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Impact of ICT on Society: Jobs Education Crime and policing Retailing Health Business Money and banking Communication.

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Presentation on theme: "Impact of ICT on Society: Jobs Education Crime and policing Retailing Health Business Money and banking Communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Impact of ICT on Society: Jobs Education Crime and policing Retailing Health Business Money and banking Communication

2 Jobs Telecommuting: Working from home Working patterns: More flexible employment/working, more part time working More flexibility: No longer jobs for life Skills: Constant retraining needed More jobs: Computer manufacturers, delivery drivers, call centre employees, etc. New jobs: Programmers, web designers, ICT teachers, etc. Fewer jobs: Filing clerks, shop workers, postal workers; manual/repetitive jobs replaced

3 Education Teaching: Interactive whiteboards, internet, projectors Records: Details of all pupils held on file, reduces administration Reports: Produced electronically, e.g. mail merge Registration: OMR registers, scanned to update central database, produce absence lists Computer Aided Learning: On-screen learning materials, computer aided assessment Timetables: Generated by computer Letters: Mail merge not typed on a typewriter

4 Crime and Policing Credit card: Cloning – theft of card details Electronic fraud: Stealing money electronically Hacking: Unauthorised access into computers – possibly to steal money or data Software Piracy: Stealing software, not paying for licences Viruses: Programs designed to corrupt a computer system Other: Automatic number plate recognition, communication systems Police National Computer: Databases – criminals, vehicles, fingerprints, DNA, stolen property, HOLMES National High Tech Crime Unit: NHTCU – investigate hacking, electronic fraud, etc. Home Office Large Major Enquiry System

5 Retailing Barcodes: Unique identification of all items, check digit, used to search the stock control system Loyalty Cards: Identify customers details, track spending habits, offer discounts, collected data used for data mining and targetting customers Internet Shopping: Credit card payment, buy from anywhere, anytime. Issues – p&p, returns, security, trust, etc. Stock Control: Details of stock quantities, prices, restock limits EFTPOS: Credit/Debit card details sent for authorisation EPOS: Electronic Point Of Sale – read barcode, communicate with stock control system, total price, print receipt, calculate change Electronic Funds Transfer Point Of Sale

6 Health Medical Training: Simulation software, on-line data sources Pharmacy records: Contra-indications, stock Patient Records: Held electronically, rather than paper files Hospital Administration: Patient attendance, print labels, allocate beds, order food, make appointments, send letters, staff rotas NHS Direct: Web site for information on health care, treatments, conditions, etc. NHSnet: Project to connect all GP surgeries, networked to hospitals Monitoring/Diagnosis: Heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Expert systems, CAT scans

7 Business Internet: Drastically changed the businesses operate Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM): Control of the manufacture process by computer Robots: Used on production lines – repetitive/hazardous jobs, reduces human error, increases efficiency Teleworking: Fewer desks needed – hot desking, workers control the times they work, etc. Computer Aided Design (CAD): 3D designs, scale drawings, interface with manufacturing machines Other: Paperless office, teleconferencing

8 Money and Banking Smart Cards: Chip and Pin – data held on a small silicon chip rather than magnetic stripe, customer enters a pin rather than signs receipt Automated Payments: Bankers Automated Clearing House (BACS) – Credits, e.g. salary payments, etc.; Debits, e.g. direct debits, loan payments, etc. Cash Machines: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) – hole in the wall access to bank accounts Credit/Debit Cards: Magnetic stripe holds the card details which are read when swiped EFT: Credit/Debit card details sent for authorisation, from retailers or ATMs Cheque Processing: Cheques are scanned, account numbers read (MICR) to identify the account Home Banking: Customers use the internet or telephone to administer their account Electronic Funds Transfer

9 Communication Networks: LANs or WANs Connection Methods: Cable, radio/microwaves, infra-red, satellite, etc. Internet: Largest WAN, international network of computers connected by communication lines WWW: World Wide Web – collection of pages with links to other pages (hyperlinks) E-mail: Message sent from 1 person to another using computers connected to a network Tele/Video Conferencing: people in different locations communicating as if they were in the same location Fax: Sending an image of a document electronically Mobile telephones: Can send voice, image, text, data (from a linked computer)

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