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In Search of the Last Supper July 2009 Revd Dr Gareth Leyshon Archdiocese of Cardiff.

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Presentation on theme: "In Search of the Last Supper July 2009 Revd Dr Gareth Leyshon Archdiocese of Cardiff."— Presentation transcript:

1 In Search of the Last Supper July 2009 Revd Dr Gareth Leyshon Archdiocese of Cardiff

2 1400 BC The Exodus Community

3 1000 BC The Exodus Community Solomon builds a Temple

4 600 BC Exodus Community Solomon builds a Temple Jewish exile – Service of the Word develops

5 The Time of Jesus Big Temple services in Jerusalem at the major feasts

6 The Time of Jesus Big Temple services in Jerusalem at the major feasts Local weekly and daily services in regional synagogues

7 The Time of Jesus Jesus celebrates Passover. This is My Body, This is My Blood. DO THIS IN MEMORY OF ME!

8 1 st Century Jewish Psalm Service in the morning, Breaking of Bread in the evening

9 1 st -3 rd Centuries Jewish Psalm Service in the morning, Breaking of Bread in the evening Two services conflate to a recognisable Eucharist, celebrated in a private house

10 1 st -3 rd Centuries Jewish Psalm Service in the morning, Breaking of Bread in the evening Two services conflate to a recognisable Eucharist, celebrated in a private house Readings and preachers are not brief!

11 1 st -3 rd Centuries On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things.

12 1 st -3 rd Centuries Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen

13 1 st -3 rd Centuries There is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows... in a word takes care of all who are in need.

14 Constantine Public buildings can be dedicated for worship, modelled on Roman Law Court – the Basilica

15 Constantine Public buildings can be dedicated for worship, modelled on Roman Law Court – the Basilica

16 Constantine

17 Public buildings can be dedicated for worship, modelled on Roman Law Court – the Basilica

18

19 Constantine

20

21

22 12 th Century: Franciscans made the Roman Missal Portable! Gregory the Great ( 604) Latin text

23 Orthodox Design

24 College and Monastic Chapels

25 Jesus College Cambridge (was a 12 th Century convent!)

26 Monastic Chapels

27 Gothic Cathedrals

28 Cathedral + Choir = Long cross- shaped Church

29

30 So whats a church for?

31 So whats a church for? Gather round altar?

32 So whats a church for? Choirs sing in worship?

33 So whats a church for? Awe and adoration?

34 Intimacy vs. Reverence I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

35 Intimacy vs. Reverence 1 st 3 rd C – take the host home, use it superstitiously... I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

36 Intimacy vs. Reverence Late 1 st millennium: daily communion (but not always Mass) I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

37 Intimacy vs. Reverence 13 th Century: look at the Host but dont receive! (Easter Duties) I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

38 Intimacy vs. Reverence Mid 16 th C – Jesuits succeed in popularising monthly communion. I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

39 Council of Trent ( ) Printing Press Protestant Bibles Catholic Missals! Standard Missal – Pius V (1570) Considered Vernacular for Mass Communion: Only the Host! All kneel. Demise of rood screens! Reunion with Eastern churches – they keep their rites and languages.

40 Intimacy vs. Reverence Trent: You SHOULD receive at Mass (but people didnt) I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

41 Intimacy vs. Reverence Pope Pius X – Frequent Communion and children receive at 7. (1910) I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

42 Intimacy vs. Reverence The Dialogue Mass I love you, Jesus! My Lord and my God!

43 Vatican II on the Mass (1964) Remove duplications Restore some lost ancient elements* More Scripture Homily BASED on Scripture * Prayer of the Faithful May use the local language Know main Latin parts

44 Communion from THIS Mass Less restriction on the chalice Concelebration permitted (Right to say own Mass protected) Gregorian Chant & Organ eminent Other music permitted Rethink church building layout Vatican II on the Mass (1964)

45 After Vatican II – new Missal - Latin 4 Eucharistic Prayers I – essentially Pope Gregorys 7 th C text II – rediscovered Hippolytus (c. 250) III – new composition (reflecting II) IV – from the Eastern Liturgy The words are often from the Bible Full dialogue with the congregation May face the people. Communion standing or kneeling

46 Typical Church c. 1934

47 Typical Church c. 1990

48 ALTAR: truly central so that the attention of the whole congregation naturally focuses there ALTAR: freestanding, to permit walking around it and celebration facing the people AMBO: for the proclamation of the readings; the faithful may readily see and hear the minister CHAIR: clearly visible. Sign that the celebrant presides over the whole community. TABERNACLE: place truly noble, prominent, readily visible, beautifully decorated, suitable for prayer TABERNACLE: in the sanctuary OR a chapel suitable for private adoration; not on main altar.

49 Second lectern: does not mirror the decoration of the ambo ALTAR RAILS: Vatican II said nothing. A practical consequence of lay ministers and standing for communion First Principle of Vatican II: noble simplicity SANCTUARY: easily seen, a place,marked off, where ministers exercise their offices

50 Church in the Round: NY

51 Church in the Round: Liverpool

52 Unintended consequences... Too-much de-emphasis on Holy God? Tabernacles banished Altar rails often lost Push for communion in the hand

53 After Vatican II – new Missal – English get the gist across and also with you mea maxima culpa 1985 – Chalice totally derestricted for Wales (& England) 1985 – Communion in the Hand licensed for Wales (& England) Communion on the tongue is ALWAYS PERMITTED

54 Symbol vs. Practical What does it mean? What can we manage to do?

55 e.g. The Pulpit is reserved for the Word of God and prayers Sunday Mass – all readings and only readings in the main pulpit What does it mean? What can we manage to do?

56 e.g. The Pulpit is reserved for the Word of God and prayers Weekday Mass – the main pulpit is too remote What does it mean? What can we manage to do?

57 e.g. The Pulpit is reserved for the Word of God and prayers Nervous mourner goes to main pulpit for eulogy What does it mean? What can we manage to do?

58 21 st Century Church New translation in progress (ICEL/VC) and with your spirit mea maxima culpa 2005 Rules stronger on facing the people extraordinary ministers shouldnt purify standing or kneeling for communion? In England and Wales it is through this action of walking solemnly in procession that the faithful make their sign of reverence in preparation for receiving Communion.

59 Presentation © Revd Dr Gareth Leyshon 2009 except for photographs included as fair use for educational purposes. It may be freely used as a Catholic educational tool.


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