2Difficulty of Task Was the exercise easy or difficult. It depends on what factors?Whether you like Disney movieshow long ago you watched the moviehow loud the people are around you when you are trying to remember
3As you might have guessed, the next topic we are going to examine is……. MemoryThe persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.So what was the point of the seven dwarves exercise?
5Encoding The processing of information into the memory system. Typing info into a computerGetting a girls name at a party
6Storage The retention of encoded material over time. Trying to remember her name when you leave the party.Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.
7RetrievalThe process of getting the information out of memory storage.Seeing her the next day and calling her the wrong name (retrieval failure).Finding your document and opening it up.
8Now pick out the seven dwarves. Turn your paper over.Now pick out the seven dwarves.Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy
9Seven DwarvesSleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
10Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise? Recall v. RecognitionWith recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank tests).With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests).Which is easier?
11Flashbulb MemoryA clear moment of an emotionally significant moment or event.Where were you when?1. You heard about 9/112. You heard about the death of a family member3. During the OJ chase
12Types of MemorySensory Memory:Short-Term MemoryLong-Term Memory
13Sensory MemoryThe immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.Stored just for an instant, and most gets unprocessed.Examples:You lose concentration in class during a lecture. Suddenly you hear a significant word and return your focus to the lecture. You should be able to remember what was said just before the key word since it is in your sensory register.Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An image previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to the new image. Visual processing in the brain works like watching a cartoon -- you see one frame at a time.If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the words at the beginning of a sentence in order to understand the sentence as a whole. These words are held in a relatively unprocessed sensory memory.
14Short-Term Memory Memory that holds a few items briefly. Seven digits (plus of minus two).The info will be stored into long-term or forgotten.How do you store things from short-term to long-term?You must repeat things over and over to put them into your long-term memory.Rehearsal
15Working Memory (Modern day STM) Another way of describing the use of short-term memory is called working memory.Working-Memory has three parts:AudioVisualIntegration of audio and visual (controls where your attention lies)
16Long-Term MemoryThe relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
17Three Stages of Memory Sensory Short-term Long-term Linda? Janet?Tina? Lane?File Cabinet:People met atpartyThis is LindaSensory Short-term Long-termMemory Memory Memory Storage&RetrievalSensoryInputAttention
18Getting the information in our heads!!!! EncodingHow do you encode the info you read in our text?Getting the information in our heads!!!!
19Two ways to encode information Automatic ProcessingEffortful Processing
20Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information. You encode space, time and word meaning without effort.Things can become automatic with practice.For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you will encode the meaning of what I am saying to you without any effort.
21Effortful ProcessingEncoding that requires attention and conscious effort.Rehearsal is the most common effortful processing technique.Through enough rehearsal, what was effortful becomes automatic.
22Things to remember about Encoding The next-In-Line effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next.Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered.Taped info played while asleep is registered by ears, but we do not remember it.
23Spacing Effect DO NOT CRAM!!!!! We encode better when we study or practice over time.DO NOT CRAM!!!!!
24Exercise 1-Take out a piece of paper and…. List the U.S. Presidents
25The Presidents Washington Taylor Harrison Eisenhower J.Adams Fillmore ClevelandKennedyJeffersonPierceMcKinleyL.JohnsonMadisonBuchananT.RooseveltNixonMonroeLincolnTaftFordJQ AdamsA.JohnsonWilsonCarterJacksonGrantHardingReaganVan BurenHayesCoolidgeBushGarfieldHooverClintonTylerArthurFD.RooseveltBush Jr.PolkTrumanDean
26Serial Positioning Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.PresidentsRecalledIf we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would probably look something like this.
27Short-term Memory Serial-Position Effect: Exercise 2: Quarter Lists The tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a seriesPrimacy effect:Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of itemsRecency effect:Tendency to recall the last items in a series of items
28Types of EncodingEncoding exerciseSemantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of wordsAcoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.
30Self-Reference Effect An example of how we encode meaning very well.The idea that we remember things (like adjectives) when they are used to describe ourselves.Peg-word system
31Tricks to Encode Use imagery: mental pictures Mnemonic Devices use imagery. Systems for remembering in which items are related to easily recalled sets of symbols such as acronyms, phrases, or jingles"Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.Give me some more examples….Links to examples of mnemonic devices.
32Chunking GM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.Often it will occur automatically.Exercise 3:Chunk- from GooniesGM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI
33How we retain the information we encode StorageHow we retain the information we encode
35Storage and Sensory Memory George Sperling played one of three tones (each tone corresponding with a row of letters). Then he flashed the letters for less than a second and the subjects were able to identify the letters for the corresponding row,
36Iconic Memorya momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting only about a second.We also have an echoic memory for auditory stimuli. If you are not paying attention to someone, you can still recall the last few words said in the past three or four seconds.
37Storage and Short-Term Memory Lasts usually between 3 to 12 seconds.Can store 7 (plus or minus two) chunks of information.We recall digits better than letters.Short-term memory exercise.
38Storage and Long-Term Memory We have yet to find the limit of our long-term memory.For example, Rajan was able to recite 31,811 digits of pi.At 5 years old, Rajan would memorize the license plates of all of his parents’ guests (about 75 cars in ten minutes). He still remembers the plate numbers to this day.
39How does our brain store long-term memories? Memories do NOT reside in single specific spots of our brain.They are not electrical (if the electrical activity were to shut down in your brain, then restart- you would NOT start with a blank slate).
40Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) The current theory of how our long-term memory works.Memory has a neural basis.LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.In other words, if you are trying to remember a phone number, the neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the synapse. The neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and essentially learns to fire in that distinct way. It is a form of rehearsal (but for our neurons).
