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SPECIAL SENSES ALLOW HUMAN BODY TO REACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "SPECIAL SENSES ALLOW HUMAN BODY TO REACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPECIAL SENSES ALLOW HUMAN BODY TO REACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT

2 SENSES l OCCUR BECAUSE l THE BODY HAS STRUCTURES THAT RECEIVE THE SENSATIONS l NERVES THAT CARRY THE SENSORY MESSAGE TO THE BRAIN l BRAIN THAT INTERPRETS AND RESPONDS TO THE MESSAGE

3

4 EYE l ORGAN THAT CONTROLS SIGHT RECEIVES LIGHT RAYS TRANSMITS RAYS TO OPTIC NERVE OPTIC NERVE CARRIES THE RAYS TO THE BRAIN INTERPRETED AS VISION OR SIGHT

5 PROTECTION OF EYE l PARTIALLY ENCLOSED IN BONY SOCKET OF SKULL l EYE LIDS & LASHES KEEP OUT DIRT & PATHOGENS l LACRIMAL GLANDS PRODUCE TEARS l CONJUNCTIVA MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINES EYELIDS COVERS FRONT OF THE EYE

6 LAYERS OF EYE l 3 MAIN LAYERS SCLERA CHOROID COAT RETINA

7 SCLERA l OUTERMOST LAYER l TOUGH CONNECTIVE TISSUE l WHITE OF EYE l CORNEA CIRCULAR TRANSPARENT PART ON FRONT OF SCLERA ALLOWS LIGHT RAYS TO ENTER EYE

8 CHOROID COAT l MIDDLE LAYER OF EYE l LACED WITH BLOOD VESSELS NOURISH THE EYES

9 PUPIL l HOLE IN FRONT OF CHOROID COAT l ALLOWS LIGHT RAYS TO ENTER l IRIS SPECIAL PART OF CHOROID COAT COLORED PORTION OF THE EYE MUSCLE THAT CONTROLS THE SIZE OF THE PUPIL REGULATES AMOUNT OF LIGHT ENTERING THE EYE

10 RETINA l INNERMOST LAYER OF THE EYE l MANY LAYERS OF NERVE CELLS TRANSMIT LIGHT IMPULSES TO THE OPTIC NERVE

11 SPECIAL CELLS IN RETINA l CONES USED FOR LIGHT VISION l RODS USED FOR DARK OR DIM VISION

12 OTHER STRUCTURES l LENS CIRCULAR STRUCTURE LOCATED BEHIND PUPIL SUSPENDED IN POSITION BY LIGAMENTS REFRACTS OR BENDS LIGHT RAYS TO FOCUS RAYS ON RETINA

13 AQUEOUS HUMOR l CLEAR WATERY FLUID l FILLS SPACE BETWEEN CORNEA & IRIS l MAINTAINS FORWARD CURVE OF THE EYEBALL l BENDS OR REFRACTS LIGHT RAYS

14 VITREOUS HUMOR l JELLYLIKE SUBSTANCE l FILLS AREA BEHIND LENS l MAINTAINS SHAPE OF EYEBALL l BENDS OR REFRACTS LIGHT RAYS

15 MUSCLES l SERIES LOCATED IN THE EYE FOR EYE MOVEMENT

16 REFRACTION OF LIGHT RAYS l LIGHT RAYS ENTER EYE l LIGHT PASSES THROUGH SERIES OF PARTS l LIGHT BENDS OR REFRACT LIGHT RAYS l ALLOWS RAYS TO FOCUS ON THE RETINA

17 LIGHT RAYS PATH l CORNEA l AQUEOUS HUMOR l PUPIL l LENS l VITREOUS HUMOR l FOCUS ON RETINA

18 DISTORTION l RAYS NOT REFRACTED CORRECTLY BY VARIOUS PARTS OF THE EYE l VISION DISTORTED l VISION BLURRED

19 DISEASES OF THE EYE

20 AMBLYOPIA l LAZY EYE l IN EARLY CHILDHOOD l POOR VISION IN ONE EYE CAUSED BY DOMINANCE ON THE OTHER EYE

21 TREATMENT l COVERING GOOD EYE DEVELOPS LAZY EYE l EXERCISE WEAK EYE l CORRECTVE LENSES l SURGERY l TREATMENT SHOULD BE BEFORE 8 -9 YRS OF AGE BLINDNESS MAY OCCUR IN AFFECTED EYE

22 ASTIGMATISM l BLURRED VISION ABNORMAL SHAPE OR CURVATURE OF THE CORNEA l TREATMENT CORRECTIVE LENSES GLASSES OR CONTACT LENS

