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Social Psychology Chapter 18

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1 Social Psychology Chapter 18

2 Social Psychology Social Thinking Social influence
Attribution of Behavior to Persons or Situations Attitudes and Action Social influence Conformity and Obedience Group Influence

3 Social Psychology Social Relations Prejudice Aggression Conflict
Attraction Altruism Peace Making

4 Focuses in Social Psychology
“We cannot live for ourselves alone.” Herman Melville Social psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. OBJECTIVE 1| Describe the three main focuses of social psychology.

5 Social Thinking Does his absenteeism signify illness, laziness, or a stressful work atmosphere? Was the horror of 9/11 the work of crazed evil people or ordinary people corrupted by life events? Social thinking involves thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected.

6 Social Perception A subfield of social psychology that studies the ways in which we form and modify impressions of others. First impressions are important and reasonably accurate

7 Primacy and Recency Effect
Tendency to evaluate others in terms of first impressions Recency: Tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most recent impressions

8 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations
Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast dispositional and situational attributions, and explain how the fundamental attribution error can affect our analysis of behavior. Fritz Heider

9 Attribution Theory The processes by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence one another’s behavior (assumptions about why people do things) Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

10 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations
A teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution). Dispositions are enduring personality traits. So, if Joe is a quiet, shy, and introverted child, he is likely to be like that in a number of situations.

11 Dispositional Attribution
An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by internal causes such as personal attitudes or goals Ex: friend getting an A in Language Arts  they’re good at it, they enjoy it etc…

12 Situational Attribution
An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by external circumstances such as the social influence or socialization Ex: friend has an easier Language Arts teacher

13 Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error.

14 Fundamental Attribution Error
When we observe the behavior of others, we apparently focus too much on their actions and too little on the circumstances that surround their actions We tend to infer traits from behavior Ex: woman screaming at husband in supermarket

15 Actor-Observer Effect
The tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional factors

16 Self-Serving Bias We are likely to ascribe our successes to internal, dispositional factors but our failures to external, situational influences Ex: Good grade on test= I studied really hard and I am smart Bad grade on test= the questions were too difficult and unfair

17 Effects of Attribution
How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it.

18 Attitude A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events. If we believe a person is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner. OBJECTIVE 3| Define attitude.

19 Attitudes Can Affect Action
Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectly because other factors, including the external situation, also influence behavior. OBJECTIVE 4| Describe the conditions under which attitudes can affect actions.

20 Attitude Behavioral and cognitive tendencies that are expressed by evaluating particular people, places, or things, with some degree of favor or disfavor Love and hate Helping behavior or mass destruction Social conflict or conflict resolution Tend to remain STABLE unless shoved (religion and political beliefs)

21 The A-B Problem A-Attitudes B-Behavior The issue of how well we can predict behavior on the basis of attitudes

22 The A-B Problem Specificity-better predict specific behavior from specific attitudes (church attendance vs. Christian) Strength of attitudes-drinking and driving vs. MADD Vested interest-more likely to act on attitudes when vested interest in the outcome (dance elections or ASB) Accessibility-express attitudes when it is brought to mind or emotional impact

23 Persuasive Messages Repetition-familiarity breeds content
Two-sided claims-ads that admit the product’s weak points in addition to highlighting its strength are most believable Fear appeal-arouses fear instead of rational analysis of the issues (smoking ads) Atmospheric elements-good food, music, mood

24 Persuaded Audience Do you have trouble saying no?
High self-esteem and low social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressure Low self-esteem are more open to persuasion

25 Attitudes Can Affect Action
Not only do people stand for what they believe in (attitude), they start believing in what they stand for. D. MacDonald/ PhotoEdit Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking (beliefs).

26 Small Request – Large Request
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon: The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. * Donating money to charity can lead them to ask you to go door to door for their organization next time.

27 Role Playing Affects Attitudes
Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudes. Originally published in the New Yorker Phillip G. Zimbardo, Inc.