41Stress and MemoryStress can lead to the release of hormones that have been shown to assist in LTM.Similar to the idea of Flashbulb Memory.
43The Hippocampus Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory. Left = VerbalRight = Visual and LocationsThe hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which is our brain.
44How do we recall the information we thought we remembered? RetrievalHow do we recall the information we thought we remembered?Lets Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!
45Short-term to Long-term Maintenance rehearsal-repetition but not effective way to place info in permanent storagevs.Elaborative rehearsal: relating new material to well-known material (meaningful)Vocabulary
46Recall versus Recognition I probably cannot recall the Smurfs, but can I recognize them?Lazy Smurf or Lethargic SmurfPapa Smurf or Daddy SmurfHandy Smurf or Practical SmurfBrainy Smurf or Intellectual SmurfClumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf
47RecognitionEasiest type of memory task, involving identification of objects or events encountered beforeEx: multiple choice questionsRecognize photos of old classmates easier than recalling their names
48Recall Retrieval or reconstruction of learned material More difficult than recognition (Ex.8-Draw both sides of a penny)Recall task-person must retrieve a syllable with another syllable serving as a cue (fill in the blank)Meaningful links help
49RelearningA measure of retention. Material is usually relearned more quickly than it is learned initiallyEx: Future Psych classes
50Retrieval Cues Things that help us remember. Give out priming worksheetWe often use a process called priming (the activation of associations in our memory) to help us retrieve information.
51PRIMING EFFECTPriming effect occurs when people respond faster or better to an item if a similar item preceded it.For the most part, the priming effect is considered involuntary and is most likely an unconscious phenomenon. The priming effect basically consists of repetition priming and semantic priming.
52Repetition Priming1. Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize a face or word if you have recently seen that same face or word.
53Semantic Priming Ms.Yen 2. Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is easier (quicker) to recognize someone or word if you have just seen someone or a word closely associated.Ms.Yen
55Context EffectsIt helps to put yourself back in the same context you experienced (encoded) something.If you study on your favorite chair at home, you will probably score higher if you also took the test on the chair.
56Déjà Vu That eerie sense that you have experienced something before. What is occurring is that the current situation cues past experiences that are very similar to the present one- your mind gets confused.Is déjà vu really a glitch in the Matrix?
57Mood-Congruent Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.If you are depressed, you will more likely recall sad memories from you past.Moods also effect that way you interpret other peoples behavior
58State-Dependent Memory Information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learnedEx: under the influence, mood-happy, angry, sad
66Retrieval FailureThe memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the memory.
67Short-term MemoryRote learning: mechanical associative learning that is based on repetitionInterference/Displace: to cause chunks of information to be lost from short-term memory by adding new items
68Interference TheoryWe forget material in short-term and long-term memory because newly learned material interferes with itRetroactive vs. Proactive
69Types of Retrieval Failure Proactive InterferenceThe disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.If you call your new girlfriend your old girlfriend’s name.
70Types of Retrieval Failure Retroactive InterferenceThe disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.When you finally remember this years locker combination, you forget last years.
71Motivated Forgetting We sometimes revise our own histories. Honey, I did stick to my diet today!!!!!!
72Motivated Forgetting One explanation is REPRESSION: Why does is exist?One explanation is REPRESSION:in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.
74My Trip To Cheesecake Factory You go to the Cheesecake Factory for dinner. You are seated at a table with a white tablecloth. You study the menu. You tell the female server you want Avocado Egg Rolls, extra sauce, Roadslide Sliders, Thai Lettuce Wraps, and Chino-Latino Steak (medium). You also order a Cherry Coke from the beverage list. A few minutes later the server returns with your Avocado Egg Rolls. Later the rest of the meal arrives. You enjoy it all, except the Chino-Latino Steak is a bit overdone.
75Cheesecake factory How did you order the steak? Was the red tablecloth checkered?What did you order to drink?Did a male server give you a menu?
76Memory ConstructionWe sometimes alter our memories as we encode or retrieve them.Your expectations, schemas, environment may alter your memories.
77Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.My parents told me for years I met Guidry.I have the memory- but it never happened!!!
79Misinformation Effect Leading Question: About how fats were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
80Long-term Memories How accurate? Elizabeth Loftus: -schemas -memories are distorted by our biases and needs and by the ways in we conceptualize our worlds-schemas
81SchemasA way of mentally representing the world, such as a belief or expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations
82Example Loftus: Showed video on car crash Questionnaire asked how fast the cars were going at the time of the crash“Smashed” 41 mph“Hit”34 mphWords “hit” and “smashed” caused people to organize their knowledge about the crash in different ways
83Eye-Witness Testimony Words chosen by an experimenter and those chosen by a lawyer interrogating a witness can influence the reconstruction of memories
84Eye-Witness Testimony Hypnosis-can amplify and distort memoriesIdentification of criminals-people pay more attention to clothing rather than height, weight, facial featuresImprovement-describe what happened rather than pump witness with suggestions
85Source Amnesia (Source Attribution) Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined.
86Infantile AmnesiaExercise: Write down your earliest memoryInability to recall events that occur prior to the age or 2 or 3No meaningful stories or connectionsNo reliable use of language to symbolize or classify events
87Anterograde AmnesiaFailure to remember events that occur after physical trauma because of the effects of the traumaH.M.-couldn’t transfer info from short-term to long-term
88Retrograde AmnesiaFailure to remember events that occur prior to physical trauma because the effects of the trauma