2Social Psychology Social Thinking Social influence Attribution of Behavior to Persons or SituationsAttitudes and ActionSocial influenceConformity and ObedienceGroup Influence
3Social Psychology Social Relations Prejudice Aggression Conflict AttractionAltruismPeace Making
4Focuses in Social Psychology “We cannot live for ourselves alone.”Herman MelvilleSocial psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.OBJECTIVE 1| Describe the three main focuses of social psychology.
5Social ThinkingDoes his absenteeism signify illness, laziness, or a stressful work atmosphere?Was the horror of 9/11 the work of crazed evil people or ordinary people corrupted by life events?Social thinking involves thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected.
6Social PerceptionA subfield of social psychology that studies the ways in which we form and modify impressions of others.First impressions are important and reasonably accurate
7Primacy and Recency Effect Tendency to evaluate others in terms of first impressionsRecency:Tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most recent impressions
8Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast dispositional and situational attributions, and explain how the fundamental attribution error can affect our analysis of behavior.Fritz Heider
9Attribution TheoryThe processes by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence one another’s behavior (assumptions about why people do things)Dispositional attributionSituational attribution
10Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations A teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution).Dispositions are enduring personality traits. So, if Joe is a quiet, shy, and introverted child, he is likely to be like that in a number of situations.
11Dispositional Attribution An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by internal causes such as personal attitudes or goalsEx: friend getting an A in Language Arts they’re good at it, they enjoy it etc…
12Situational Attribution An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by external circumstances such as the social influence or socializationEx: friend has an easier Language Arts teacher
13Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error.
14Fundamental Attribution Error When we observe the behavior of others, we apparently focus too much on their actions and too little on the circumstances that surround their actionsWe tend to infer traits from behaviorEx: woman screaming at husband in supermarket
15Actor-Observer Effect The tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional factors
16Self-Serving BiasWe are likely to ascribe our successes to internal, dispositional factors but our failures to external, situational influencesEx:Good grade on test= I studied really hard and I am smartBad grade on test= the questions were too difficult and unfair
17Effects of Attribution How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it.
18AttitudeA belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events.If we believe a person is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner.OBJECTIVE 3| Define attitude.
19Attitudes Can Affect Action Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectly because other factors, including the external situation, also influence behavior.OBJECTIVE 4| Describe the conditions under which attitudes can affect actions.
20AttitudeBehavioral and cognitive tendencies that are expressed by evaluating particular people, places, or things, with some degree of favor or disfavorLove and hateHelping behavior or mass destructionSocial conflict or conflict resolutionTend to remain STABLE unless shoved (religion and political beliefs)
21The A-B ProblemA-AttitudesB-BehaviorThe issue of how well we can predict behavior on the basis of attitudes
22The A-B ProblemSpecificity-better predict specific behavior from specific attitudes (church attendance vs. Christian)Strength of attitudes-drinking and driving vs. MADDVested interest-more likely to act on attitudes when vested interest in the outcome (dance elections or ASB)Accessibility-express attitudes when it is brought to mind or emotional impact
23Persuasive Messages Repetition-familiarity breeds content Two-sided claims-ads that admit the product’s weak points in addition to highlighting its strength are most believableFear appeal-arouses fear instead of rational analysis of the issues (smoking ads)Atmospheric elements-good food, music, mood
24Persuaded Audience Do you have trouble saying no? High self-esteem and low social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressureLow self-esteem are more open to persuasion
25Attitudes Can Affect Action Not only do people stand for what they believe in (attitude), they start believing in what they stand for.D. MacDonald/ PhotoEditCooperative actions can lead to mutual liking (beliefs).
26Small Request – Large Request Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon: The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.* Donating money to charity can lead them to ask you to go door to door for their organization next time.
27Role Playing Affects Attitudes Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudes.Originally published in the New YorkerPhillip G. Zimbardo, Inc.
