5 History of Consciousness Psychology began as a science of consciousness.Behaviorists argued about alienating consciousness from psychology.However, after 1960, mental concepts (consciousness) started reentering psychology.OBJECTIVE 1| Discuss the history of psychology’s study of consciousness and contrast conscious and unconscious information processing.
6 Forms of Consciousness Consciousness, modern psychologists believe, is an awareness of ourselves and our environment.
7 Consciousness Sensory Awareness Selective Aspect of Attention Direct Inner AwarenessWaking state
8 Sensory AwarenessKnowledge of the environment through perception of sensory stimulationEx: Hearing-allows us to be conscious of, or to hear, a concert
9 Direct Inner Awareness Knowledge of one’s own thoughts, feelings, and memories without the use of sensory organs.Preconsciousvs.Conscious
10 PreconsciousDescriptive of material that is not in awareness but can be brought into awareness by focusing one’s attentionEx: student examples
11 UnconsciousDescriptive of ideas and feelings that are not available to awarenessEx: painful memories, unacceptable sexual and aggressive impulses(Repress, suppression, nonconscious )
12 RepressTo eject anxiety-provoking ideas, impulses, or images from awareness, without knowing that one is doing so.Escape from feelings of guilt and shame
13 SupressionThe deliberate, or conscious, placing of certain ideas, impulses, or images out of awareness
14 NonconsciousDescriptive of bodily processes such as the growing of hair, of which we cannot become conscious (recognize but cant directly experience the biological process)
15 Altered States of Consciousness states other than the normal waking stateEx: sleep, meditation, hypnotic trance, distorted perceptions produced by use of some drugs
16 States of Consciousness Iceberg drawingConscious level: perception and thoughtsPreconscious level: memories, and stored knowledgeUnconscious level: immoral urges, selfish needs, fears, violent motives, sexual desires
17 Consciousness & Information Processing The unconscious mind processes information simultaneously on multiple tracks, while the conscious mind processes information sequentially.Conscious mind-perceptions, thoughtsPreconscious-memories, stored knowledgeUnconscious mind-fears,violent motive,sexual desires
18 Sleep & DreamsSleep – the irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb.Mysteries about sleep and dreams have just startedunraveling in sleep laboratories around the world.
19 Biological RhythmsBiological rhythms are controlled byinternal “biological clocks.”1. Annual cycles: On an annual cycle, geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate, and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep, and mood. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder people experience during dark winter months.OBJECTIVE 2| Distinguish four types of biological rhythms, and give and example of each.
20 Biological Rhythms2. 28-day cycles: The female menstrual cycle averages 28 days. Research shows menstruation may not affect moods.
21 Biological Rhythms3. 24-hour cycles: Humans experience 24-hour cycles of varying alertness (sleep), body temperature, and growth hormone secretion.4. 90-minute cycles: We go through various stages of sleep in 90-minute cycles.
23 Sleep StagesMeasuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages.OBJECTIVE 4| List the stages of sleep cycle, and explain how they differ.Hank Morgan/ Rainbow
24 Awake & AlertDuring strong mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast, irregular beta waves (15-30 cps). An awake person involved in a conversation shows beta activity.Beta Waves
25 Awake but RelaxedWhen an individual closes his eyes but remains awake, his brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps). A meditating person exhibits an alpha brain activity.
26 Sleep Stages 1-2During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity.Theta Waves
27 Hypnagogic state-dreamlike images that resemble vivid photographs Stage 1 cont…Hypnagogic state-dreamlike images that resemble vivid photographsLightest stage of sleep
28 Stage 2 Sleep spindles: short bursts of rapid brain waves K Complex:bursts of brain activity that reflect external stimulation(book dropping in room, or tightness of leg)
29 Sleep Stages 3-4During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps).
30 Stage 3 and 4 Slower delta waves Stage 4 is the deepest stage of sleep Most difficult to be awakenedAfter half hour we rapidly journey upward through stages and enter REM
31 Stage 5: REM SleepAfter reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state.A person during this sleep exhibitsRapid Eye Movements (REM)and reports vivid dreams.
32 90-Minute Cycles During Sleep With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases.
33 REM Rapid eye movement: Level of arousal similar to waking state but difficult to wakeIf awakened we report dreaming 80% of time5 trips through stagesREM lasts longest towards the end of sleep
34 We spend one-third of our lives sleeping. Why do we sleep?We spend one-third of our lives sleeping.If an individual remains awake for several days, they deteriorate in terms of immune function, concentration, and accidents.OBJECTIVE 5| Explain why sleep patterns and duration vary from person to person.Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./ Corbis
35 The Need for SleepDepends on genetics, personal characteristics and habits, exerciseChanges over one’s lifetime:Newborns—16 hours per day (50% REM)Young adults—8-9 hours (20% REM)Old age—5-7 hours (15% REM)
36 Functions of Sleep Sleep Deprivation: Compared to people who drink heavilyPerformance impaired: memory, attentionSleep can help us recover from stresses of lifeREM-dreams occur most frequently
37 Sleep Deprivation Fatigue and subsequent death. Impaired concentration.Emotional irritability.Depressed immune system.Greater vulnerability.OBJECTIVE 6| Discuss several risks associated with sleep deprivation.
