Presentation on theme: "Palliating Congestive Heart Failure – 3 things you need to know Dr. Jana Pilkey MD, FRCPC Internal Medicine, Palliative Medicine Mar 14, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Palliating Congestive Heart Failure – 3 things you need to know Dr. Jana Pilkey MD, FRCPC Internal Medicine, Palliative Medicine Mar 14, 2013
Objectives To gain an understanding of what a CHF patient experiences at end of life To employ a symptom-oriented approach to CHF To understand why prognostication (& obtaining DNR) is difficult and to list strategies to help facilitate these discussions To list services available for the palliation of CHF and how to access them
Dying of Congestive Heart Failure is symptomatic and symptoms are often poorly controlled
(Janssen, Pall Med, 2008)
Terminal CHF Severe symptoms in last 48-72 hrs prior to death ( SUPPORT study Krumholtz, Circulation 1998 ) Breathlessness 66% Pain 41% Severe confusion 15% Regional Study of Care of the Dying study (Addington, Pall Med 1995) Dyspnea 50% Pain 50% Low mood 59% Anxiety 45%
Experience of Patients Lung Cancer Clear trajectory Feel well; told ill Understand diagnosis/ prognosis Relatives anxious Swing between hope/ despair Cardiac Failure Unclear trajectory Feel ill; told well Dont understand diagnosis/ prognosis Relatives isolated/exhausted Daily hopelessness (Murray, BMJ 2002)
Experience of Patients Lung Cancer Cancer/tx takes over Feel worse on tx Financial benefits Services available Care prioritized as cancer or terminal Cardiac Failure Shrinking social world Feel better on tx Less benefits Services less available Less priority as chronic illness (Murray, BMJ 2002)
Mrs. G. M. 87 y.o. referred with inoperable critical aortic stenosis PMHx: DM, OA, MI, Previous angio with 2 stents placed, previous CABG x3 10 years ago. Experiences R sided chest pressure every few days Takes NTG 0.4mg - If no response calls 911 Pressure at rest & on exertion – not predictable Dyspnea on mild exertion & feels faint if stands quickly In ER weekly
O/E: hr 60, bp 140/110. S1 soft, Normal S2. 6/6 SEM best at base with rad to carotids Mild bilat periph edema ++ Crackles half way up lung fields bilat. JVP 5 cm ASA. Meds: Ramipril 10mg po od, Furosemide 40mg bid, Slow K, Insulin Lantis and Novo-rapid, Tylenol #3, NTP 0.8mg/hr in day, NTG 0.4 mg SL prn, Hydralazine 5 mg po od, Simvastatin 20 mg od.
1) Establish code status and care desired by patient 2) Decrease emergency room visits Devise pall care plan to be implemented at home Must include counselling, and control symptoms Do we stop or can we further optimize cardio meds? Can we add in medications aimed at symptom control?
Pharmacologic Management DrugNYHA 1NYHA 2NYHA 3NYHA 4SurvivalHospital Admits Functional Status Diuretic X ACE-I Spirono -lactone X X B- blocker X Digoxin X (Doyle et al. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care 2002)
Used for pain and dyspnea Morphine and Hydromorphone Metabolized by liver and excreted by kidneys Both can build up toxic metabolites (HM safer) Fentanyl Cleared through liver Patches very strong – not for opioid naive Given subling or intranasal: quick onset lasts about 1 hr good for incident pain or dyspnea
Evidence for Opioids in CHF small (n=10), randomized, double-blind, crossover Morphine vs Placebo in NYHA Class III/IV 6/10 patients had improved breathlessness score Cochrane review 2010 – lack of evidence in CHF All expert opinion papers recommend their use (Johnson et al. Eur J Heart Failure 2001)
Symptom Oriented Palliation Depression and Anxiety Regular assessment Exercise program Relaxation exercises Antidepressants Consider nocturnal opioid +/- benzodiazipine
Pt wants palliation/avoid ER Started: HM 0.5mg qid and q1h prn (d/ced T#3) Fentanyl 50 mcg subling q15 min x 3 Furosemide dose doubled for 3 days (didnt want labs) Care plan: If chest pain or dyspnea – nitro and fentanyl Then call palliative care nurse for further advice Continue to see her Family Dr. and Endocrinologist Will require follow up
Prognostication is very difficult in congestive heart failure – discuss goals of care early
Case Study 2. Mr. C.D. 76 y.o. Male. No prior MI, CHF, TIA/stroke Extensive Anterior Wall STEMI and acute onset CHF What is the likelihood he will die in hospital? Be dead at 6 months?