28Actions Can Affect Attitudes Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance.OBJECTIVE 5| Explain how the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, role-playing, and cognitive dissonance illustrate the influence of actions on attitudes.To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957).*ex: cheating
31Conformity & Obedience Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another. We follow behavior of others to conform.Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance (obedience) toward authority.OBJECTIVE 6| Describe the chameleon effect, and give an example of it.Conformity Obedience
32The Chameleon EffectConformity: Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).
33Group Pressure & Conformity Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard.OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence.
34Group Pressure & Conformity An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.William Vandivert/ Scientific American
35Conditions that Strengthen Conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure.The group has at least three people.The group is unanimous.One admires the group’s status and attractiveness.One has no prior commitment or response.The group observes one’s behavior.One’s culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard.
36Reasons for Conformity Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection. A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected.Informative Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. If we are unsure of what is right, and if being right matters, we are receptive of others’ opinions.
37Informative Social Influence Baron and colleagues (1996) made students do an eyewitness identification task. If the task was easy (lineup exposure 5 sec.), conformity was low in comparison to a difficult (1/2 sec. exposure) task.
38Informative Social Influence Baron et al., (1996)
39Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center ObediencePeople comply to social pressures. How would they respond to outright command?Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience.Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University CenterOBJECTIVE 8| Describe Milgram’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest.Stanley Milgram( )
42Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Ash's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to follow their standards and be responsive to others.OBJECTIVE 9| Explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our susceptibility to social influence.In Milgram’s study, participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas and the experimenter’s orders.
43Group Influence One person affecting another Families Teams Committees How do groups affect our behavior? Social psychologists study various groups:One person affecting anotherFamiliesTeamsCommittees
44Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social facilitation: Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others.OBJECTIVE 10| Describe conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation.Michelle Agnis/ NYT Pictures
45Social Facilitation When others observe us we become aroused When being observed:Perform better on well-learned tasksPerform worse on unmastered tasks
46Social LoafingThe tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually (Latané, 1981).* Group projects, tug of war
47Group BehaviorDiffusion of responsibility- the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group (group projects)Inhibits helping behavior in groups or crowds
48DeindividuationThe loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.Mob behavior
49Effects of Group Interaction Group Polarization enhances a group’s prevailing attitudes through a discussion. If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes.OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss how group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink.
50Group BehaviorGroupthink- a process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions.
52Social RelationsSocial psychology teaches us how we relate to one another through prejudice, aggression, and conflict to attraction, and altruism and peacemaking.
53PrejudiceSimply called “prejudgment,” a prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups.OBJECTIVE 13| Identify three components of prejudice.
54Components of Prejudice Beliefs (stereotypes)Emotions (hostility, envy, fear)Predisposition to act (to discriminate)
55PrejudiceThe belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial, ethnic, sexual, or other features, will possess negative characteristics or perform inadequatelyConnected with avoidance, aggression, and discrimination
56DiscriminationThe denial of privileges to a person or group because of prejudiceTakes many forms including: denial of access to jobs, housing, voting booth, eye contact
57StereotypesPrejudices about groups that lead people to interpret their observations in a biased fashion.
58Sources of Prejudice Assumptions of dissimilarity Social conflict Social learningSocial categorizationVictimization by prejudice
59Reign of PrejudicePrejudice works at the conscious and [more at] the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice is more like a knee-jerk response than a conscious decision.
60How Prejudiced are People? Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality, and minorities have decreased.OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast overt and subtle forms of prejudice, and give examples of each.
61Racial & Gender Prejudice Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist.
62RaceNine out of ten white respondents were slow when responding to words like “peace” or “paradise” when they saw a black individual’s photo compared to a white individual’s photo (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003).
63GenderMost women still live in more poverty than men. About 100,000,000 women are missing in the world. There is a preference for male children in China and India, even with sex-selected abortion outlawed.
64GenderAlthough prejudice prevails against women, more people feel positively toward women than men. Women rated picture b [feminized] higher (665) for a matrimonial ad (Perrett, 1998).Professor Dave Perrett, St. Andrews University
65Social Roots of Prejudice Why does prejudice arise?Social InequalitiesSocial DivisionsEmotional ScapegoatingOBJECTIVE 15| Discuss the social factors that contribute to prejudice.
