Presentation on theme: "READY TO ENGINEER Conceive- Design- Implement - Operate:"— Presentation transcript:
1 READY TO ENGINEER Conceive- Design- Implement - Operate: An Innovative Framework for Engineering EducationEdward CrawleyJuly 2006
2 “What is chiefly needed is skill rather than machinery” Wilbur Wright, 1902
3 CENTRAL QUESTIONS FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION What knowledge, skills and attitudes should students possess as they graduate from university?How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills?
4 THE NEED Desired Attributes of an Engineering Graduate Underlying Need Understanding of fundamentalsUnderstanding of design and manufacturing processPossess a multi-disciplinary system perspectiveGood communication skillsHigh ethical standards, etc.Underlying NeedEducate students who:Understand how to conceive- design-implement-operateComplex value-added engineering systemsIn a modern team-based engineering environmentWe have adopted CDIO as the engineering context of our education
5 CURRENT Engineering Science R&D Context Reductionist Individual TRANSFORM THE CULTURECURRENTEngineering ScienceR&D ContextReductionistIndividualDESIREDEngineeringProduct ContextIntegrativeTeam... but still based on a rigorous treatment of engineering fundamentals
6 GOALS OF CDIO And to attract and retain student in engineering To educate students to master a deeper working knowledge of the technical fundamentalsTo educate engineers to lead in the creation and operation of new products and systemsTo educate all to understand the importance and strategic impact of research and technological development on societyAnd to attract and retain student in engineering
7 VISIONWe envision an education that stresses the fundamentals, set in the context of Conceiving – Designing – Implementing – Operating systems and products:A curriculum organised around mutually supporting disciplines, but with CDIO activities highly interwovenRich with student design-build projectsFeaturing active and experiential learningSet in both classrooms and modern learning laboratories and workspacesConstantly improved through robust assessment and evaluation processes
8 PEDAGOGIC LOGIC Most engineers learn from the concrete to the abstract Manipulate objects to understand abstractionsStudents arrive at university lacking personal experienceWe must provide dual impact authentic activities to allow mapping of new knowledge - alternative is rote or “pattern matching”Using CDIO as authentic activity achieves two goals --Provides education in the creation and operation of systemsBuilds the cognitive framework to understand the fundamentals more deeply
9 CDIO Is a set of common goals Is a holistic integrated approach that draws on and integrates best practiceIs a set of resources that can be adapted and implemented for national, university and disciplinary programsIs a co-development approach, based on engineering designIs not prescriptiveIs a way to address the two major questions:What are the knowledge skills and attitudes?How can we do a better job?
10 APPROACHOur approach is to design (in the engineering sense) an improved educational model and implementable resources.Analyze needs, and set a clear, complete and consistent set of goalsDesign and prototype in parallel programs with partner universitiesOriginal collaborators: Chalmers, KTH, LiU, MITRecently joined by: 18 others world wideCompare results,evaluate, iterate and develop improved models and materialsCreate as open source of resources, not a prescription
11 NEED TO GOALS Educate students who: Understand how to conceive- design-implement-operateComplex value-added engineering systemsIn a modern team-based engineering environmentAnd are mature and thoughtful individualsProcessProduct4. CDIO1. Technical2. Personal3. Inter-personalTeamSelfThe CDIO Syllabus - a comprehensive statement of detailed Goals for an Engineering Education
12 THE CDIO SYLLABUS 1.0 Technical Knowledge & Reasoning: Knowledge of underlying sciencesCore engineering fundamental knowledgeAdvanced engineering fundamental knowledge2.0 Personal and Professional Skills & AttributesEngineering reasoning and problem solvingExperimentation and knowledge discoverySystem thinkingPersonal skills and attributesProfessional skills and attributes3.0 Interpersonal Skills: Teamwork & CommunicationMulti-disciplinary teamworkCommunicationsCommunication in a foreign language4.0 Conceiving, Designing, Implementing & Operating Systems in theEnterprise & Societal ContextExternal and societal contextEnterprise and business contextConceiving and engineering systemsDesigningImplementingOperating
13 CDIO SYLLABUS Syllabus at 3rd level One or two more levels are detailedRationalComprehensivePeer reviewedBasis for design and assessment
16 CDIO-UK SPEC Could also map against “Output Standards” from EC “Accreditation of HE Programmes”
17 SYLLABUS LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY 6 groups surveyed: 1st and 4th year students, alumni 25 years old, alumni 35 years old, faculty, leaders of industryQuestion: For each attribute, please indicate which of the five levels of proficiency you desire in a graduating engineering student:1 To have experienced or been exposed to2 To be able to participate in and contribute to3 To be able to understand and explain4 To be skilled in the practice or implementation of5 To be able to lead or innovate in
18 PROFICIENCY EXPECTATIONS InnovateProficiency Expectations at MIT Aero/AstroSkilledPracticeUnderstandParticipateExposureREMARKABLE AGREEMENT!
