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Take out a piece of paper

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1 Take out a piece of paper
Name the Seven Dwarves

2 Difficulty of Task Was the exercise easy or difficult.
It depends on what factors? Whether you like Disney movies how long ago you watched the movie how loud the people are around you when you are trying to remember

3 As you might have guessed, the next topic we are going to examine is…….
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. So what was the point of the seven dwarves exercise?

4 The Memory process Encoding Storage Retrieval

5 Encoding The processing of information into the memory system.
Typing info into a computer Getting a girls name at a party

6 Storage The retention of encoded material over time.
Trying to remember her name when you leave the party. Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.

7 Retrieval The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Seeing her the next day and calling her the wrong name (retrieval failure). Finding your document and opening it up.

8 Now pick out the seven dwarves.
Turn your paper over. Now pick out the seven dwarves. Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy

9 Seven Dwarves Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful

10 Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise?
Recall v. Recognition With recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank tests). With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests). Which is easier?

11 Flashbulb Memory A clear moment of an emotionally significant moment or event. Where were you when? 1. You heard about 9/11 2. You heard about the death of a family member 3. During the OJ chase

12 Types of Memory Sensory Memory: Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory

13 Sensory Memory The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. Stored just for an instant, and most gets unprocessed. Examples: You lose concentration in class during a lecture. Suddenly you hear a significant word and return your focus to the lecture. You should be able to remember what was said just before the key word since it is in your sensory register. Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An image previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to the new image. Visual processing in the brain works like watching a cartoon -- you see one frame at a time. If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the beginning of a sentence in order to understand the sentence as a whole. These words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory.

14 Short-Term Memory Memory that holds a few items briefly.
Seven digits (plus of minus two). The info will be stored into long-term or forgotten. How do you store things from short-term to long-term? You must repeat things over and over to put them into your long-term memory. Rehearsal

15 Working Memory (Modern day STM)
Another way of describing the use of short-term memory is called working memory. Working-Memory has three parts: Audio Visual Integration of audio and visual (controls where your attention lies)

16 Long-Term Memory The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.

17 Three Stages of Memory Sensory Short-term Long-term
Linda? Janet? Tina? Lane? File Cabinet: People met at party This is Linda Sensory Short-term Long-term Memory Memory Memory   Storage & Retrieval Sensory Input Attention

18 Getting the information in our heads!!!!
Encoding How do you encode the info you read in our text? Getting the information in our heads!!!!

19 Two ways to encode information
Automatic Processing Effortful Processing

20 Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
You encode space, time and word meaning without effort. Things can become automatic with practice. For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you will encode the meaning of what I am saying to you without any effort.

21 Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Rehearsal is the most common effortful processing technique. Through enough rehearsal, what was effortful becomes automatic.

22 Things to remember about Encoding
The next-In-Line effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next. Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered. Taped info played while asleep is registered by ears, but we do not remember it.

23 Spacing Effect DO NOT CRAM!!!!!
We encode better when we study or practice over time. DO NOT CRAM!!!!!

24 Exercise 1-Take out a piece of paper and….
List the U.S. Presidents

25 The Presidents Washington Taylor Harrison Eisenhower J.Adams Fillmore
Cleveland Kennedy Jefferson Pierce McKinley L.Johnson Madison Buchanan T.Roosevelt Nixon Monroe Lincoln Taft Ford JQ Adams A.Johnson Wilson Carter Jackson Grant Harding Reagan Van Buren Hayes Coolidge Bush Garfield Hoover Clinton Tyler Arthur FD.Roosevelt Bush Jr. Polk Truman Dean

26 Serial Positioning Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Presidents Recalled If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would probably look something like this.

