Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 4 – Earth’s Resources

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 – Earth’s Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 – Earth’s Resources
Earth Science

2 Section 4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources

3 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources 4.1
Renewable – replenished over fairly short time Ex: plants, animals, natural fibers, trees, water, wind, and sun Nonrenewable – take millions of years to form Ex: coal, oil, natural gases, iron, copper, uranium, and gold Increase for demand 6% of population lives in US  we use 30% of annual production of mineral and energy resources

4 Fossil Fuels coal, oil, natural gas 4.1
Hydrocarbon used for energy source Coal – forms when heat and pressure change plants over time 4 stages of development Peat – partially decayed plants Lignite – sedimentary rock called brown coal Bituminous Coal, or soft coal - sedimentary Anthracite Coal, or hard coat – metamorphic Releases most heat/energy when burned Power plants mostly use coal Surface mining – harms land Burning = air pollution (high in Sulfur  acid rain) – 1 minute 10 minutes – 8 minutes


6 Petroleum – oil and Natural Gas
Remains of plants and animals buried under ocean –floor sediments Chemical reaction occurs Squeezed and moved to permeable beds Less dense than water

7 Tar Sands and Oil Shale 4.1 Tar sands Oil Shale
Mixture of clay and sand combined with water and varying amounts of bitumen (thick tar) Occurs in sand, sandstone, shale, and limestone More resistant to flow Canada has largest deposits Mined at surface Causes great land disturbance Oil Shale Rock that contains waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming have ½ world’s supply Part of sedimentary layers Currently, it is unprofitable to mine

8 Formation of Mineral Deposits 4.1
Ore – useful metallic mineral that can be mined Important mineral deposits form thru igneous process and hydrothermal solutions Igneous process = gold, silver, copper, mercury, lead, platinum, and nickel Hydrothermal solution = gold, lead, zinc, silver

9 Placer Deposits 4.1 Settling of sediments according to density
Minerals are normally durable and chemically resistant Common in steam bends, cracks, depressions Gold = CA Gold Rush

10 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources 4.1
Ex: fluorite and limestone Used for steelmaking an d fertilizers 2 categories Building material Crushed stone, sand, gravel Limestone – used as crushed rock and stone and in cement Industrial material Limestone – manufacture of steel and neutralizes acidic soil Normally not as abundant

11 Alternative Energy Sources 4.2
Nonrenewable energy supplies world about 90% of energy May only last 170 years

12 Solar Energy 4.2 Direct use of sun’s rays to supply heat or electricity 2 advantages: fuel free, non-pollutant Passive Solar Collectors – do not move Ex: window Active Solar Collectors –circulate air/liquids thru piping Photovoltaic Cells- convert sun energy directly into electricity Ex: calculator Drawbacks Cloudy days

13 5.5 minutes

14 Nuclear Energy 4.2 Meets 7% US energy demands
Nuclear FiSSion – nuclei of Uranium-235 bombarded with neutrons and split, releasing energy  chain reaction  atomic explosion Controled in nuclear reactor = releases great amount of heat  steam  turns a turbine Draw backs Cost Hazards Radioactive material

15 2 minutes 3 minutes

16 Wind Energy 4.2 If wind in N & S Dakota could be harnessed, would provide 80% electrical energy for US Developed b/c of “energy crisis” in 1970s dealing with oil Draw backs Noise pollution Technical advances cost

17 2.5 minutes

18 Hydroelectric Power 4.2 Power that water generates Drives turbines
Produce about 5% of US’s electricity Use large dams – control water Dam can not work after sediment fills the reservoir Takes 50 – 300 years Estimated that ½ reservoirs will be filled by 2025

19 2 minutes

20 Geothermal Energy 4.2 Harnessed by tapping natural underground reservoirs Hot water turns turbines Found at The Geysers in the US Used for San Francisco and Oakland Lasts no more than 10 – 15 years, once hot water exhausted Not expected to provide high percentage of energy 5 minutes 1 minute

21 Tidal Power 4.2 In-and-out flow drives turbines and electric generator
Largest constructed is at mouth of France’s Rance River Not economical if tidal range is less than 8 meters


23 Natural Resource Website with worksheet 8 Minutes + time to work

24 Water, Air, and Land Resources 4.3
The Water Planet Water covers nearly 71% of Earth’s surface Most salt Oceans help moderate climate, inhabit marine animals, and aid in water cycle Freshwater 2 types of pollutant Point source – comes from known location Factory pipes Nonpoint source – no specific origin Runoff – water flows over land and carries pollution Oil, pesticides, sulfuric acid Can lead to birth defects, diseases, cancer, harm animals


26 Earth’s Blanket of Air 4.3 Nitrogen, Oxygen, Water vapor, and others
Helps maintain life Shields solar radiation (ozone) Greenhouse Pollution Can change chemical composition of the atmosphere Fossil-fuel major pollutant =acid rain CO2 Global Warming Chloroflourocarbons – once used in AC and plastic foam Destroy ozone Health = cough, headaches, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer


28 Land Resources 4.3 Soil, forest, mineral, and energy Damage
500,000 mines in US Essential but tear up surface and destroy vegetation Cause erosion Agriculture Stalinization – build-up of salts in soil Useless to plant eventually Removal of forests Removal of ecosystems and habitat Disposal site Landfills Done correctly – minimal impact May leak wastes into soil and ground water


30 Protecting Resources 4.4 In 1 year, the following are thrown out:
8 million TV 30 million cell phones Enough tires to circle the earth 3 times Conservation – careful use of resources Pollution Prevention


32 Keeping Water Clean and Safe 4.4
1970s – Law to prevent or decrease pollution Clean Water Act (CWA) – 1972 Requires industries to reduce/eliminate point source pollution Increase in sewage treatment plants Surface water for fishing and swimming increased Safe Water Drinking Water Act – 1974 Protect drinking sources

33 Protecting the Air 4.4 Clean Air Act – 1970
National Ambient Air Quality Standards 6 pollutants to cause health problems Carbon Monoxide Ozone Lead Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Particulates Decrease emissions from cars & power plants

34 Caring for Land Resources 4.4
Prevent pollution and manage resources Farmers Prevent topsoil loss and keep fertile soil Less pesticides Use Compost- partly decomposed organic material Loggers Selective cutting Increase sanitary landfills (replacing dumps) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act – 1976 Illegal to dump hazardous waste Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act – 1980 Must clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites Recycling – Collecting and processing used items


Download ppt "Chapter 4 – Earth’s Resources"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google