Hospital Case-Fatality Rates According to Development of Heart Failure in Setting of ACS Group HF (+) HF (-) All patients 12.0% 2.9% STEMI 16.5% 4.1% Non-STEMI 10.3% 3.0% Unstable angina 6.7% 1.6% (Steg, Circulation 2004)
Factors Associated With An Increased Risk of Post-Discharge Death Characteristic STEMINon-STEMI Age (yrs) HR 95% CI HR 95% CI 65-743.48 2.00-6.062.17 1.27-3.72 >758.95 5.28-15.205.30 3.19-8.80 Medical history HF2.21 1.61-3.042.20 1.71-2.84 MI1.69 1.28-2.22 TIA/Stroke1.37 1.03-1.84 Hospital complications Cardiogenic shock1.94 1.20-3.15 HF2.16 1.65-2.831.91 1.49-2.44 Stroke2.51 1.32-4.78 (Goldberg, Am J Cardiol,2004)
At Six-Month Follow-Up* STEMI NSTEMI UA Death5% (480/9414)6% (496/7977)4% (349/9357) Stroke1% (110/9173)1% (103/7749)1% (79/9176) Rehospitalized18% (1619/9147)19% (1501/7721)19% (1761/9150) *Excluding events that occurred in hospital (Goldberg Am J Cardiol 2004)
Phase 1 – initial symptoms, Phase 2 – plateau after initial management Phase 3 – declining functional status, exacerbations respond to rescue Phase 4 – Stage D HF Phase 5 – End of Life(Goodlin, J Am Coll Cardiol 2009)
Prognostication Very difficult to prognosticate Markers of poor prognosis (< 6 months) Liver failure, renal failure, delirium Unable to tolerate ACE-I due to bp NYHA Class 4 EF < 20% Frequent hospitalizations Cachexia (Hauptman, Arch Intern Med 2005; Ward, Heart 2002)
CCORT Risk Assessment Model
The predicted effects of adding medications and an ICD for a heart failure patient with an annual mortality of 20% and a mean survival of 4.1 years at baseline. Adding the above meds increases the mean survival by 5.6 years Estimates 1,2 and 5 year survivals Levy, Circulation, 2006
Left Ventricular Assist Device as Destination Therapy Rematch study: Improved survival and quality of life in NYHA Class 4 patients ineligible for transplant (NEJM 2001) Newer studies show a 50-60% survival at 2 years with new devices, better surgical techniques and a multidisciplinary approach (JACC 2012)
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators and Pacemakers Leave Pacemakers intact Turn off/disable ICDs 73% - no discussion about turning off prior to last hours 8% - receive shocks minutes before death Inform Funeral Home Inform Funeral Home Plan ahead ! Plan ahead ! (Goldstein, Ann Intern Med 2004)
Initiating medical treatment 3-4 months into any treatment When medical condition deteriorates Acute medical or surgical crisis Decrease QOL or increase symptom burden When patient initiates When any member of the multidisciplinary team feels they wouldnt be surprised if the patient died within a year
Many people think about what they might experience as things change and their heart disease progresses. (Normalize) Have you thought about this? Do you want me to talk about what changes are likely to happen? Talking early allows patients to make own decisions
Palliative Care services are available & often underutilized for cardiac deaths
Issues in Palliative Care Lack support networks & communication Prognostication difficult DNR difficult issue Written on 5% (47% in Ca, 52% in AIDS) Wanted by pt in 23- 25% Incorrectly Perceived by 25% of physicians 40% rescind Only 4% of CHF on palliative care programs (Gibbs, Heart 2002 & Krumholz, Circulation 1998)
Group meets every 6 weeks to discuss palliative cardiology patients Team consists of cardio and pall care MDs and CNSs Discuss referrals for end of life care, and symptom management
When Should I Palliate? Prognosis poor (<6 mo) Difficulty controlling symptoms Actively dying Patient requests Call anytime with questions
The Canadian Virtual Hospice provides support and personalized information about palliative and end-of-life care to patients, family members and health care providers. www.virtualhospice.ca
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