38 Frequency of accidents increase with loss of sleep
39 Sleep TheoriesSleep Protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm’s way.Sleep Recuperates: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue.Sleep Helps Remembering: Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories.Sleep and Growth: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less.OBJECTIVE 7| Identify four theories of why we sleep.
41 NightmaresNightmares: Frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM.College students reported 2 nightmares a monthTraumatic events can spawn nightmaresFrequent nightmares more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression, or psychological discomfort
42 Insomnia Difficulty falling asleep 2) Difficulty remaining alseep 3) Waking early-1/3 Americans suffer-woman more than men-Cant force sleep
43 Apnea A temporary cessation of breathing while asleep times a night4% men, 2% womenRelated to obesity, loud snoring, drowsiness during the day
44 Sleep TerrorsFrightening dreamlike experiences that occur during the deepest stage of NREM sleep (stage 4). Nightmares, in contrast, occur during REM sleepSudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration)15 % sleepwalk (Somnambulism)Tranquilizer often helps
45 NarcolepsyA sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable seizures of sleep during the waking stateAfflicts 100,000 people and runs in the family“Sleep Attack” may last about 15 minutesDisorder of REM functioning
46 DreamsThe link between REM sleep and dreaming has opened up a new era of dream research.
47 What do we Dream?Negative Emotional Content: 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content.Failure Dreams: People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune.Sexual Dreams: Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30.Dreams of Gender: Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women.OBJECTIVE 9| Describe the most common content of dreams.
48 DreamsA sequence of images or thoughts that occur during sleep. Dreams may be vague and loosely plotted or vivid and intricateMost vivid during REMFlexible: black and white or color
49 Why do we dream?Sigmund Freud:Theorized that dreams reflect unconscious wishes and urgesBelieved dreams “protect sleep” by providing imagery that would help keep disturbing, repressed thoughts out of awarenessYet, our behavior in dreams is generally consistent with our waking behavior
50 Dreams Have Meaning Freud Dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious”Have two main functions:>to guard sleep (by disguising disruptive thoughts with symbols>to serve as sources of wish fulfillment
51 Freud continuedManifest content of dreams: the story line, the surface plotLatent content of dreams: the hidden or disguised meaning of the events in the plot, the symbolic contentProblem: no solid scientific evidence for Freud’s interpretations
52 Why do we dream?Information Processing: Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories.OBJECTIVE 10| Compare the major perspectives on why we dream.
53 Why do we dream?Physiological Function: Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways. Neural networks of newborns are quickly developing; therefore, they need more sleep.
54 Why do we dream? Hobson and McCarley Activation-Synthesis Theory: Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity.Very little emotional meaning in dreams
55 Why do we dream?5. Cognitive Development: Some researchers argue that we dream as a part of brain maturation and cognitive development.Rosalind CartwrightDreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems and emotional issues in one’s lifeCognitive, problem-solving viewDreams as source of creative insights
56 Why do we dream? All dream researchers believe we need REM sleep. When deprived of REM sleep and then allowed to sleep,we show increased REM sleep called REM Rebound
58 HypnosisA social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.OBJECTIVE 11| Define hypnosis, and note some similarities between the behavior of hypnotized people and that of motivated unhypnotized people.Hypnos: Greek god of sleep
59 MesmerismCredit for the popularity of hypnosis goes to Franz Anton Mesmer, a physician, who mistakenly thought he discovered “animal magnetism.” Some of his patients experienced a trancelike state and felt better upon waking up.Franz Mesmer ( )
60 Aspects of HypnosisPosthypnotic Suggestion: Suggestion carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized.Posthypnotic Amnesia: Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis.
61 Hypnotic FeatsStrength, stamina, and perceptual and memory abilities similarly affect those who are hypnotized and those who are not hypnotized.
62 Facts and FalsehoodThose who practice hypnosis agree that its power resides in the subject’s openness to suggestion.Can anyone experience hypnosis?Yes, to some extent.Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events?OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss the characteristics of people who are susceptible to hypnosis, and evaluate claims that hypnosis can influence people’s memory, will, health, and perception of pain.No.
