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On The Energy Efficiency of Computation Mihai Budiu CMU CS CALCM Seminar Feb 17, 2004 Note: this version fixes some errors in the ASH performance graphs.

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Presentation on theme: "On The Energy Efficiency of Computation Mihai Budiu CMU CS CALCM Seminar Feb 17, 2004 Note: this version fixes some errors in the ASH performance graphs."— Presentation transcript:

1 On The Energy Efficiency of Computation Mihai Budiu CMU CS CALCM Seminar Feb 17, 2004 Note: this version fixes some errors in the ASH performance graphs shown

2 2 Presentation Setup main( ) { signal(SIGINT, welcome); while (slides( ) && time( )) { talk( ); }

3 3 Why Do We Care? Toasted CPU: about 2 sec after removing cooler. (Toms Hardware Guide)

4 4 Power and Power Density Data from Fred Polack, Intel, MICRO 32 Assuming constant die size, no power management

5 5 Power Density Distribution Chip surface Data from Fred Polack, Intel, MICRO 32

6 6 Outline Introduction Power and Energy Efficiency –data from Bob Brodersen, Berkeley wireless group Synchronous Hardware Efficiency Asynchronous Hardware Efficiency ASH Efficiency Conclusions

7 7 Energy Efficiency Metric How much computing can we can do......with a finite energy source?

8 8 Some Arithmetic

9 9 Energy and Power Efficiency The energy efficiency metric for energy constrained applications (OP/nJ) = thermal (power) considerations when maximizing throughput (MOPS/mW). JouleWatt OP/nJ = MOPS/mW

10 10 ISSCC Chips (.18 m-.25 m) #YearDescription #YearDescription 11997S/ Graphics 22000PPC (SOI) Multimedia 31999G Multimedia 42000G Mpg decoder 52000Alpha Multimedia 61998P Encryption Processor 71998Alpha Hearing Aid Processor 81999PPC FIR for Disk Read Head 91998StrongArm MPEG Encoder Comm a Baseband MicroprocessorsDedicatedDSPs #YearDescription

11 11 Energy Efficiency (MOPS/mW or OP/nJ) 3 orders of magnitude!

12 12 Outline Introduction Power and Energy Efficiency Synchronous Hardware Efficiency Asynchronous Hardware Efficiency ASH Efficiency Conclusions

13 13 Explaining the Difference Operations per second: MOPS = f clk £ N op Operations per clock Chip area per operation Efficiency: MOPS/P chip = (f clk £ N op )/ (A chip £ C sw £ V dd 2 £ f clk ) =1/(A op £ C sw £ V dd 2 ) Normalized switched capacitancePower: P chip = A chip £ C sw £ V dd 2 £ f clk

14 14 Supply Voltage, V dd MOPS/P chip =1/(A op £ C sw £ V dd 2 )

15 15 Normalized Switched Capacitance, C sw MOPS/P chip =1/(A op £ C sw £ V dd 2 ) 3x

16 16 Area per operation, A op A op = A chip /N op MOPS/P chip =1/(A op £ C sw £ V dd 2 ) AHA!

17 17 Focusing In PPC NEC DSP a

18 18 P: MOPS/mW=.13 Useful arithmetic N op = 2 (two ways) f clock = 450 MHz ) 900 MIPS A op = A chip /2= 42mm 2 Power = 7 Watts

19 19 DSP: MOPS/mW=7 4 processors £ 4 ops each N op = 16 f clock = 50 MHz ) 800 MOPS A op = A chip /16= 5.3mm 2 Power = 110 mW

20 20 Dedicated Design: MOPS/mW=200 N op = 96 f clock = 25 MHz ) 2400 MOPS A op = 5.4 mm 2 /96 =.15 mm 2 Power = 12 mW Complex MAC = 8 ops Fully parallel mapping of adaptive correlator algorithm.

21 21 Memory is More Power-Efficient Hint: use on-chip caches

22 22 Energy Distribution in P useful (includes local clock)

23 23 Efficiency and Performance V dd + ! f clock +, MOPS + Power + MOPS/mW * Better metric: Energy £ delay –Roughly independent of V dd

24 24 Efficiency and Technology MOPS / mW feature size [µ] hardwired microprocessors [T. Claasen, ISSCC 1999] DSP

25 25 How Low Can You Go? Energy required to compute is ZERO If computation is quasistatic......and no information is destroyed (reversible) Ops/nJ ! 1 Rolf Landauer

26 26 Outline Introduction Power and Energy Efficiency Synchronous Hardware Efficiency Asynchronous Hardware Efficiency ASH Efficiency Conclusions

27 27 Lutonium Performance Asynchronous microcontroller Designed and implemented at Caltech 0.18 m technology 1.8V supply, 0.4V/0.5V th 200 MIPS 1.8 ops/nJ DSP-like Alain Martin

28 28 Efficiency and Supply Voltage

29 29 Async Processor Breakdown useful

30 30 Outline Introduction Power and Energy Efficiency Synchronous Hardware Efficiency Asynchronous Hardware Efficiency ASH Efficiency Conclusions

31 31 Application-Specific Hardware C code Compiler for Application Specific Hardware Asynchronous Circuits Memory

32 32 Tool-Flow C CASH core Verilog back-end Synopsys, Cadence P/R ASIC 180nm std. cell library, 2V ~1999 technology Mediabench kernels (1 hot function/benchmark) Memory

33 33 Caveat Memory we model this part accurately optimistic speed model, no power accounting

34 34 ASH Performance

35 35 ASH vs 600MHz CPU

36 36 ASH Area minimal RISC core

37 37 Normalized Area many C macros

38 38 ASH Energy Efficiency

39 39 All Together Now

40 40 Conclusions Performance comes at a price Energy efficiency is expressed in ops/nJ or MOPS/mW Dedicated hardware is more power-efficient than microprocessors ASH efficiency competitive with dedicated hardware


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