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Presentation on theme: "Asthma."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asthma

2 Asthma - Characteristics
Disease of the respiratory system Due to: spasm of bronchial smooth muscles, inflammation of bronchial wall, increase mucous secretion Stimuli - allergies, colds, viral infections, smoking, psych. stress, exercise Is not a progressive disease

3 Signs & Symptoms of Asthma Attack
tight chest wheezing coughing rapid, shallow breathing anxiety tachycardia pale color lack of endurance

4 Exercise Induced Asthma
Onset of S/S w/in 30 min. post exercise Prevention of symptoms know environmental conditions warm-up gradually & cool down use a bronchodilator

5 Treatment for Asthma Attack
Calm the patient Controlled breathing Drink water Medications Bronchodilators Corticosteroids Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

6 Medications - Bronchodilators
Stimulate Beta2 receptors - causes dilation of bronchials Decrease smooth muscle spasm For an acute asthma attack **Long term / excessive use causes hyper responsiveness

7 Bronchodilators - Examples
Administration - Inhalation (Albuterol) Proventil (Piributerol) MaxAir (Salmeterol) Serevent (Epinephrine) Primatene Mist (Theophylline) TheoDur, SlowBid decrease release of prostaglandins Side effects - nausea, mental confusion, irritability, restlessness

8 Medications - Corticosteroids
Use prophylactically before asthma attack to decrease release of prostaglandins, decrease responsiveness of smooth muscles in airways Has no effect on an acute attack

9 Corticosteroids - Examples
Administration - Inhalation, Ingestion (Dexamethasone) Decadron (Cromolyn) Intal, NasalCrom Azmacort Tilade Vanceril Flonase – allergy corticosteroid

10 Medications - Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists
Prevents spasm and swelling within the bronchial smooth muscles Leukotrienes cause constriction of airways & promote mucous secretions Examples Singulair Accolate

11 Proper use of an inhaler

12 Diabetes

13 What is diabetes? A disease which involves the production or function of insulin Normal blood sugar level = mg/100 ml blood

14 Diabetes - Types Type II, Non-Insulin Dependent, Adult Onset
90% of all cases Predisposing factor – obesity, heredity Pancreas still produces insulin Symptoms usually controlled by diet & exercise Oral Antidiabetic Drugs - stimulates pancreas to produce insulin Amaryl Glimepiride Glucophage Avandia

15 Diabetes - Types Type I, Insulin Dependent, Juvenile Onset
Onset before age 30 Pancreas does not produce insulin Must take insulin - type & dosage determined by severity & Dr. Administration Injection Implant pumps

16 Effects of exercise on diabetes
Decreases need for insulin

17 Associated Conditions
Diabetic Coma blood sugar elevated develops over days S/S - thirst, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, mental confusion, loss of consciousness Ketoacidosis Rx. - call 911, insulin

18 Associated Conditions
Insulin Shock (Hypoglycemia) blood sugar level too low develops rapidly S/S - physical weakness, moist pale skin, headache, tachycardia, fatigue, hunger, anxiety Rx. - eat sugar, candy, fruit juice, crackers, Prevention - eat before practice

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