28 Actions Can Affect Attitudes
Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance. OBJECTIVE 5| Explain how the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, role-playing, and cognitive dissonance illustrate the influence of actions on attitudes. To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957). *ex: cheating

29 Cognitive Dissonance

30 Social Influence The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by social influence. NON SEQUITER © 2000 Wiley. Dist. by Universal Press Syndicate Reprinted with Permission

31 Conformity & Obedience
Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another. We follow behavior of others to conform. Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance (obedience) toward authority. OBJECTIVE 6| Describe the chameleon effect, and give an example of it. Conformity Obedience

32 The Chameleon Effect Conformity: Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).

33 Group Pressure & Conformity
Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard. OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence.

34 Group Pressure & Conformity
An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. William Vandivert/ Scientific American

35 Conditions that Strengthen Conformity
One is made to feel incompetent or insecure. The group has at least three people. The group is unanimous. One admires the group’s status and attractiveness. One has no prior commitment or response. The group observes one’s behavior. One’s culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard.

36 Reasons for Conformity
Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection. A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected. Informative Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. If we are unsure of what is right, and if being right matters, we are receptive of others’ opinions.

37 Informative Social Influence
Baron and colleagues (1996) made students do an eyewitness identification task. If the task was easy (lineup exposure 5 sec.), conformity was low in comparison to a difficult (1/2 sec. exposure) task.

38 Informative Social Influence
Baron et al., (1996)

39 Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center
Obedience People comply to social pressures. How would they respond to outright command? Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience. Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center OBJECTIVE 8| Describe Milgram’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest. Stanley Milgram ( )

40 Milgram’s Study Both Photos: © 1965 By Stanley Miligram, from the
film Obedience, dist. by Penn State, Media Sales

41 Milgram’s Study: Results

42 Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies
In both Ash's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to follow their standards and be responsive to others. OBJECTIVE 9| Explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our susceptibility to social influence. In Milgram’s study, participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas and the experimenter’s orders.

43 Group Influence One person affecting another Families Teams Committees
How do groups affect our behavior? Social psychologists study various groups: One person affecting another Families Teams Committees

44 Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others
Social facilitation: Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others. OBJECTIVE 10| Describe conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation. Michelle Agnis/ NYT Pictures

45 Social Facilitation When others observe us we become aroused
When being observed: Perform better on well-learned tasks Perform worse on unmastered tasks

46 Social Loafing The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually (Latané, 1981). * Group projects, tug of war

47 Group Behavior Diffusion of responsibility- the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group (group projects) Inhibits helping behavior in groups or crowds

48 Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Mob behavior

49 Effects of Group Interaction
Group Polarization enhances a group’s prevailing attitudes through a discussion. If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes. OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss how group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink.

50 Group Behavior Groupthink- a process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions.

51 Margaret Bourke-White/ Life Magazine. © 1946 Time Warner, Inc.
Power of Individuals The power of social influence is enormous, but so is the power of the individual. Non-violent fasts and appeals by Gandhi led to the independence of India from the British. Margaret Bourke-White/ Life Magazine. © 1946 Time Warner, Inc. OBJECTIVE 12| Identify the characteristic common to minority positions that sway majorities. Gandhi

52 Social Relations Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one another through prejudice, aggression, and conflict to attraction, and altruism and peacemaking.

53 Prejudice Simply called “prejudgment,” a prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups. OBJECTIVE 13| Identify three components of prejudice.

54 Components of Prejudice
Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) Predisposition to act (to discriminate)

55 Prejudice The belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial, ethnic, sexual, or other features, will possess negative characteristics or perform inadequately Connected with avoidance, aggression, and discrimination

56 Discrimination The denial of privileges to a person or group because of prejudice Takes many forms including: denial of access to jobs, housing, voting booth, eye contact

57 Stereotypes Prejudices about groups that lead people to interpret their observations in a biased fashion.

58 Sources of Prejudice Assumptions of dissimilarity Social conflict
Social learning Social categorization Victimization by prejudice

59 Reign of Prejudice Prejudice works at the conscious and [more at] the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice is more like a knee-jerk response than a conscious decision.

60 How Prejudiced are People?
Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality, and minorities have decreased. OBJECTIVE 14| Contrast overt and subtle forms of prejudice, and give examples of each.

61 Racial & Gender Prejudice
Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist.

62 Race Nine out of ten white respondents were slow when responding to words like “peace” or “paradise” when they saw a black individual’s photo compared to a white individual’s photo (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003).

