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Asthma. Asthma - Characteristics Disease of the respiratory system Due to: –spasm of bronchial smooth muscles, inflammation of bronchial wall, increase.

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Presentation on theme: "Asthma. Asthma - Characteristics Disease of the respiratory system Due to: –spasm of bronchial smooth muscles, inflammation of bronchial wall, increase."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asthma

2 Asthma - Characteristics Disease of the respiratory system Due to: –spasm of bronchial smooth muscles, inflammation of bronchial wall, increase mucous secretion –Stimuli - allergies, colds, viral infections, smoking, psych. stress, exercise Is not a progressive disease

3 Signs & Symptoms of Asthma Attack tight chest wheezing coughing rapid, shallow breathing anxiety tachycardia pale color lack of endurance

4 Exercise Induced Asthma Onset of S/S w/in 30 min. post exercise Prevention of symptoms –know environmental conditions –warm-up gradually & cool down –use a bronchodilator

5 Treatment for Asthma Attack Calm the patient Controlled breathing Drink water Medications –Bronchodilators –Corticosteroids –Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

6 Medications - Bronchodilators Stimulate Beta 2 receptors - causes dilation of bronchials Decrease smooth muscle spasm For an acute asthma attack **Long term / excessive use causes hyper responsiveness

7 Bronchodilators - Examples Administration - Inhalation (Albuterol) Proventil (Piributerol) MaxAir (Salmeterol) Serevent (Epinephrine) Primatene Mist (Theophylline) TheoDur, SlowBid –decrease release of prostaglandins Side effects - nausea, mental confusion, irritability, restlessness

8 Medications - Corticosteroids Use prophylactically before asthma attack to decrease release of prostaglandins, decrease responsiveness of smooth muscles in airways Has no effect on an acute attack

9 Corticosteroids - Examples Administration - Inhalation, Ingestion (Dexamethasone) Decadron (Cromolyn) Intal, NasalCrom Azmacort Tilade Vanceril Flonase – allergy corticosteroid

10 Medications - Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Prevents spasm and swelling within the bronchial smooth muscles –Leukotrienes cause constriction of airways & promote mucous secretions Examples –Singulair –Accolate

11 Proper use of an inhaler

12 Diabetes

13 What is diabetes? A disease which involves the production or function of insulin Normal blood sugar level = 80-90mg/100 ml blood

14 Diabetes - Types Type II, Non-Insulin Dependent, Adult Onset 90% of all cases Predisposing factor – obesity, heredity Pancreas still produces insulin Symptoms usually controlled by diet & exercise Oral Antidiabetic Drugs - stimulates pancreas to produce insulin –Amaryl Glimepiride –Glucophage –Avandia

15 Diabetes - Types Type I, Insulin Dependent, Juvenile Onset Onset before age 30 Pancreas does not produce insulin Must take insulin - type & dosage determined by severity & Dr. Administration –Injection –Implant pumps

16 Effects of exercise on diabetes Decreases need for insulin

17 Associated Conditions Diabetic Coma –blood sugar elevated –develops over days –S/S - thirst, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, mental confusion, loss of consciousness Ketoacidosis –Rx. - call 911, insulin

18 Associated Conditions Insulin Shock (Hypoglycemia) –blood sugar level too low –develops rapidly –S/S - physical weakness, moist pale skin, headache, tachycardia, fatigue, hunger, anxiety –Rx. - eat sugar, candy, fruit juice, crackers, –Prevention - eat before practice


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