66Social InequalityPrejudice develops when people have money, power, and prestige, and others do not. Social inequality increases prejudice.
67Ingroup: People with whom one shares a common identity. In and Out GroupsIngroup: People with whom one shares a common identity.Outgroup: Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup.Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own group.
68Emotional Roots of Prejudice Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame. After 9/11 many people lashed out against innocent Arab-Americans.OBJECTIVE 16| Explain how Scapegoating illustrates the emotional component of prejudice.
69Cognitive Roots of Prejudice One way we simplify our world is to categorize. We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them.OBJECTIVE 17| Cite four ways that cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice.
70Cognitive Roots of Prejudice In vivid cases such as the 9/11 attacks, terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices (terrorism). Most terrorists are non-Muslims.
72Hindsight BiasAfter learning an outcome, the tendency to believe that we could have predicted it beforehand may contribute to blaming the victim and forming a prejudice against them.
73AggressionAggression can be any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.It may be done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end.OBJECTIVE 18| Explain how psychology’s definition of aggression differs from everyday usage.Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges from the interaction of biology and experience.
74The Biology of Aggression Three biological influences on aggressive behavior are:Genetic InfluencesNeural InfluencesBiochemical InfluencesOBJECTIVE 19| Describe three levels of biological influences on aggression, and cite evidence for each level.
75InfluencesGenetic Influences: Animals have been bred for aggressiveness for sport and at times for research. Twin studies show aggression may be genetic. In men, aggression is possibly linked to the Y chromosome.Neural Influences: Some centers in the brain, especially the limbic system (amygdala) and the frontal lobe, are intimately involved with aggression.
76InfluencesBiochemical Influences: Animals with diminished amounts of testosterone (castration) become docile, and if injected with testosterone aggression increases. Prenatal exposure to testosterone also increases aggression in female hyenas.
77The Psychology of Aggression Four psychological factors that influence aggressive behavior are:Dealing with aversive eventsLearning aggression is rewardingObserving models of aggressionAcquiring social scriptsOBJECTIVE 20| Outline four psychological triggers of aggression.
78Aversive EventsStudies in which animals and humans experience unpleasant events reveal that those made miserable often make others miserable.Jeff Kowalsky/ EPA/ LandovRon Artest (Pacers) attack on Detroit Pistons fans.
79EnvironmentEven environmental temperature can lead to aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with the temperature in Houston.
80Frustration-Aggression Principle A principle in which frustration (caused by the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression.
81Learning that Aggression is Rewarding When aggression leads to desired outcomes, one learns to be aggressive. This is shown in both animals and humans.Cultures that favor violence breed violence.
82Observing Models of Aggression Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R- and X-rated movies.
83Acquiring Social Scripts The media portrays social scripts and generates mental tapes in the minds of the viewers. When confronted with new situations individuals may rely on such social scripts. If social scripts are violent in nature, people may act them out.
84Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence? The general consensus on violent video games is that, to some extent, they breed violence. Adolescents view the world as hostile when they get into arguments and receive bad grades after playing such games.OBJECTIVE 21| Discuss the effects of violent video games on social attitudes and behavior.
86ConflictConflict is perceived as an incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.A Social Trap is a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.OBJECTIVE 22| Explain how social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict.
87A Game of Social TrapBy pursuing our self-interest and not trusting others, we can end up losers.
88People in conflict form diabolical images of one another. Enemy PerceptionsPeople in conflict form diabolical images of one another.George Bush“Evil”Saddam Hussein“Wicked Pharaoh”
89Psychology of Attraction Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction (mere exposure effect).OBJECTIVE 23| Describe the influence of proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity on interpersonal attractions.A rare white penguin born in a zoo was accepted after 3 weeks by other penguins just due to proximity.Rex USA
90Psychology of Attraction 2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity affords contact, the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance.Brooks Kraft/ CorbisBrooks Kraft/ Corbis
91Psychology of Attraction 3. Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen.Similarity breeds content!