27 Short-term Memory Serial-Position Effect: Exercise 2: Quarter Lists
The tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series Primacy effect: Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items Recency effect: Tendency to recall the last items in a series of items

28 Types of Encoding Encoding exercise Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.

29 Which type works best?

30 Self-Reference Effect
An example of how we encode meaning very well. The idea that we remember things (like adjectives) when they are used to describe ourselves. Peg-word system

31 Tricks to Encode Use imagery: mental pictures
Mnemonic Devices use imagery. Systems for remembering in which items are related to easily recalled sets of symbols such as acronyms, phrases, or jingles "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums." Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Give me some more examples…. Links to examples of mnemonic devices.

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Often it will occur automatically. Exercise 3: Chunk- from Goonies GM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI

33 How we retain the information we encode
Storage How we retain the information we encode

34 Review the three stage process of Memory

35 Storage and Sensory Memory
George Sperling played one of three tones (each tone corresponding with a row of letters). Then he flashed the letters for less than a second and the subjects were able to identify the letters for the corresponding row,

36 Iconic Memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting only about a second. We also have an echoic memory for auditory stimuli. If you are not paying attention to someone, you can still recall the last few words said in the past three or four seconds.

37 Storage and Short-Term Memory
Lasts usually between 3 to 12 seconds. Can store 7 (plus or minus two) chunks of information. We recall digits better than letters. Short-term memory exercise.

38 Storage and Long-Term Memory
We have yet to find the limit of our long-term memory. For example, Rajan was able to recite 31,811 digits of pi. At 5 years old, Rajan would memorize the license plates of all of his parents’ guests (about 75 cars in ten minutes). He still remembers the plate numbers to this day.

39 How does our brain store long-term memories?
Memories do NOT reside in single specific spots of our brain. They are not electrical (if the electrical activity were to shut down in your brain, then restart- you would NOT start with a blank slate).

40 Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
The current theory of how our long-term memory works. Memory has a neural basis. LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. In other words, if you are trying to remember a phone number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of rehearsal (but for our neurons).

41 Stress and Memory Stress can lead to the release of hormones that have been shown to assist in LTM. Similar to the idea of Flashbulb Memory.

42 Types of LTM

43 The Hippocampus Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory.
Left = Verbal Right = Visual and Locations The hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which is our brain.

44 How do we recall the information we thought we remembered?
Retrieval How do we recall the information we thought we remembered? Lets Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!

45 Short-term to Long-term
Maintenance rehearsal-repetition but not effective way to place info in permanent storage vs. Elaborative rehearsal: relating new material to well-known material (meaningful) Vocabulary

46 Recall versus Recognition
I probably cannot recall the Smurfs, but can I recognize them? Lazy Smurf or Lethargic Smurf Papa Smurf or Daddy Smurf Handy Smurf or Practical Smurf Brainy Smurf or Intellectual Smurf Clumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf

47 Recognition Easiest type of memory task, involving identification of objects or events encountered before Ex: multiple choice questions Recognize photos of old classmates easier than recalling their names

48 Recall Retrieval or reconstruction of learned material
More difficult than recognition (Ex.8-Draw both sides of a penny) Recall task-person must retrieve a syllable with another syllable serving as a cue (fill in the blank) Meaningful links help

49 Relearning A measure of retention. Material is usually relearned more quickly than it is learned initially Ex: Future Psych classes

50 Retrieval Cues Things that help us remember.
Give out priming worksheet We often use a process called priming (the activation of associations in our memory) to help us retrieve information.

51 PRIMING EFFECT Priming effect occurs when people respond faster or better to an item if a similar item preceded it. For the most part, the priming effect is considered involuntary and is most likely an unconscious phenomenon. The priming effect basically consists of repetition priming and semantic priming.

52 Repetition Priming 1. Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize a face or word if you have recently seen that same face or word.

53 Semantic Priming Ms.Yen
2. Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize someone or word if you have just seen someone or a word closely associated. Ms.Yen

54 Priming Exercise 2

55 Context Effects It helps to put yourself back in the same context you experienced (encoded) something. If you study on your favorite chair at home, you will probably score higher if you also took the test on the chair.