63 Gender Most women still live in more poverty than men. About 100,000,000 women are missing in the world. There is a preference for male children in China and India, even with sex-selected abortion outlawed.

64 Gender Although prejudice prevails against women, more people feel positively toward women than men. Women rated picture b [feminized] higher (665) for a matrimonial ad (Perrett, 1998). Professor Dave Perrett, St. Andrews University

65 Social Roots of Prejudice
Why does prejudice arise? Social Inequalities Social Divisions Emotional Scapegoating OBJECTIVE 15| Discuss the social factors that contribute to prejudice.

66 Social Inequality Prejudice develops when people have money, power, and prestige, and others do not. Social inequality increases prejudice.

67 Ingroup: People with whom one shares a common identity.
In and Out Groups Ingroup: People with whom one shares a common identity. Outgroup: Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup. Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own group.

68 Emotional Roots of Prejudice
Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame. After 9/11 many people lashed out against innocent Arab-Americans. OBJECTIVE 16| Explain how Scapegoating illustrates the emotional component of prejudice.

69 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
One way we simplify our world is to categorize. We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them. OBJECTIVE 17| Cite four ways that cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice.

70 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
In vivid cases such as the 9/11 attacks, terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices (terrorism). Most terrorists are non-Muslims.

71 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice
The tendency of people to believe the world is just, and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (the just-world phenomenon). © The New Yorker Collection, 1981, Robert Mankoff from All Rights Reserved.

72 Hindsight Bias After learning an outcome, the tendency to believe that we could have predicted it beforehand may contribute to blaming the victim and forming a prejudice against them.

73 Aggression Aggression can be any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. It may be done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end. OBJECTIVE 18| Explain how psychology’s definition of aggression differs from everyday usage. Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges from the interaction of biology and experience.

74 The Biology of Aggression
Three biological influences on aggressive behavior are: Genetic Influences Neural Influences Biochemical Influences OBJECTIVE 19| Describe three levels of biological influences on aggression, and cite evidence for each level.

75 Influences Genetic Influences: Animals have been bred for aggressiveness for sport and at times for research. Twin studies show aggression may be genetic. In men, aggression is possibly linked to the Y chromosome. Neural Influences: Some centers in the brain, especially the limbic system (amygdala) and the frontal lobe, are intimately involved with aggression.

76 Influences Biochemical Influences: Animals with diminished amounts of testosterone (castration) become docile, and if injected with testosterone aggression increases. Prenatal exposure to testosterone also increases aggression in female hyenas.

77 The Psychology of Aggression
Four psychological factors that influence aggressive behavior are: Dealing with aversive events Learning aggression is rewarding Observing models of aggression Acquiring social scripts OBJECTIVE 20| Outline four psychological triggers of aggression.

78 Aversive Events Studies in which animals and humans experience unpleasant events reveal that those made miserable often make others miserable. Jeff Kowalsky/ EPA/ Landov Ron Artest (Pacers) attack on Detroit Pistons fans.

79 Environment Even environmental temperature can lead to aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with the temperature in Houston.

80 Frustration-Aggression Principle
A principle in which frustration (caused by the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression.

81 Learning that Aggression is Rewarding
When aggression leads to desired outcomes, one learns to be aggressive. This is shown in both animals and humans. Cultures that favor violence breed violence.

82 Observing Models of Aggression
Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R- and X-rated movies.

83 Acquiring Social Scripts
The media portrays social scripts and generates mental tapes in the minds of the viewers. When confronted with new situations individuals may rely on such social scripts. If social scripts are violent in nature, people may act them out.

84 Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence?
The general consensus on violent video games is that, to some extent, they breed violence. Adolescents view the world as hostile when they get into arguments and receive bad grades after playing such games. OBJECTIVE 21| Discuss the effects of violent video games on social attitudes and behavior.

85 Summary

86 Conflict Conflict is perceived as an incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. A Social Trap is a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. OBJECTIVE 22| Explain how social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict.