19 DEVELOPMENT OF CDIOCDIOSYLLABUSWHATStakeholderSurveysCDIOPRINCIPLECDIOCONTEXTEngineering Education should produce graduates who:Understand how to conceive-design-implement-operateComplex value-added products and systemsIn a modern team-based engineering environmentAnd are mature and thoughtful individualsEXISTINGPROGRAMDefineLearningOutcomesAccreditationCriteriaBenchmarkSkills
20 HOW CAN WE DO BETTER? Re-task current assets and resources in: CurriculumLaboratories and workspacesTeaching, learning, and assessmentFaculty competenceEvolve to a model in which these resources are better employed to promote student learning
21 RE-TASK CURRICULUMCreate mutually-supportive disciplinary subjects integrating personal, professional and product/system building skillsBegin with an introductory course that provides a framework for engineering education
22 CDIO AS A MATRIX STRUCTURE Optimum for goalsConventional engineering education replicates a stove piped disciplinary organizationCDIO uses disciplines as the organizing principle, but interweaves personal, interpersonal and project experiences – a lightweight project organizationProblem Based Learning uses projects as the organizing principle, and interweaves disciplinary education in a just in time model – a heavyweight project organization
23 OVERLAY DESIGNFor each Syllabus topic, need to develop an appropriate cognitive progressionFor example, for design:Design processDesign by redesignDisciplinary designDesign for implementationMultidisciplinary designThen identify where content will be taught
24 INTRODUCTORY COURSE To motivate students to study engineering To provide early exposure to system buildingTo teach some early and essential skills (e.g., teamwork)To provide a set of personal experiences which will allow early fundamentals to be more deeply understoodCapstoneDisciplinesIntroSciences
25 RE-TASK LABS AND WORKSPACES Use existing resources to re-task workspaces so that they support hands-on learning of product/system building, disciplinary knowledge, knowledge discovery, and social learningEnsure that students participate in repeated design-build experiences
27 DESIGN-BUILD RESOURCES Multidisciplinary Design Projects (EE/MechE) development of standard design kits; new course materials on CD-ROMHardware-Software Co-Design modern control and software; development of design kits and standard lab stations (spin-dude pictured)
28 RE-TASK TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT Provide integrated experiences that support deep and conceptual learning of technical knowledge, as well as personal, interpersonal and product/system building skillsEncourage students to take a more active role in their own learningProvide experiences for students that simulate their future roles as engineersAssess student knowledge and skills in personal, interpersonal, and product and system building, as well as disciplinary knowledge
29 EDUCATION AS AN INPUT-OUTPUT PROCESS noisenoiseX0X2X1Reflecting, Integrating,Forgetting DynamicsLearning DynamicscurricularpedagogyCyCznoisezygoalsassessmentknowledgeskillsattitudesX =X1 - X0 = learning
30 FORM OR ACQUIRE A “THEORY” KOLB’S LEARNING CYCLEAPPLY THE THEORYSKILLSDEVELOPMENTCONCRETEEXPERIENCETutorials,Exercises,Lab classes, etc.ACTIVEEXPERIMENTATIONREFLECTIVEOBSERVATIONCDIOLooking in more detail at Kolb’s learning cycleConcrete experience – reflective observation – abstract generalisation – active experimentation - concrete experience, etcDeliberately general language so we can add our own words to increase the relevance to engineeringAbstract generalisation – ‘form or acquire a theory’Active experimentation – ‘apply that theory’ABSTRACTGENERALIZATIONFORM OR ACQUIRE A “THEORY”TRADITIONALAPPROACHLectures:Concepts, Models,Laws, etc.