56 Déjà Vu That eerie sense that you have experienced something before.
What is occurring is that the current situation cues past experiences that are very similar to the present one- your mind gets confused. Is déjà vu really a glitch in the Matrix?

57 Mood-Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood. If you are depressed, you will more likely recall sad memories from you past. Moods also effect that way you interpret other peoples behavior

58 State-Dependent Memory
Information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learned Ex: under the influence, mood-happy, angry, sad

59 Forgetting

60 Encoding Failure

61 Encoding Failure We fail to encode the information.
It never has a chance to enter our LTM.

62 Test Your Memory Which is the real penny?

63 Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon
The feeling that information is stored in memory although it cannot be readily retrieved Incomplete or imperfect learning May not know exact answer but we know something

64 Storage Decay Even if we encode something well, we can forget it.
Without rehearsal, we forget thing over time. Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve.

65 Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

66 Retrieval Failure The memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the memory.

67 Short-term Memory Rote learning: mechanical associative learning that is based on repetition Interference/Displace: to cause chunks of information to be lost from short-term memory by adding new items

68 Interference Theory We forget material in short-term and long-term memory because newly learned material interferes with it Retroactive vs. Proactive

69 Types of Retrieval Failure
Proactive Interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. If you call your new girlfriend your old girlfriend’s name.

70 Types of Retrieval Failure
Retroactive Interference The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. When you finally remember this years locker combination, you forget last years.

71 Motivated Forgetting We sometimes revise our own histories.
Honey, I did stick to my diet today!!!!!!

72 Motivated Forgetting One explanation is REPRESSION:
Why does is exist? One explanation is REPRESSION: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.

73 Forgetting

74 My Trip To Cheesecake Factory
You go to the Cheesecake Factory for dinner. You are seated at a table with a white tablecloth. You study the menu. You tell the female server you want Avocado Egg Rolls, extra sauce, Roadslide Sliders, Thai Lettuce Wraps, and Chino-Latino Steak (medium). You also order a Cherry Coke from the beverage list. A few minutes later the server returns with your Avocado Egg Rolls. Later the rest of the meal arrives. You enjoy it all, except the Chino-Latino Steak is a bit overdone.

75 Cheesecake factory How did you order the steak?
Was the red tablecloth checkered? What did you order to drink? Did a male server give you a menu?

76 Memory Construction We sometimes alter our memories as we encode or retrieve them. Your expectations, schemas, environment may alter your memories.

77 Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. My parents told me for years I met Guidry. I have the memory- but it never happened!!!

78 Misinformation Effect
Depiction of Accident

79 Misinformation Effect
Leading Question: About how fats were the cars going when they smashed into each other?

80 Long-term Memories How accurate? Elizabeth Loftus: -schemas
-memories are distorted by our biases and needs and by the ways in we conceptualize our worlds -schemas

81 Schemas A way of mentally representing the world, such as a belief or expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations

82 Example Loftus: Showed video on car crash
Questionnaire asked how fast the cars were going at the time of the crash “Smashed” 41 mph “Hit”34 mph Words “hit” and “smashed” caused people to organize their knowledge about the crash in different ways

83 Eye-Witness Testimony
Words chosen by an experimenter and those chosen by a lawyer interrogating a witness can influence the reconstruction of memories

84 Eye-Witness Testimony
Hypnosis-can amplify and distort memories Identification of criminals-people pay more attention to clothing rather than height, weight, facial features Improvement-describe what happened rather than pump witness with suggestions

85 Source Amnesia (Source Attribution)
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined.

86 Infantile Amnesia Exercise: Write down your earliest memory Inability to recall events that occur prior to the age or 2 or 3 No meaningful stories or connections No reliable use of language to symbolize or classify events

87 Anterograde Amnesia Failure to remember events that occur after physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma H.M.-couldn’t transfer info from short-term to long-term

88 Retrograde Amnesia Failure to remember events that occur prior to physical trauma because the effects of the trauma

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