2IntroductionImprovement in the athlete’s condition is the factor most responsible for enhanced performance.Maximum physical and mental fitness requires training of the whole body, including every tissue and cell.This conditioning helps the athlete compete effectively, prevents injuries, and speeds recovery following injuries.
3General Guidelines Safety is always the primary concern. Always consult a physician before beginning any conditioning program.Allow proper rest intervals between exercise.Program must be balanced in order to prevent injury and overuse.
5Benefits of Strength Training Increased physical capacity.Physical appearance.Metabolic functionDecrease injury risk
6Factors in Strength Training GenderQuantity not quality (testosterone)AgeLess effort to make gains when youngerLimb LengthGenetically determined, biomechanical advantage
7Factors in Strength Training Muscle LengthStronger at slightly longer lengthTendon InsertionGenetically determined, biomechanical advantageMuscle Fiber TypeFast twitch vs. Slow twitch – geneticsMotor Learning Ability
8Principles of Strength Training OverloadStrength, power, & endurance of muscle can only increase when a muscle performs workloads greater than those previously encountered.To improve, the system must be progressively and gradually challenged or placed under additional stress.
9Principles of Strength Training Overload . . .Overload might be achieved by increasing theResistanceRepetitions or setsRate (intensity) of work or exerciseDuration of work or exerciseLevel should be used so that the workload is difficult enough that the final set is difficult to complete.
10Principles of Strength Training Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)Overloads muscles, but does so in a progressive, gradual manner avoiding overtraining and fatigue.Specificity (SAID – Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands)Training must be relevant to the demands of the sport.
11Principles of Strength Training Specificity . . .Effects of the conditioning program are specific to the type of stress applied and to the particular system of the body that is exercised.“If the body is placed under stress of varying intensities and durations, it attempts to overcome the stress by adapting specifically to the imposed demands” (Allman 1974).
12Principles of Strength Training Specificity . . .Stress should not be so severe as to prevent the body from being able to cope or adapt.Training should –Work the muscles involved in the sport in a manner resembling the movements to be performed during the activity.Develop the predominant energy system.
13Principles of Strength Training IntensityThe degree of work or effort exerted.DurationThe time necessary to complete the desired exercise.FrequencyThe number of workouts per week.Reversibility“If you don’t use it, you lose it”Muscles atrophy from disuse and will detrain if not consistently trained.
14PeriodizationThe concept of diving the annual training plan into smaller segments, phases, or cycles.The goal is to improve athletic performance.Allow the athlete to “peak” during the competitive season.Helps to decrease the possibility of overtraining by varying exercise selection, intensity, volume, and load.
15Periodization Phases Pre-season (Preparatory) Phase High volume, low intensity workouts.Focus on proper technique and provide foundation.Power & strength workouts introduced during second half of this phase.In-season (Competitive) PhaseFocus on technique.High intensity technique exercises during brief workouts.Bring performance to “peak”.
16Periodization Phases . . . Post-season (Transition) Phase Active rest, where the athlete should engage in recreational physical activity so that a psychological as well as physiological break can occur.Active rest consists of low volume work and low to moderate intensity work.
17Strength Training Terminology RepetitionPerforming the exercise one time.SetGrouping of exercises into a number of repetitions.ResistanceThe opposing force to a muscle contraction.One Repetition MaximumThe maximum resistance that can be moved in one time through a full range of motion.
18Strength Training Terminology Exercise OrderLarger muscles should be exercised first (back, legs, chest).Smaller muscles should be exercised last (biceps, triceps, abdominals).
19Exercise SelectionSelect at least one exercise for each major muscle group for comprehensive development and balance.Power = rapid movementsEndurance = slow, deliberate movements; low resistance & high repetitions.Increase size & strength = high resistance & low repetitions.
20Exercise SelectionNumber of sets & reps determined by goals and tolerance (commonly 3 sets with 1-3 minute rest breaks between).Perform each exercise through a full joint range of motion.Progressive resistance is required for continual increase.Adequate rest between sessions.
21Muscle Training Prescription Muscle strength, power, and endurance development should begin at least 6-8 weeks prior to the competitive season.A maintenance program of 1 day per week throughout the season maintains the gains made in the preseason period.
22Strength Training Considerations MistakesNot using proper technique.Lift larger weights than have strength for.Warm-Up and Cool DownMakes strength training more effective.FlexibilityLight stretching before and after.
