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1 Health Science Technology. 2 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Health Science Technology. 2 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Health Science Technology

2 2 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System

3 3 Scrotum l Pouch of skin that hangs at root of penis and contains the testes l Superficial fascia divides scrotum into right & left halves l Provides temperature about 3°C below body temperature for proper sperm production

4 4 Testes l Seminiferous tubules: sperm factories l Series of tubes carries sperm from testes to epididymis l Interstitial cells or Leydig cells: produce androgens, especially testosterone l Testicular arteries & veins: provide blood & help maintain temperature

5 5 The Duct System Transports sperm from body

6 6 Epididymis l Stores immature sperm temporarily l Takes about 20 days for sperm to mature

7 7 Ductus Deferens l Muscle contractions to propel live sperm to urethra l During ejaculation smooth muscle contractions rapidly squeezes sperm forward l Cut during a vasectomy for birth control

8 8 Urethra l Conveys urine & semen to tip of penis

9 9 Accessory Glands

10 10 Seminal Vesicles l Located at base of bladder l Produces 60% of fluid in semen l Yellowish thick fluid l Fructose, ascorbic acid, amino acids, & prostaglandins l Sperm & seminal fluid mix in ejaculatory duct

11 11 Prostate Gland l 33% of semen volume l Milky alkaline fluid that activates sperm

12 12 Bulbourethral Glands l Cowpers glands l Produce thick, clear mucus l Released prior to ejaculation l Neutralize traces of acidic urine & lubricant during intercourse

13 13 Semen l Mixture of sperm & secretions l Transport medium, nutrients, & chemicals that protect & facilitate movement of sperm l Hormone relaxin enhance sperm motility l Basic pH 7.2 - 7.6 neutralizes acidic environment of vagina

14 14 Semen l 2 - 6 ml released during ejaculation l 50 - 100 million sperm in each ml

15 15 Physiology of Male Reproductive System

16 16 Spermatogenesis l Sequence of events in seminiferous tubules of testes that leads to production of male gametes or sperm l Healthy male produces several hundred million sperm per day

17 17 Effects of Testosterone l At puberty testosterone prompts spermatogenesis l Causes reproductive organs to grow & assume adult functions l As adult normal levels of testosterone are required to maintain normal structure & function of reproductive organ

18 18 Erection l Erectile tissue of penis, corpora cavernosa becomes engorged with blood l Parasympathetic nerve fibers stimulate arterioles to dilate, increasing blood flow l Blood flow is cut off trapping blood causing penis to stiffen and become elongated

19 19 Ejaculation l Propulsion of semen from male duct system l Reproductive ducts & accessory glands contract peristaltically emptying their contents into urethra l Bladder sphincter muscle constricts preventing expulsion of urine

20 20 Ejaculation l Bulbospongiosus muscles of penis undergo rapid series of contractions propelling semen from the urethra

21 21 Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

22 22 Ovaries l Inside are many tiny saclike structures called ovarian follicles l Each month in adult women one mature follicle ejects its oocyte called ovulation l Changes into structure called corpus luteum

23 23 Duct System

24 24 Uterine Tubes l Fallopian tubes l Provide site where fertilization can occur l Little or no contact with ovary l Fimbriae become active close to ovulation, they create currents in peritoneal fluid & usually carry oocyte into uterine tube

25 25 Uterine Tubes l Oocyte is carried toward uterus by peristalsis & rhythmic beating of cilia

26 26 Uterus l Size & shape of pear l Hollow, thick-walled organ that functions to receive, retain, & nourish a fertilized egg and developing baby

27 27 Uterine Wall l 3 layers l Perimetrium: outermost serous layer l Myometrium: thick layer of smooth muscles, plays active role in childbirth l Endometrium: simple columnar epithelium anchored by thick connective tissue –highly vascular

28 28 Vagina l Thin-walled fibromuscular tube l Birth canal l Receives penis & semen during intercourse l pH 3.5 - 4.0 to reduce possibility of infection

29 29 External Genitalia l Vulva l Mons pubis: fatty, rounded area overlying pubic symphysis l Labia majora: two elongated, hair- covered fatty skin folds l Labia minora: two thin hair-free folds covered with mucosa & sebaceous glands

30 30 External Genitalia l Vestibular glands: by vaginal opening, release mucus for moisture & lubrication during intercourse l Clitoris: protruding structure, composed of erectile tissue –becomes swollen during sexual arousal

31 31 Mammary Glands l Present in both sexes, become functional only in females l Areola: pigmented area that surrounds nipple l Alveolar glands: produce milk when woman is lactating

32 32 Mammary Glands l Lactiferous ducts: carry milk to outside of body l Lactiferous sinus or ampulla: sinus where milk accumulates during lactation

33 33 Physiology of Female Reproductive System

34 34 Oogenesis l Process in which eggs are produced l Supply of eggs that female releases is determined by the time of birth l From puberty to about 50 l One ovulation each month l Only 400 - 500 oocytes of potential 700,000 are released during lifetime

35 35 Ovarian Cycle l 3 phases l Typical cycle lasts 28 days

36 36 Follicular Phase l Period of follicle growth l Days 1 - 10

37 37 Ovulatory Phase l Days 11 - 14 l Ovary wall at site of ballooning ruptures & expels oocyte into peritoneal cavity l 1 - 2% of ovulations more than one oocyte is released, which could result in multiple births

38 38 Luteal Phase l Days 14 - 28 l Oocyte increases in size & now called corpus luteum l Begins to secrete progesterone & some estrogen

39 39 Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian Cycle l At puberty hypothalamus releases GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone) l Stimulates release of FSH (follicular- stimulating hormone) & LH (luteinizing hormone) –stimulate growth of follicle

40 40 Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian Cycle l Estrogen & progesterone release cause negative feedback or inhibitory effect on release of LH & FSH from anterior pituitary

41 41 Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle l 3 stages

42 42 Menstrual Phase l Thick functional layer of uterine endometrium becomes detached l Bleeding for 3 - 5 days l Passes through vagina l Menstrual flow l 50 - 150 ml of blood lost

43 43 Proliferative Phase l Days 6 - 14 l Estrogen causes endometrium repair l Mucosa becomes velvety, thick, & well vascularized l Cervical mucus thins to form channels that aid movement of sperm into uterus l Ovulation occurs

44 44 Secretory Phase l Days 15 - 28 l Increased level of progesterone l Uterus ready for implantation of embryo l Cervical plug forms blocks sperm & keeps uterus private if embryo implants l No fertilization endometrial cells die

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