31 ACTIVE AND EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ACTIVE LEARNINGEngages students directly in manipulating, applying, analyzing, and evaluating ideasExamples:Pair-and-ShareGroup discussionsDebatesConcept questionsEXPERIENTIAL LEARNINGActive learning in which students take on roles that simulate professional engineering practiceExamples:Design-build projectsProblem-based learningSimulationsCase studiesDissections
32 CONCEPT QUESTIONSA black box is sitting over a hole in a table. It is isolated in every way from its surroundings with the exception of a very thin thread which is connected to a weight.You observe the weight slowly moving upwards towards the box.1) This situation violates the First Law of Thermodynamics2) Heat must be transferred down the thread3) The First Law is satisfied, the energy in the box is increasing4) The First Law is satisfied, the energy in the box is decreasing5) The First Law is satisfied, the energy in the box is constant(Original problem due to Levenspiel, 1996)
33 REAL-TIME PRS RESPONSE Responses from sophomores
34 RE-TASK FACULTY COMPETENCE Enhance faculty competence in personal, interpersonal and product/system building skillsEncourage faculty to enhance their competence in active and experiential teaching and learning, and in assessment
35 FACULTY COMPETENCE IN SKILLS Web-based Instructor Resource Modules
36 THE CDIO STANDARDS: BEST PRACTICE FRAMWORK 1. CDIO as Context*Adoption of the principle that product and system lifecycle development and deployment are the context for engineering education2. CDIO Syllabus Outcomes*Specific, detailed learning outcomes for personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills, consistent with program goals and validated by program stakeholders3. Integrated Curriculum*A curriculum designed with mutually supporting disciplinary subjects, with an explicit plan to integrate personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills4. Introduction to EngineeringAn introductory course that provides the framework for engineering practice in product and system building, and introduces essential personal and interpersonal skills5. Design-Build Experiences*A curriculum that includes two or more design-build experiences, including one at a basic level and one at an advanced level6. CDIO WorkspacesWorkspaces and laboratories that support and encourage hands-on learning of product and system building, disciplinary knowledge, and social learning7. Integrated Learning Experiences*Integrated learning experiences that lead to the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge, as well as personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills8. Active LearningTeaching and learning based on active experiential learning methods9. Enhancement of Faculty CDIO Skills*Actions that enhance faculty competence in personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills10. Enhancement of Faculty Teaching SkillsActions that enhance faculty competence in providing integrated learning experiences, in using active experiential learning methods, and in assessing student learning11. CDIO Skills Assessment*Assessment of student learning in personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills, as well as in disciplinary knowledge12. CDIO Program EvaluationA system that evaluates programs against these 12 standards, and provides feedback to students, faculty, and other stakeholders for the purposes of continuous improvement*essential
37 DEVELOPMENT OF CDIO HOW WHAT CDIO PRINCIPLE CDIO STANDARDS SYLLABUS Best PracticeHOWCDIOPRINCIPLEEXISTINGPROGRAMStakeholderSurveysBenchmarkSkillsAccreditationCriteriaDefineLearningOutcomesSYLLABUSWHATRedesignCourses &ProgramBenchmarkT & L Methods
38 CENTRAL QUESTIONS FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION What knowledge, skills and attitudes should students possess as they graduate from university?SyllabusStakeholder engagementsHow can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills?Standards - guide to adopting good practiceResources
39 CHANGE PROCESS Understanding of need, and commitment Leadership from the topNourish early adoptersQuick successesMoving off assumptionsInvolvement and ownershipAppeal to professionalismStudents as agents of changeAdequate resourcesFaculty learning cultureFaculty recognition and incentives
40 CDIO RESOURCES www.cdio.org Published papers and conference presentationsImplementation Kits (I-Kits)Start-Up Guidance and Early SuccessesInstructor Resources Modules (IRM’s)CDIO Book (forthcoming)CDIO Conference in Linköping in June
42 APPARENT CHALENGES Approaches for more effective curricular design Inventory of concept questions across a range of disciplinesDesign implement experiences in “other” fields of engineering and applied scienceLearning assessment techniques for comparative evaluationModels of incentives from leading universities
43 AN INVITATIONThe CDIO Initiative is creating a model, a change process and library of education resources that facilitate easy adaptation and implementation of CDIOChalmers had been a leader in creating this approachMany of you are developing important resources and approaches that we could all learn fromPlease consider working more closely with us
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