23Strength Training Considerations SpottingMove all loose equipment away from the area.Place body in proper position with hands as close to weight lifting bar as possible without obstructing movement of the bar.Good lifting position – knees flexed, back flat.Effectively communicate with person you are spotting.See that the bar is evenly loaded.Suggest appropriate form changed as necessary.
24Strength Training Considerations Spotting . . .Be knowledgeable about dangerous situations associated with the exercise being performed.Be alert and quick to respond.Know when and how, if needed, to guide the bar in the desired path.Know when and how much lifting is needed to complete the exercise.As a last resort, assume all the weight of the bar, but only if the person you are spotting might be injured if you don’t.
25Strength Training Considerations Muscle SorenessDelayed onset muscle soreness can occur after strength training lasting 2-3 days, generally presenting on the day following activity.Lactic acid is a by-product of muscle use and can cause the “burning” sensation felt during strength training.Seek medical attention if there is unusual pain, swelling, or if injury is suspected.
26Testing Strength Manual muscle testing Standardized Grading: Resisting the active contraction of a muscle group and comparing with the opposite extremity or an expected level.Test throughout the functional range of motion.Standardized Grading:Normal = grade 5, 100%Good = grade 4, 75%Fair = grade 3, 50%Poor = grade 2, 25%Trace = grade 1, 10%No contractility = grade 0, 0%
27Testing Strength Isotonic Weight Testing Baseline measures of strength are determined using the best score among three trials of a one-repetition maximum lift of an isotonic weight.After each attempt, a rest period is allowed.The athlete continues until he or she has lifted the maximum weight possible.
28Flexibility TrainingJoint flexibility is increased by muscle-stretching exercises.Flexibility is defined as the range of motion at a specific joint.If not fully stretched, the muscles will progressively tighten, limiting the range of motion or flexibility. Abnormally tight muscles can alter form, reduce biomechanical efficiency, and create a climate for injuries.
29Benefits of Flexibility Training Increased efficiency and athletic performance.Decreased risk of injury.Increased neuromuscular coordination.Reduced muscle soreness.Improved muscular balance and postural awareness.
30Types of Muscle Stretching Static StretchingStretching muscle tissue to a comfortable position and holding for a period of time.Effectiveness depends on the intention and time of the actual stretch.Take to the point of tightness and then just slightly beyond. Emphasis is on proper form, and no motion should be forced.
31Types of Muscle Stretching Static StretchingGeneral rule of thumb = hold for 5-30 seconds.When in doubt, less tension and more hold time are best.Stretch each muscle group repeatedly.Active Static Stretching – without assistance.Passive Static Stretching – with an outside force to assist with full range of motion.
32Types of Muscle Stretching Ballistic StretchingUse of body momentum to bounce at the end range of a stretch which causes activation of the muscle fibers.This causes the muscles to contract while being stretching in the opposite direction.Has been shown to increase flexibility, however this technique has a high risk of injury associated.
33Types of Muscle Stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)Generally used in rehabilitation for facilitating strength and increasing ROM.Contract - Relax MethodHold – Relax MethodRapid, beneficial increases in flexibility can be obtained with PNF, however it is best done with a professional trained in PNF techniques.
34General Guidelines for Stretching Stretching should always be done after a general warm-up but before engaging in vigorous activity.Repeat stretching as part of cool-down.Entire stretching program should take no longer than 10 minutes.Flexibility is specific and the exercises must be muscle and joint specific.
35General Guidelines for Stretching Avoid breath holding at all times. Breathing during a stretch should be slow, relaxed, and rhythmic.Avoid severe, painful stretching. Overstretching will defeat the purpose.Choose comfortable and effective, as well as comprehensive in stretching each of the muscle groups.
36Testing Flexibility Sit and Reach Test Good for indicating low back & hamstring tightness.Sit with legs straight, placing both feet against a box, and reach the fingertips of both hands over a ruler attached to a box.Measure in inches, either plus or minus with minus scores indicating tightness.
37Testing Flexibility Shoulder Test Ankle Test Athlete stands with arms flexed at 90°, elbows fully extended.Externally rotate both arms as far as possible.“Loose” if they can rotate their palms beyond horizontal (if little finger is higher than thumb).Ankle TestActive dorsiflexion of the ankle measured with a goniometer. 15° is normal.