92Two-factor theory of emotion Romantic LovePassionate Love: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.Two-factor theory of emotionPhysical arousal plus cognitive appraisalArousal from any source can enhance one emotion depending upon what we interpret or label the arousalOBJECTIVE 24| Describe the effect of physical arousal on passionate love, and identify two predictors of enduring companionate love.
93Romantic LoveCompanionate Love: A deep, affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.Courtship and Matrimony (from the collection of Werner Nekes)
94AttractionA force that draws bodies, or people, together-an attitude of liking or (disliking)Positive attractionsNegative attractions
95What is beautiful? Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder? British and Japanese-large eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jawsToday’s society-tallness an asset for men, negative for womenBody weight and shape-culturally determined
96AttractivenessMen-more swayed by physical appearance, cooking ability, thriftWomen-personal qualities such as warmth, assertiveness, need for achievement, wit, fondness of childrenUniversally appealing-good complexion, good hair, teeth, clear eyes, firm muscle tone, steady gait, cleanliness
101Stereotyping the Pretty Attractive people less likely to develop psychological disordersCorrelates positively with popularity, social skills, sexual experienceMore likely judged innocent of crimes and given less severe sentencesChildren expected to be well-behaved, get good grades, talented, popular
102Matching HypothesisPeople tend to choose persons similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationshipsFear of rejectionOpposites attract? Most likely not…(examples?)Similarity important-religion, politics, food and music tastes, children, motivation
103Triangular Model of Love Sternberg’s view that love involves combination of three components: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitmentIntimacy-couple’s closenessPassion-romance and sexual feelingsDecision/commitment-in love, maintaining relationships Consummate Love
104Triangular Model of Love Liking=Intimacy Alone(true friendships w/o passionor long-term commitment)Romantic Love=Intimacy+Passion(lovers physically andemotionally attracted butw/o commitment-summer romance)Companionate Love=Intimacy+Commitment(long-term committedfriendship or marriagew/o passion)Consummate Love=Intimacy+Passion+Commitment(complete love -an idealdifficult to attain)Infatuation=Passion Alone(passionate andobsessive love atfirst sight w/o intimacyor commitment)Empty Love=Decision/Commitment(decision to love eachother without intimacy orpassion.)Fatuous Love=Passion+Commitment(Shallow relationship suchas a whirlwind courtship.without time for intimacy todevelop.)
105AltruismAn unselfish regard for the welfare of others.Equity: A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give.Self-Disclosure: Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.OBJECTIVE 25| Define altruism, and give an example.
106Bystander EffectTendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.OBJECTIVE 26| Describe the steps in the decision-making process involved in bystander intervention.
107Bystander Intervention The decision-making process for bystander intervention.Akos Szilvasi/ Stock, Boston
108Kitty Genovese 28-year old stabbed and murdered in New York Killer stalked her for more than half an hour and stabbed her in 3 separate attacks while she screamed38 neighbors heard the commotionTwice their voices and lights interrupted the assault, each time the attacker returnedNo one got involved or called the policeWhy?“I didn’t want to get involved.”“I was tired.”“I don’t know.”
109Bystander EffectBystanders that are reluctant to help others in distressReasons:Not fully understand what they are seeing and fail to recognize that emergency existsNot certain they possess the competencies to take charge of situation and stay on sidelines for fear of looking like a foolBelieve others get what they deserveFear of getting hurting themselves
110The Norms for HelpingSocial Exchange Theory: Our social behavior is an exchange process. The aim is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.Reciprocity Norm: The expectation that we should return help and not harm those who have helped us.Social–Responsibility Norm: Largely learned, it is a norm that tells us to help others when they need us even though they may not repay us.OBJECTIVE 27| Explain altruistic behavior from the perspective of social exchange theory and social norms.
111Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works PeacemakingSuperordinate Goals are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image WorksOBJECTIVE 28| Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict.Communication and understanding developed through talking to one another. Sometimes it is mediated by a third party.
112PeacemakingGraduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party.