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Presentation on theme: "Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation

2 Motivation A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.

3 Early Motivation Theories
Motivation is based on our instincts: A behavior that is patterned throughout a species and is UNLEARNED.

4 Instinct Theory Explains some animal behaviors
Explains some human behaviors Does not explain other human behaviors

5 Drive-Reduction Theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. The need is usually to maintain homeostasis.

6 Drive-Reduction Theory
We are not only pushed by our needs but.… Pulled by our incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

7 Optimum Arousal Sometimes we do not seek homeostasis.
Sometimes we seek arousal. Our needs go beyond reducing drives.

8 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

9 Hunger is both physiological and psychological.

10 Body Chemistry Glucose The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat.
When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.

11 The Brain In the 1960’s it was discovered that hunger comes from………..
The Hypothalamus

12 The Hypothalamus & Hunger
Along the sides of the hypothalamus is the lateral hypothalamus: which brings on hunger. Stimulate the lateral hypothalamus and even a well fed animal will begin to eat. Lesion the lateral hypothalamus and a starving animal will have no interest in food.

13 The Hypothalamus and Hunger
Along the lower middle section of the hypothalamus is the ventromedial hypothalamus: which depresses hunger. Stimulate the ventromedial hypothalamus and the animal will stop eating Lesion the ventromedial hypothalamus the animal will continuously want to eat.

14 The Psychology of Hunger
Externals: people whose eating is triggered more by the presence of food than internal factors.

15 Taste Preferences Food taste better and we chew less when we are hungry (beginning of a meal). Food tastes worse and we chew more when we are not hungry (at the end of the meal). Its weird, the better the food tastes, the less time we leave it in our mouths.

16 Culture and Taste

17 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which a normal weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.

18 Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high caloric foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.

19 Are these disorders cultural?

20 Body Image

21 Sexual Motivation

22 How do we (as scientists) find out about sex?
Sex Is Natural We are all motivated to have sex. Without that motivation, none of us would be here. How do we (as scientists) find out about sex? We ask!!!!

23 Kinsey’s Studies Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s). Most men and half of all women have premarital sex. Almost all men and women masturbate. Women who had orgasms while masturbating were more likely to report having orgasms after marriage. Good Start- but major problems with his study- sampling, questions etc….

24 The Physiology of Sex In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex. 382 females and 312 males. Only people who were willing to have sex and display orgasm in a lab environment. Filmed more than 10,000 sex cycles.

25 The Sexual Response Cycle (Four Stages)
Results of M & J Study The Sexual Response Cycle (Four Stages) Excitement Phase: genitals become engorged in blood (men and women) and women will lubricate. Plateau Phase: excitement peaks, breathing, pulse increases, tip of penis may exhibit seminal fluid, clitoris retracts- orgasm feels imminent.

26 Results of M & J Study (Continued)
Orgasm: muscle contractions all over the body, women’s contractions actually help propel sperm and position uterus to increase chances of conception. Man and woman only aware of rhythmic genital contractions. Resolution Phase: everything slows down and men enter a refractory period (which can last from minutes to over a day) where he is incapable of another orgasm.

27 The Psychology of Sex Only some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex. Heiman 4 tape study. People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing.

28 Can External Sexual Stimuli have adverse effects?
Movies of women being coerced or forced into sex tend to increase the viewer’s acceptance of the false idea that women can enjoy it. Viewing X-Rated films can diminish people’s satisfaction with their own partners. Expectations change. After viewing attractive women or men on TV- people judge their own partners as less attractive.

29 Imagined Stimuli Images inside our heads can also effect our sexual motivation. Both dreams and daydreams can lead to orgasm. But fantasies to not correspond to reality- just because a women fantasizes about a man “taking her” does not mean she will want it in reality!!!!

30 Adolescent Sexuality Culture
About ½ of all high school kids in US report having sex- rates are higher in Western Europe but lower in Arab or Asian countries. Also change over time in the same culture: in % of women reported having sex by 18. Now that number is around half.

31 Only about 1/3 of sexually active male teenagers use condoms- WHY?
Ignorance Guilt around sex No Communication Alcohol Use Mass Media norms of unprotected promiscuity

32 We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction:
Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender. Percentage gay, how it feels, cities, brothers.

33 How is Sexual Orientation Determined
There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined. Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents. Thus, it is likely that sexuality is biologically determined.

34 The Brain Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men. However, the cluster could be socially developed or some other biological factor.

35 Genetics What does this mean?
If one identical twin is homosexual, the other twin has about a 50% chance of being gay (about 20% for fraternal twins). What does this mean?

36 Achievement Motivation
A desire for significant accomplishments; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.

37 Achievement Motivation
People with HIGH achievement motivation prefer moderately difficult tasks. People who have LOW achievement motivation prefer very easy or very difficult tasks. Success is attainable yet attributable to their skill and effort. Failure is unlikely of not embarrassing

38 Why are some people highly motivated, while others are not?
There are emotional and cognitive roots. Children learn to associate achievement with positive emotions. Children learn to associate achievement with expectations (intrinsic or extrinsic). These structures are usually set in place by parents and teachers. Strong argument for what playing a part in achievement motivation? Nurture

39 Intrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.

40 Extrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.

41 Cultivating Intrinsic Motivation

42 Emotions A state of feeling that has cognitive, physiological, and behavioral components Sympathetic-rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating Parasympathetic-behavioral tendencies toward inactivity, self-destruction, joy, grief, jealously, disgust, embarrassment (depression)

43 Theories of Emotion Does your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?

44 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion) Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses subjective experience of emotion

45 James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

46 Schachter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion
Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Fear (emotion) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused cognitively label the arousal

47 Schachter’s Two-Factor (cont.)
Swinging Bridge Study Would you like my phone number?

48 Reviewing the three Emotion occurs at the same time as arousal
Emotion follows (lags behind) arousal Arousal + Cognitive label  Emotion

49 Arousal and Performance
Yerkes-Dodson Law Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Performance level Difficult tasks Easy tasks Low Arousal High

50 How Many Emotions Chinese- happiness, sorrow, anger, and fear
John B. Watson-fear, rage, and love Others- larger number of emotions

51 Expression of Emotions
Draw these four emotions 1) Happiness- 2) Anger- 3) Surprise 4) Fear

52 Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of
them are present in infancy, except for contempt, Shame, and guilt. Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow OBJECTIVE 13| Name the 10 basic emotions, and describe two dimensions psychologists use to differentiate emotions. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit

53 Experiencing Emotion Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis
“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

54 Cultural & Gender Differences
Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music. Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims. The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior than in cultures that do promote group behavior. Wolfgang Kaehler

55 Happiness People who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives. OBJECTIVE 17| Describe how the feel-good do-good phenomenon works, and discuss the importance of research on subjective well-being.

56 Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.

57 Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person
Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 Percentage very happy Personal income

58 Happiness is... However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

59 Emotion- Lie Detectors
Polygraph machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion perspiration heart rate blood pressure breathing changes

60 Emotion- A Polygraph Examination

61 Emotion- Lie Detectors
Control Question Up to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? Relevant Question Did the deceased threaten to harm you in any way? Relevant > Control --> Lie

62 Emotion- Lie Detectors
Percentage Innocent people Guilty 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph 50 Innocents 50 Theives 1/3 of innocent declared guilty 1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)

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