23 CATARACT l LENS OF EYE NORMALLY CLEAR BECOMES CLOUDY OR OPAQUE OCCURS GRADUALLY USUALLY A RESULT OF AGING OTHER CAUSES SUNLIGHT

24 SYMPTOMS l BLURRED VISION l HALOS AROUND LIGHTS l GRADUAL LOSS OF VISION l MILKY WHITE PUPIL LATER STAGES

25 TREATMENT l SURGICAL REMOVAL OF LENS USE GLASSES OR CONTACT TO COMPENSATE FOR REMOVED LENS l IMPLANTING INTRAOCULAR LENS

26 CONJUNCTIVITIS l PINK EYE l BACTERIAL, VIRAL OR ALLERGIC

27 SYMPTOMS l REDNESS l SWELLING l PAIN l PUS FORMATION

28 TREATMENT l ANTIBIOTICS l EYE OINTMENT l ANTIHISTMINE OR STEROID DROPS

29 GLAUCOMA l CONDITION RESULTING FROM INCREASE IN PRESSURE INSIDE THE EYE l INCREASED AMOUNT OF AQUEOUS HUMOR l COMMON AFTER AGE 40 l LEADS TO BLINDNESS

30 SYMPTOMS l LOSS OF PERIPHERAL VISION (SIDE) l HALOS AROUND LIGHTS l LIMITED NIGHT VISION l MILD ACHING

31 TREATMENT l CONTROLLED WITH MEDICATION DECREASES PRESSURE l SURGERY CREATES OPENING FOR THE FLOW OF AQUEOUS HUMOR

32 HYPEROPIA l FARSIGHTEDNESS l LIGHT RAYS NOT REFRACTED PROPERLY IMAGE FOCUSES BEHIND THE RETINA l VISION IS CORRECTED CONVEX LENS

33 MYOPIA l NEARSIGHTEDNESS LIGHT RAYS REFRACTED TOO SHARPLY IMAGE FOCUSES IN FRONT OF THE RETINA l VISION CORRECTED CONCAVE LENS

34 PRESBYOPIA l FARSIGHTEDNESS l LOSS OF ELASTICITY IN LENS l RESULT OF NORMAL AGING PROCESS l CORRECTIVE LENSES READING GLASSES

35 STRABISMUS l EYES DO NOT MOVE OR FOCUS TOGETHER l EYES MAY MOVE CROSS-EYED OUTWARD UP OR DOWN

36 TREATMENT l EYE EXERCISE l COVERING GOOD EYE l CORRECTIVE LENS l SURGERY ON MUSCLES MOVING THE EYE

37 EAR ORGAN CONTROLS SPECIAL SENSE OF HEARING

38 EAR l TRANSMITS IMPULSES FROM SOUND WAVES AUDITORY NERVE VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR CARRIES THE IMPULSES TO BRAIN INTERPRETATION AS HEARING

39 3 SECTIONS OF THE EAR l OUTER EAR l MIDDLE EAR l INNER EAR

40 OUTER EAR l VISIBLE PART OF EAR l PINNA OR AURICLE ELASTIC CARTILAGE COVERED WITH SKIN LEADS TO CANAL OR TUBE EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS AUDITORY CANAL

41 l CANAL OR TUBE IN OUTER EAR l SPECIAL CERUMINOUS GLAND PRODUCES WAX CERUMEN PROTECTS THE EAR l SOUND WAVES TRAVEL THROUGH THE AUDITORY CANAL REACH EARDRUM OR TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

42 TYMPANIC MEMBRANE l SEPARATES THE EXTERNAL AND MIDDLE EAR l VIBRATES WHEN SOUND WAVES HIT IT l TRANSMITS SOUND WAVES TO THE MIDDLE EAR

43 MIDDLE EAR l SMALL SPACE l THREE SMALL BONES (OSSICLES) MALLEUS INCUS STAPES l BONES CONNECTED TRANSMIT SOUND TYMPANIC MEMBRANE TO THE INNER EAR

44 AUDITORY TUBE l EUSTACHIAN TUBE TUBE THAT CONNECTS THE MIDDLE EAR TO THE PHARYNX OR THROAT l ALLOWS AIR TO ENTER THE MIDDLE EAR l EQUALIZES AIR PRESSURE BOTH SIDES OF THE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

45 INNER EAR l MOST COMPLEX PORTION OF EAR l OVAL WINDOW MEMBRANE THAT SEPARATE INNER EAR FROM MIDDLE EAR l VESTIBULE FIRST SECTION THAT ACTS AS THE ENTRANCE TO THE TWO OTHER PARTS OF THE INNER EAR