38Testing Flexibility Hip Flexor Test Athlete lies supine and pulls one knee up to the chest with both arms while extending the opposite leg onto the floor.Should be able to extend the leg fully.Reverse for the opposite hip.All of these test determine tightness or looseness of muscles.Any athlete found to have a deficit should be placed on a specialized stretching program.
39Cardiovascular Endurance Most essential component to good athletic performance.Refers to the ability of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver oxygen to the tissues while removing unnecessary materials and waste.
40Benefits of Cardiovascular Endurance Reduction in blood pressure.Increase in HDL-cholesterol.Decrease in total cholesterol.Decrease body fat stores.Decreased feelings of anxiety, tension, and depression.Increased heart function.
41Cardiovascular Endurance - Variables Intensity of training activityDetermined by pulse.Duration of workoutsDetermined by present level of conditioning.30 minutes maintaining pulse at target heart rate will produce significant endurance conditioning.Frequency of WorkoutsMinimum number per week = 2.Most athletes = 3-4 sessions per week.
42Components of a Cardiorespiratory Training Program Warm-upPrepares body for training, followed with flexibility exercises.Primary ActivityShould involve repetitive motion, large muscle groups, and be maintained for 30 minutes up to 4 times per week.Cool-downAllows body systems to return to resting state.
43Intensity Target Heart Rate (220 – age) = maximum heart rate. Max HR * 60% to 80% = target heart rate.To promote speed and performance, training should push toward 80% of max heart rate.
44Intensity Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Talk Test Subjective scale based on how the person feels.Scale 1-10, athlete should work to feel their perceived exertion between 6-8 on the scale.Scale 6-20, athlete should work betweenTalk TestAthlete should be able to breathe and talk normally throughout the exercise session.
45Testing CV Fitness 12 Minute Run Test Find the average velocity that can be maintained for 12 minutes of continuous running.Can be adapted for cycling or swimming.After a couple of months of pre-season conditioning, an athlete should be able to cover at least 1.75 miles in 12 minutes.
46Testing CV Fitness Step Test Athlete steps up and down for a set period of time and the number of steps per minute is calculated.Can adjust work rate by increasing step height or cadence.
47Stages of CV Exercise Initial Conditioning Improvement Conditioning Usually lasts 4-6 weeks.Usually consists of low-level aerobic activities.Every other day.Duration should start at minutes.Improvement ConditioningUsually lasts 6-20 weeks.Rate of progression in intensity is more rapid.Duration should be increased every 2-3 weeks as tolerated.
48Stages of CV Exercise Maintenance Conditioning Occurs when the athlete has met their current goals.Generally reached between 6-12 months, depending on goals.Lower frequency, duration, and intensity.
49Safety Issues Do not exercise for 90 minutes after a large meal. Avoid exercising with chest discomfort, lightheadedness, or dizziness.Reduce intensity in hot/humid weather as well as high altitudes until acclimatized.Avoid exercise with joint tenderness.Avoid strenuous exercise during viral infections such as flu or URI, or with high body temp.
50Training Methods Continuous Training Involves continuous motion at a relatively steady heart rate for relatively long distances.Running or swimming are good examples.Continuous Slow – slow speed or pace while maintaining target heart rate at 80% of max.Continuous Fast – faster pace with earlier fatigue and less distance with target heart rate at 80-90% of max.
51Training Methods Interval Training A series of repeated bouts of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of relatively lighter exercise or rest.AdvantagesPrecise control of the stress.Systematic day-to-day approach, easy to observe progress.Can be performed anywhere with no special equipment.
52Training Methods Circuit Training Fartlek Training Series of exercise stations (4-10) with brief rest intervals between each station.Fartlek Training“Speed Play”.Alternates fast & slow running over natural terrain.Neither the work nor the relief intervals are precisely timed.
53Training Methods Sprint Training Used to develop speed and muscular strength.Repeated sprints at maximal speed are performed.Distance must be great enough to reach maximal speed.Recovery between repetitions must be complete.
54Psychological Aspects of Performance Enhancement Set GoalsReasonable but challenging and progressive.Both short and long term goals.Set up a time-line according to priority, keeping the final goal in mind.Goals should be specific and progressive.
55Psychological Aspects of Performance Enhancement Mental Imagery – VisualizationVisualize what they are going to do.Day-dreaming to overcome barriers.Mentally plan for day’s training before they begin physically.Practice seeing yourself winning.
56Psychological Aspects of Performance Enhancement RelaxationFind a dark, quiet place where you can concentrate.Minimize the distractions.