10Body Chemistry Glucose The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat. When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
11The Brain In the 1960’s it was discovered that hunger comes from……….. The Hypothalamus
12The Hypothalamus & Hunger Along the sides of the hypothalamus is the lateral hypothalamus: which brings on hunger.Stimulate the lateral hypothalamus and even a well fed animal will begin to eat.Lesion the lateral hypothalamus and a starving animal will have no interest in food.
13The Hypothalamus and Hunger Along the lower middle section of the hypothalamus is the ventromedial hypothalamus: which depresses hunger.Stimulate the ventromedial hypothalamus and the animal will stop eatingLesion the ventromedial hypothalamus the animal will continuously want to eat.
14The Psychology of Hunger Externals: people whose eating is triggered more by the presence of food than internal factors.
15Taste PreferencesFood taste better and we chew less when we are hungry (beginning of a meal).Food tastes worse and we chew more when we are not hungry (at the end of the meal).Its weird, the better the food tastes, the less time we leave it in our mouths.
22How do we (as scientists) find out about sex? Sex Is NaturalWe are all motivated to have sex.Without that motivation, none of us would be here.How do we (as scientists) find out about sex?We ask!!!!
23Kinsey’s StudiesConfidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s).Most men and half of all women have premarital sex.Almost all men and women masturbate.Women who had orgasms while masturbating were more likely to report having orgasms after marriage.Good Start- but major problems with his study- sampling, questions etc….
24The Physiology of SexIn the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex.382 females and 312 males.Only people who were willing to have sex and display orgasm in a lab environment.Filmed more than 10,000 sex cycles.
25The Sexual Response Cycle (Four Stages) Results of M & J StudyThe Sexual Response Cycle (Four Stages)Excitement Phase: genitals become engorged in blood (men and women) and women will lubricate.Plateau Phase: excitement peaks, breathing, pulse increases, tip of penis may exhibit seminal fluid, clitoris retracts- orgasm feels imminent.
26Results of M & J Study (Continued) Orgasm: muscle contractions all over the body, women’s contractions actually help propel sperm and position uterus to increase chances of conception. Man and woman only aware of rhythmic genital contractions.Resolution Phase: everything slows down and men enter a refractory period (which can last from minutes to over a day) where he is incapable of another orgasm.
27The Psychology of SexOnly some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex.Heiman 4 tape study.People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing.
28Can External Sexual Stimuli have adverse effects? Movies of women being coerced or forced into sex tend to increase the viewer’s acceptance of the false idea that women can enjoy it.Viewing X-Rated films can diminish people’s satisfaction with their own partners. Expectations change.After viewing attractive women or men on TV- people judge their own partners as less attractive.
29Imagined StimuliImages inside our heads can also effect our sexual motivation.Both dreams and daydreams can lead to orgasm.But fantasies to not correspond to reality- just because a women fantasizes about a man “taking her” does not mean she will want it in reality!!!!
30Adolescent Sexuality Culture About ½ of all high school kids in US report having sex- rates are higher in Western Europe but lower in Arab or Asian countries.Also change over time in the same culture: in % of women reported having sex by 18. Now that number is around half.
31Only about 1/3 of sexually active male teenagers use condoms- WHY? IgnoranceGuilt around sexNo CommunicationAlcohol UseMass Media norms of unprotected promiscuity
32We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction: Sexual OrientationAn enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender.Percentage gay, how it feels, cities, brothers.
33How is Sexual Orientation Determined There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined.Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents.Thus, it is likely that sexuality is biologically determined.
34The BrainSimon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men.However, the cluster could be socially developed or some other biological factor.
35Genetics What does this mean? If one identical twin is homosexual, the other twin has about a 50% chance of being gay (about 20% for fraternal twins).What does this mean?
36Achievement Motivation A desire for significant accomplishments; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.
37Achievement Motivation People with HIGH achievement motivation prefer moderately difficult tasks.People who have LOW achievement motivation prefer very easy or very difficult tasks.Success is attainable yet attributable to their skill and effort.Failure is unlikely of not embarrassing
38Why are some people highly motivated, while others are not? There are emotional and cognitive roots.Children learn to associate achievement with positive emotions.Children learn to associate achievement with expectations (intrinsic or extrinsic).These structures are usually set in place by parents and teachers.Strong argument for what playing a part in achievement motivation?Nurture
39Intrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
40Extrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
42EmotionsA state of feeling that has cognitive, physiological, and behavioral componentsSympathetic-rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweatingParasympathetic-behavioral tendencies toward inactivity, self-destruction, joy, grief, jealously, disgust, embarrassment (depression)
43Theories of EmotionDoes your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?
44Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)Fear(emotion)Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:physiological responsessubjective experience of emotion
45James-Lange Theory of Emotion Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuliFear(emotion)Poundingheart(arousal)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)
46Schachter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion Cognitivelabel“I’m afraid”Fear(emotion)Sight ofoncomingcar(perception ofstimulus)Poundingheart(arousal)To experience emotion one must:be physically arousedcognitively label the arousal
47Schachter’s Two-Factor (cont.) Swinging Bridge StudyWould you like my phone number?
48Reviewing the three Emotion occurs at the same time as arousal Emotion follows (lags behind) arousalArousal + Cognitive label Emotion
49Arousal and Performance Yerkes-Dodson LawPerformance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasksPerformancelevelDifficult tasksEasy tasksLowArousalHigh
50How Many Emotions Chinese- happiness, sorrow, anger, and fear John B. Watson-fear, rage, and loveOthers- larger number of emotions
51Expression of Emotions Draw these four emotions1) Happiness-2) Anger-3) Surprise4) Fear
52Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt,Shame, and guilt.Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksTom McCarthy/ RainbowOBJECTIVE 13| Name the 10 basic emotions, and describe two dimensions psychologists use to differentiate emotions.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Nancy Brown/ The Image BankMarc Grimberg/ The Image BankMichael Newman/ PhotoEdit
53Experiencing Emotion Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
54Cultural & Gender Differences Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior than in cultures that do promote group behavior.Wolfgang Kaehler
55HappinessPeople who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe how the feel-good do-good phenomenon works, and discuss the importance of research on subjective well-being.
56Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.
57Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,000Percentage very happyPersonal income
58Happiness is... However, Happiness Seems Not Much Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend toHave high self-esteem(in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractiveness
59Emotion- Lie Detectors Polygraphmachine commonly used in attempts to detect liesmeasures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotionperspirationheart rateblood pressurebreathing changes