Presentation on theme: "The History of Healthcare"— Presentation transcript:
1The History of Healthcare Health Science Technology
2Ancient Times Prevention of injury from predators Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits
3Ancient Times Herbs and plants were used as medicine. Examples: Digitalis from foxglove plantsThen, leaves were chewed to strengthen and slow heartNow, administered by pills, IV, or injections
4Ancient Times Herbs and plants were used as medicine. Examples: Quinine from bark of cinchona treeControls fever and muscle spasmsUsed to treat malaria
5Ancient Times Herbs and plants were used as medicine. Examples: Belladonna and atropine from poisonous nightshade plantRelieves muscle spasms especially gastrointestinal (GI)Morphine from opium poppyRelieves severe pain
6Egyptians Earliest to keep accurate health records Superstitious Called upon godsIdentified certain diseasesPharaohs kept many specialists
7Egyptians Priests were the doctors Temples were places of worship, medical schools, and hospitals.Only the priests could read the medical knowledge from the god, Thoth.
8Egyptians Magicians were also healers. Believed demons caused disease. Prescriptions were written on papyrus.
9Egyptians Embalming Done by special priests (NOT the doctor priests) Advanced the knowledge of anatomyStrong antiseptics used to prevent decayGauze similar to today’s surgical gauze
10Egyptians Research on mummies has revealed the existence of diseases: ArthritisKidney stonesArteriosclerosis
11Egyptians Some medical practices still used today. Enemas Circumcision (4000 BC) preceded marriageClosing woundsSetting fractures
12Egyptians Eye of Horus 5000 years ago Magic eye Amulet to guard against disease, suffering, and evilHistory: Horus lost vision in attack by Seth; mother (Isis) called on Thoth for help; eye restoredEvolved into modern day Rx sign
13Jewish Medicine Avoided medical practice Concentrated on health rules concerning food, cleanliness, and quarantineMoses: pre-Hippocratic medical practiceBanned quackery (God was the only physician)enforced Day of Rest
14Greek Medicine First to study causes of diseases Research helped eliminate superstitions.Sanitary practices were associated with the spread of disease.
15Greek Medicine Hippocrates No dissection, only observations Took careful notes of signs/symptoms of diseasesDisease was not caused by supernatural forces.Father of MedicineWrote standards of ethics; the basis for today’s medical ethics
16Greek Medicine Aesculapius Staff and serpent symbol of medicine Temples built in his honor because the first true clinics and hospitals
17Roman MedicineLearned from the Greeks and developed a sanitation systemAqueducts and sewersPublic bathsBeginning of public health
18Roman Medicine First to organize medical care Army medicine Room in doctors’ house became first hospitalPublic hygieneFlood controlSolid construction of homes
19Dark Ages (400-800 A.D.) and Middle Ages (800-1400 A.D.) Medicine practiced only in convents and monasteriesCustodial careLife and death in God’s hands
21Dark Ages (400-800 A.D.) and Middle Ages (800-1400 A.D.) Crusaders spread diseaseCities became commonSpecial officers to deal with sanitary problemsRealization that diseases are contagiousQuarantine laws passed
22Renaissance Medicine (1350-1650 A.D.) Universities and medical schools for researchDissectionBook publishing
2316th and 17th Century Leonardo da Vinci Anatomy of the body Anton van Leeuwekhoek (1676)Invented microscopeObserved microorganisms
2416th and 17th Century William Harvey Circulation of blood Gabriele FallopianDiscovered fallopian tubeBartholomew EustachusDiscovered the eustachian tubeSome quackery exists
2518th Century Edward Jenner 1796 Smallpox vaccination Joseph Priestly Discovered oxygen
2618th Century Benjamin Franklin Invented bifocals Found that colds could be passed from person to personLaennecInvented the stethoscope
2719th and 20th Century Inez Semmelweiss Identified the cause of puerperal fever which led to the importance of hand washingLouis Pasteur (1860 –1895)Discovered that microorganisms cause disease (germ theory of communicable disease)
2819th and 20th Century Joseph Lister First doctor to use antiseptic during surgeryErnest von BergmanDeveloped asepsisRobert KochFather of MicrobiologyIdentified germ causing TB
2919th and 20th Century Wilhelm Roentgen Discovered X-rays Paul Ehrlick Discovered effect of medicine on disease causing microorganismsAnesthesia discoveredNitrous oxide, ether, chloroform
3019th and 20th Century Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin Jonas SalkDiscovered that a killed polio virus would cause immunity to polioAlfred SabinDiscovered that a live virus provided more effective immunity
311900 to 1945Acute infectious diseases (diphtheria, tuberculosis (TB), rheumatic fever)No antibiotics, DDT for mosquitoes, rest for TB, water sanitation to help stop spread of typhoid fever, diphtheria vaccinationHospitals were places to die.Most doctors were general practitioners.
321945 to 1975 Immunization common Antibiotic cures Safer surgery TransplantsIncreased lifespanChronic degenerative diseases
331945 to 1975 New health hazards Obesity Neuroses Lung cancer HypertensionDisintegrating familiesGreatly increasing medical costs