46 INNER EAR l COCHLEA SHAPED LIKE A SNAILS SHELL CONTAINS THE ORGAN OF CORTI RECEPTOR FOR SOUND WAVES TRANSMITS IMPULSES FROM SOUND WAVES TO AUDITORY NERVE GOES TO BRAIN

47 INNER EAR l SEMICIRCULAR CANALS CONTAINS LIQUID THAT MOVES BY HEAD & BODY MOVEMENT SENT TO BRAIN SENSE OF BALANCE & EQUILIBRIUM

48 DISEASES OF THE EAR l HEARING LOSS CONDUCTIVE SENSORY

49 HEARING LOSS l CONDUCTIVE LOSS OR DEAFNESS l SOUND WAVE NOT BEING CONDUCTED TO INNER EAR WAX (CERUMEN) PLUG FOREIGN BODY OBSTRUCTION OTOSCLEROSIS INFECTION RUPTURED TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

50 TREATMENT l ELIMINATE CAUSE l SURGERY l HEARING AIDS

51 HEARING LOSS l SENSORY LOSS OR DEAFNESS DAMAGE TO INNER EAR DAMAGE TO AUDITORY NERVE l USUALLY CANNOT BE CORRECTED

52 MENIERES DISEASE l COLLECTION OF FLUID IN LABYRINTH OF INNER EAR l DEGENERATION OF HAIR CELLS IN COCHLEA & VESTIBULE

53 SYMPTOMS l VERTIGO OR DIZZINESS l TINNITUS OR RINGING IN THE EARS l NAUSEA & VOMITING l LOSS OF BALANCE AND TENDENCY TO FALL

54 TREATMENT l DRUGS TO REDUCE FLUID AND ANTIHISTIMINES l DRAINAGE OF THE FLUID l SURGERY TO DESTROY COCHLEA PERMANENT DEAFNESS

55 OTITIS EXTERNA l INFLAMMATION OF EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL PATHOGENIC ORGANISM BACTERIA VIRUS l SWIMMMERS EAR SWIMMING IN CONTAMINATED WATER l INSERTING BOBBY PINS, FINGERNAILS, OR COTTON SWABS INTO EAR

56 TREATMENT l ANTIBIOTICS l PAIN MEDICATION l MYRINGOTOMY INCISION OF TYMPANIC MEMBRANE INSERTION OF TUBES

57 OTITIS MEDIA l INFLAMMATION OR INFECTION OF MIDDLE EAR BACTERIA OR VIRUS FOLLOWS A SORE THROAT ORGANISM FROM THROAT MAY ENTER MIDDLE EAR THROUGH EUSTACHIAN TUBE

58 SYMPTOMS l SEVERE PAIN AND FEVER l VERTIGO OR DIZZINESS l NAUSEA & VOMITING l BUILD OF FLUID IN MIDDLE EAR

59 TREATMENT l ANTIBIOTICS & PAIN MEDICATION l MYRINGOTOMY INSERTION OF TUBES RELIEVES PRESSURE ALLOWS FLUID TO DRAIN

60 OTOSCLEROSIS l STAPES BECOMES IMMOBILE CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS l SYMPTOMS GRADUAL HEARING LOSS TINNITUS VERTIGO

61 TREATMENT l SURGICAL REMOVAL OF STAPES l INSERTION OF ARTIFICIAL STAPES

62 OTHER SENSES l SENSE OF TASTE l SENSE OF SMELL l GENERAL SENSES

63 SENSE OF TASTE l DEPENDENT UPON TASTE RECEPTORS LOCATED ON TONGUE l FOUR MAIN TASTES SWEET & SALTY TIP OF TONGUE SOUR SIDES OF TONGUE BITTER BACK OF TONGUE

64 SENSE OF SMELL l OLFACTORY RECEPTORS UPPER PART OF THE NASAL CAVITY l IMPULSES FROM RECEPTORS CARRIED TO BRAIN BY OLFACTORY NERVE l CLOSELY RELATED TO SENSE OF TASTE

65 GENERAL SENSES l LOCATED ALL THROUGHOUT THE BODY l SENSE RECEPTORS PRESSURE HEAT COLD TOUCH PAIN

66 MESSAGE l RECEPTORS ALLOW HUMAN BODY TO RESPOND TO ITS ENVIRONMENT l HELPS BODY REACT TO CONDITIONS THAT COULD CAUSE INJURY

67 THE END


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