Presentation on theme: "MONETARY POLICY IN ISLAMIC FRAMEWORK"— Presentation transcript:
1MONETARY POLICY IN ISLAMIC FRAMEWORK Ausaf AhmadPresentation at the Azerbaijan State Economics UniversityBakuApril 7-11,2008
2Preliminary Observations .Monetary Policy is a catch all name for monetary management, monetary control, regulation of commercial of commercial banks, and management of money market.Is multiple deposit creation possible under Islamic banking?Power of deposit creation is not with a single bank. It is with the banking systemPower of deposit creation is because of fractional reserve. With 100 percent Reserve Requirement, all money is representative money and no further deposits are created.
3CENTRAL BANK IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS Functions of central bank in Islamic economy are similar to modern economyRegulation of money supply according to requirements of the economyInfluencing the movement and direction of bank finance in desirable directionsProviding a measure of safety and ensuring prudent banking
4ISLAMIC BANKS AND CREDIT CREATION Controversy: Do Islamic banks create credit?Deposit creation through MudarabahThe Deposits never leave the banking system. It comes back to the system through deposit in another bankRole of Fractional Reserve System
5OBJECTIVES OF MONETARY POLICY IN AN ISLAMIC ECONOMY To Promote a sustained and balanced economic growth and mobilize resources for economic development.To maintain stability in the value of money so as to avoid excessive periodic fluctuationsTo maintain stability in the external value of moneyTo promote an equitable distribution of income and wealth.
6INSTRUMENTS OF CREDIT CONTROL Quantitative MeasuresQualitative MeasuresPrudential Measures
8QUALITATIVE MEASURES Margin Requirements Maximum and Minimum rates of interestsSelective Credit Controls
9PRUDENTIAL MEASURES Minimum Capital Requirements Maximum Exposure restrictionsMandatory Appropriation of ProfitsMoral suasion
10Suitability of conventional Measures Method of Credit ControlSuitability to Islamic economy1. Legal Reserve RatioSuitable2, Bank Rate PolicyUnsuitable3.Open Market OperationsModification Necessary4. Credit Ceilings5. Selective Credit Control6. Lender of Last resort7. Issue of Directives8. Moral SuasionSuitable.
11Instruments of Monetary Policy in Islamic Economy New InstrumentsConventional InstrumentsBank Rate PolicyUnsuitable1.Profit Sharing Ratio2. Refinance Ratio3.Public share of demand deposits4. Value Oriented Allocation of Credit.5.Qard Hasan RatioSuitableLegal Reserve Ratio, Credit Rationing, Selective Credit Controls, Issue of Directive, Moral Suasion
12LEGAL RESERVE RATIORequired Reserve Ratio does not involve interest in any manner.Controversy: Fractional reserve system Vs.100% required reserveApplication of cash reserve system only to investment deposits
13OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS Open market Operations are based on interest.Direct manipulation of interest rates and indirect manipulation of money supplyModification necessaryShould the central bank be allowed to buy and sell equity of companies?Mudarahah/ Musharakah/ Certificates
14BANK RATE POLICYThe bank rate policy refers to interest rate which the central bank charges to commercial banks to lend money. Through changes in bank rate, the central bank indirectly changes the quantum of credit in the economyUnsuitable for the Islamic Central Bank.
15CREDIT RATIONINGMore popular techniques in developing countries because financial infrastructure is not fully developed.A credit ceiling is allotted to each sector and to each bankBecause of its non interest nature, suitable for controlling Islamic banks.Issue of Penalty
16SELECTIVE CREDIT CONTROL Quantitative measures control volume of credit, SCC control direction of credit.May be more relevant in developing countries.Matching finance if bank finance projects in the desirable sectors.Either as an interest free loan or at a lower profit sharing ratio.
17LENDER OF LAST RESORT Loans are provided to face liquidity crises. In Islamic economy, central banks would continue to function as Lender of Last Resort.Interest free loans with or without service charge.Special Fund at the Central BankThe case of International Bank for Investment and Development in Cairo.
18ISSUE OF DIRECTIVESIn the conventional system, this is used to regulate interest rates and channel credit in the desired direction.In the Islamic system, the same directives may be used to influence profit sharing ratios.The central bank may prescribe ranges for profit sharing ratios for Mudarabah contacts and for mark up in the case of Murabaha contracts.
19MORAL SUASIONInformal contacts, consultations, meetings, to explain position of central bank on various issues.The technique remains available in the interest free system. Some economists are of the opinion that this technique may have to play greater role in the new system.
20INTEREST FREE INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY PROFIT SHARING RATIOREFINANCE RATIOPUBLIC SHARE OF DEMAND DEPOSITSVALUE ORIENTED ALLOCATION OF CREDITQARD HASAN RATIOMAXIMUM AND MINIMUM MARK UP RATIO.
21PROFIT SHARING RATIOPotentially it may perform the same role as interest rate as it may work as a signaling device.Depositors’ and borrowers’ profit sharing ratioManagement of first may influence supply of money and of the latter may affect demand for money.
22RE FINANCE RATIO AND LENDING RATIO Re-finance ratio would move in the opposite direction of cash reserve ratioTo reduce expansion of credit, refinance ratio would be lowered, to increase supply of credit, it would be raised.Appropriate changes in lending ratios would reinforce the impact
23PUBLIC SHARE OF DEMAND DEPOSITS It is suggested that 25% of total demand deposits may be diverted to public treasury. It is argued that:Commercial banks do not pay any thing for these deposits and public does not bear any risk on these deposits if they are fully insured.The share may vary in accordance with the economic conditions and objectives of economic policy.
24CRITIQUE It may encourage the governments to spend more. It may reduce Monetary Base (high powered money) and hence indirectly reduce credit creation.Lacks swiftness of responseThe proposal appears to be in conflict with the Islamic concept of property.
25CONCLUSIONAny fear of chaos in monetary management on account of Islamic banking is not well founded. There are enough tools in the battery of central bank to control commercial banking activity and achieve the goals of economic policy.