peroxide in one chamber … big deal Net result: Zilt... Chemical cannon is still not functional
Evolutionary Dilemma How did the inhibitor evolve ??? if Hydroquinone and Hydrogen Peroxide were stored separately, there was absolutely NO NEED to "evolve" the inhibitor if Hydroquinone and Hydrogen Peroxide were stored together, they would react immediately and it's TOO LATE to "evolve" the inhibitor (because the beetle will be dead … )
Evolving the chemical cannon … Step 4: beetle learned to produce Peroxidase Peroxidase converts Peroxide to Oxygen which will immediately react with Hydroquinone Net result: SUICIDAL beetles !!!... because the resulting chemical will poison the beetle....
Evolving the chemical cannon … Step 5: beetle learned to produce Catalase Net result: EXPLODING beetles !!!..... because the oxygen and hydroquinone will react SO FAST that the beetle's abdomen explodes.... Why ???? - Because there is NO DELIVERY SYSTEM !!!
Reflection time... Irreducible complex system evolved by a chain of evolutionary steps – each intermediate step lead to no gain at all How likely is such an irreducible complex system evolved ??? Consider how irreducibly complex systems in real life – like the mouse trap - evolve ? They are all designed by an intelligent being with a purpose in mind !!!
Converging Evolutionary Processes This is yet another problem facing the Theory of Evolution Recently, research in evolution has discovered many species of animals that required a drastic change in evolutionary thinking They call this phenomenon Convergent Evolution Evolution must now explain why many random processes head towards the same direction
Convergent Evolution Example 1 Fishes in two near-by lakes in Africa exhibit incredible likeness How come these fishes look so much alike ??? Fishes in different lakes: Lakes in Africa:
The evolutionary explanation Long ago, the lake level was higher and the lakes were interconnected – there was only ONE kind of each fish Later, water level dropped, separating the lakes. Then the fishes in different lakes developed separately
Any Evidence ???... If the fishes from different lakes has a common ancestor, their DNA patterns will be related Researchers Ruber, Verheyen and Meyer (Europeans) did a DNA analysis on the different fishes... Their findings: DNA were so different that fishes from different lakes most likely have different ancestors ! In other words:
Convergent Evolution example 2 Australian birds European birds DNA analysis shows that birds 1,3 and 4 are closer related to each other. So also birds 2, 5 and 6.
Convergent Evolution example 3 Anolis lizards from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Dominique and Puerto Rico) No pictures, but I have a Science paper that you can read Findings are the same: Lizards on different island look alike, but have completely different genomes so that they most likely have different ancestors
Reflection time... Evolution relies on random mutations If the mutations are not there, natural selection will have nothing to work with... Convergent Evolution requires that the random mutations in different species to cooperate and drive change the specie towards the same direction The mutations are no longer random ???
Implications of Convergent Evolution Can t use looks to draw conclusion on descend Fossil records are useless to find descend order: These animals may look alike, but...
Reflection time... Is life evolved without any purpose ? The Theory of Evolution has a hard time producing evidence in support of this (Miller s useless experiment, Haeckle s embryo s fraud, Horse s non- evolution, etc) The Theory of Evolution has a hard time explaining a number of extremely unlikely phenomenon in life Maybe is life designed with some purpose ???
Imaginary mind trip... This device performs better than any vehicle invented by humans... We are told that it was created by a super intelligent race called the Ancients Imagine one day that this really happens to you … What will you think/believe ???
2004 – A space odyssey Micro-machines: These micro-machines move using molecular engines: On a remote planet, you find...
2004 – A space odyssey Design of the molecular engine: Engine in action: Different colors represent different molecules
2004 – A space odyssey Engine is constructed with over 40 different types of molecules – each type serving a different function Size of engine is a less than a micron (need an electron microscope to see its structure) Engine can go over 20,000 RPM Engine is almost 100% efficient Humans can t build this kind of engines (yet)
2004 – A space odyssey Would you believe this microscopic engine came about by itself ? Would you believe this microscopic engine was designed by some super-intelligent being ? This micro-engine is smaller than a hair !!!
2004 – A space odyssey revealed The remote planet is... Earth The micro-machine is... E. Coli bacteria The micro-engine is... its flagellum
Reflection time... Can such a delicate micro-engine come about through a random process ? Highly unlikely – Evolutionists do not have a clue how this can be assembled (not surprising, since we can t even make one in our million dollar laboratories … ) Maybe this micro-engine was designed by some super-intelligent being ??? If this super-small engine was designed by a super- intelligent being, maybe He has also design humans ?
More reflection time... Are human designed for a specific purpose ? If so, who designed us ? Who is our creator ? Why are we abandoned like orphans ? Will we see him again ? Other questions ?...
Finding the answers... The Bible is the most reliable book on history – more reliable than any history book used in schools You can find the answers to these and other questions there