87 A Game of Social Trap By pursuing our self-interest and not trusting others, we can end up losers.

88 People in conflict form diabolical images of one another.
Enemy Perceptions People in conflict form diabolical images of one another. George Bush “Evil” Saddam Hussein “Wicked Pharaoh”

89 Psychology of Attraction
Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction (mere exposure effect). OBJECTIVE 23| Describe the influence of proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity on interpersonal attractions. A rare white penguin born in a zoo was accepted after 3 weeks by other penguins just due to proximity. Rex USA

90 Psychology of Attraction
2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity affords contact, the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance. Brooks Kraft/ Corbis Brooks Kraft/ Corbis

91 Psychology of Attraction
3. Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen. Similarity breeds content!

92 Two-factor theory of emotion
Romantic Love Passionate Love: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. Two-factor theory of emotion Physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion depending upon what we interpret or label the arousal OBJECTIVE 24| Describe the effect of physical arousal on passionate love, and identify two predictors of enduring companionate love.

93 Romantic Love Companionate Love: A deep, affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. Courtship and Matrimony (from the collection of Werner Nekes)

94 Attraction A force that draws bodies, or people, together-an attitude of liking or (disliking) Positive attractions Negative attractions

95 What is beautiful? Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder?
British and Japanese-large eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jaws Today’s society-tallness an asset for men, negative for women Body weight and shape-culturally determined

96 Attractiveness Men-more swayed by physical appearance, cooking ability, thrift Women-personal qualities such as warmth, assertiveness, need for achievement, wit, fondness of children Universally appealing-good complexion, good hair, teeth, clear eyes, firm muscle tone, steady gait, cleanliness





101 Stereotyping the Pretty
Attractive people less likely to develop psychological disorders Correlates positively with popularity, social skills, sexual experience More likely judged innocent of crimes and given less severe sentences Children expected to be well-behaved, get good grades, talented, popular

102 Matching Hypothesis People tend to choose persons similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationships Fear of rejection Opposites attract? Most likely not…(examples?) Similarity important-religion, politics, food and music tastes, children, motivation

103 Triangular Model of Love
Sternberg’s view that love involves combination of three components: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment Intimacy-couple’s closeness Passion-romance and sexual feelings Decision/commitment-in love, maintaining relationships  Consummate Love

104 Triangular Model of Love
Liking=Intimacy Alone (true friendships w/o passion or long-term commitment) Romantic Love= Intimacy+Passion (lovers physically and emotionally attracted but w/o commitment- summer romance) Companionate Love= Intimacy+Commitment (long-term committed friendship or marriage w/o passion) Consummate Love= Intimacy+Passion+ Commitment (complete love -an ideal difficult to attain) Infatuation= Passion Alone (passionate and obsessive love at first sight w/o intimacy or commitment) Empty Love= Decision/Commitment (decision to love each other without intimacy or passion.) Fatuous Love= Passion+Commitment (Shallow relationship such as a whirlwind courtship. without time for intimacy to develop.)

105 Altruism An unselfish regard for the welfare of others. Equity: A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give. Self-Disclosure: Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. OBJECTIVE 25| Define altruism, and give an example.

106 Bystander Effect Tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. OBJECTIVE 26| Describe the steps in the decision-making process involved in bystander intervention.

107 Bystander Intervention
The decision-making process for bystander intervention. Akos Szilvasi/ Stock, Boston

108 Kitty Genovese 28-year old stabbed and murdered in New York
Killer stalked her for more than half an hour and stabbed her in 3 separate attacks while she screamed 38 neighbors heard the commotion Twice their voices and lights interrupted the assault, each time the attacker returned No one got involved or called the police Why? “I didn’t want to get involved.” “I was tired.” “I don’t know.”

109 Bystander Effect Bystanders that are reluctant to help others in distress Reasons: Not fully understand what they are seeing and fail to recognize that emergency exists Not certain they possess the competencies to take charge of situation and stay on sidelines for fear of looking like a fool Believe others get what they deserve Fear of getting hurting themselves

110 The Norms for Helping Social Exchange Theory: Our social behavior is an exchange process. The aim is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Reciprocity Norm: The expectation that we should return help and not harm those who have helped us. Social–Responsibility Norm: Largely learned, it is a norm that tells us to help others when they need us even though they may not repay us. OBJECTIVE 27| Explain altruistic behavior from the perspective of social exchange theory and social norms.

111 Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works
Peacemaking Superordinate Goals are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works OBJECTIVE 28| Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict. Communication and understanding developed through talking to one another. Sometimes it is mediated by a third party.

112 Peacemaking Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party.

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