63 Facts and FalsehoodCan hypnosis force people to act against their will?No.Can hypnosis be therapeutic?Yes. Self-suggestion can heal too.Can hypnosis alleviate pain?Yes. Lamaze can do that too.
64 Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness? Social Influence Theory: Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role.Divided Consciousness Theory: Hypnosis is a special state of dissociated (divided) consciousness (Hilgard, 1986, 1992).Courtesy of News and Publications Service, Stanford UniversityOBJECTIVE 13| Give arguments for and against hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness.(Hilgard, 1992)
66 Drugs Substances that distort perceptions and change mood Drugs can make you feel up, down, and move you all over the placeAlcohol is the most popular drug on high school and college campusesStimulantsDepressants
67 Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (effects consciousness).OBJECTIVE 14| Define psychoactive drug.
68 Substance AbusePersistent use of a substance even though it is causing or compounding problems in meeting the demands of life.
69 Dependence & Addiction Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance. With repeated exposure to a drug, the drug’s effect lessens. Thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect.OBJECTIVE 15| Discuss the nature of drug dependence, and identify three common misconceptions about drug addiction.
70 ToleranceHabituation to a drug, with the result that increasingly higher doses of the drug are needed to achieve similar effects
71 Abstinence SyndromeA characteristic cluster of symptoms that results from sudden decrease in an addictive drug’s level of usageEx: AlcoholAnxiety, tremors, restlessness, weakness, rapid pulse, high blood pressure
72 Withdrawal & Dependence Withdrawal: Upon stopping use of a drug (after addiction), users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal.Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).
73 Misconceptions about Addiction Addiction is a craving for a chemical substance, despite its adverse consequences (physical & psychological).Addictive drugs quickly corrupt.Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily.Addiction is no different than repetitive pleasure-seeking behaviors.Addictive drugs quickly corrupt: After taking drugs only (perhaps) 10% become addict.Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily: It can be to a large extent.Addiction not different than repetitive pleasure-seeking behaviors: Indeed. But should we stretch the concept to cover social behaviors?
74 Causal Factors Psychological View: Control or express unconscious needs and impulsesPositive effects on mood and reduction of unpleasant sensations (anxiety, fear)Those who are physiologically dependent will avoid withdrawal symptomsEscape from boredomPeer pressure
75 Causal Factors Genetic predispositions Biological View:Genetic predispositionsInherited tendency toward alcoholism may involve a combination of greater sensitivity to alcohol (enjoyment and tolerance)
76 Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups. DepressantsStimulantsHallucinogensOBJECTIVE 16| Name the main categories of psychoactive drugs, and list three ways these substances can interfere with neurotransmission in the brain.
77 DepressantsDepressants are drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They include:AlcoholBarbituratesOpiatesOBJECTIVE 17| Explain how depressants affect nervous system activity and behavior, and summarize the findings on alcohol use and abuse.
78 DepressantA drug that lowers the rate of activity of the nervous systemAlcohol most popularSedative: a drug that soothes or quiets restlessness or agitation
80 AlcoholAlcohol affects motor skills, judgment, and memory…and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness.Daniel Hommer, NIAAA, NIH, HHSRay Ng/ Time & Life Pictures/ Getty ImagesDrinking and Driving
81 Barbiturates2. Barbiturates: Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are some examples.
82 Depressants3. Opiates: Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. They are highly addictive.
83 StimulantsStimulants are drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.CaffeineNicotineCocaineEcstasyAmphetaminesMethamphetaminesOBJECTIVE 18| Identify the major stimulants, and explain how they affect neural activity and behavior.
84 Caffeine & NicotineCaffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy.
85 AmphetaminesAmphetamines stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes, with devastating effects.National Pictures/ Topham/ The Image Works
86 EcstasyEcstasy or Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory.Greg Smith/ AP Photos
87 CocaineCocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected.
88 HallucinogensHallucinogens are psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.OBJECTIVE 19| Describe the physiological and psychological effects of hallucinogens and summarize the effects of LSD and marijuana.Ronald K. Siegel
89 HallucinogensLSD: (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful hallucinogenic drug (ergot fungus) that is also known as acid.THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol): is the major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.Hemp Plant
91 Influences on Drug UseThe graph below shows the percentage of US high- school seniors reporting their use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine from the 70s to the late 90s.OBJECTIVE 20| Discuss the biological, psychological and social-cultural factors that contribute to drug use.
92 Influences on Drug UseThe use of drugs is based on biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences.
93 Marijuana UseThe use of marijuana in teenagers is directly related to the “perceived risk” involved with the drug.
95 Mind-Body ProblemNear-death experiences raise the mind-body issue. Can the mind survive the dying body?Dualism: Dualists believe that mind (non-physical) and body (physical) are two distinct entities that interact.Monism: Monists believe that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.