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1 Social Psychology Chapter 18. 2 Social Psychology Social Thinking Attribution of Behavior to Persons or Situations Attitudes and Action Social influence.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Social Psychology Chapter 18. 2 Social Psychology Social Thinking Attribution of Behavior to Persons or Situations Attitudes and Action Social influence."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Social Psychology Chapter 18

2 2 Social Psychology Social Thinking Attribution of Behavior to Persons or Situations Attitudes and Action Social influence Conformity and Obedience Group Influence

3 3 Social Psychology Social Relations Prejudice Aggression Conflict Attraction Altruism Peace Making

4 4 Focuses in Social Psychology Social psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. We cannot live for ourselves alone. Herman Melville

5 5 Social Thinking Social thinking involves thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected. 1.Does his absenteeism signify illness, laziness, or a stressful work atmosphere? 2.Was the horror of 9/11 the work of crazed evil people or ordinary people corrupted by life events?

6 6 Social Perception A subfield of social psychology that studies the ways in which we form and modify impressions of others. First impressions are important and reasonably accurate

7 7 Primacy and Recency Effect Primacy: Tendency to evaluate others in terms of first impressions Recency: Tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most recent impressions

8 8 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someones behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition. Fritz Heider

9 9 Attribution Theory The processes by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence one anothers behavior (assumptions about why people do things) Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

10 10 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations A teacher may wonder whether a childs hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution). Dispositions are enduring personality traits. So, if Joe is a quiet, shy, and introverted child, he is likely to be like that in a number of situations.

11 11 Dispositional Attribution An assumption that a persons behavior is determined by internal causes such as personal attitudes or goals Ex: friend getting an A in Language Arts theyre good at it, they enjoy it etc…

12 12 Situational Attribution An assumption that a persons behavior is determined by external circumstances such as the social influence or socialization Ex: friend has an easier Language Arts teacher

13 13 Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error.

14 14 Fundamental Attribution Error When we observe the behavior of others, we apparently focus too much on their actions and too little on the circumstances that surround their actions We tend to infer traits from behavior Ex: woman screaming at husband in supermarket

15 15 Actor-Observer Effect The tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional factors

16 16 Self-Serving Bias We are likely to ascribe our successes to internal, dispositional factors but our failures to external, situational influences Ex: –Good grade on test= I studied really hard and I am smart –Bad grade on test= the questions were too difficult and unfair

17 17 Effects of Attribution How we explain someones behavior affects how we react to it.

18 18 Attitude A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events. If we believe a person is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner.

19 19 Attitudes Can Affect Action Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectly because other factors, including the external situation, also influence behavior.

20 20 Attitude Behavioral and cognitive tendencies that are expressed by evaluating particular people, places, or things, with some degree of favor or disfavor Love and hate Helping behavior or mass destruction Social conflict or conflict resolution Tend to remain STABLE unless shoved (religion and political beliefs)

21 21 The A-B Problem A-Attitudes B-Behavior The issue of how well we can predict behavior on the basis of attitudes

22 22 The A-B Problem 1)Specificity- better predict specific behavior from specific attitudes (church attendance vs. Christian) 2)Strength of attitudes- drinking and driving vs. MADD 3)Vested interest- more likely to act on attitudes when vested interest in the outcome (dance elections or ASB) 4)Accessibility- express attitudes when it is brought to mind or emotional impact

23 23 Persuasive Messages 1)Repetition-familiarity breeds content 2)Two-sided claims-ads that admit the products weak points in addition to highlighting its strength are most believable 3)Fear appeal-arouses fear instead of rational analysis of the issues (smoking ads) 4)Atmospheric elements-good food, music, mood

24 24 Persuaded Audience Do you have trouble saying no? High self-esteem and low social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressure Low self-esteem are more open to persuasion

25 25 Attitudes Can Affect Action Not only do people stand for what they believe in (attitude), they start believing in what they stand for. Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking (beliefs). D. MacDonald/ PhotoEdit

26 26 Small Request – Large Request Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon : The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. * Donating money to charity can lead them to ask you to go door to door for their organization next time.

27 27 Role Playing Affects Attitudes Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudes. Originally published in the New Yorker Phillip G. Zimbardo, Inc.

28 28 Actions Can Affect Attitudes Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance. To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957). *ex: cheating

29 29 Cognitive Dissonance

30 30 Social Influence The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by social influence. NON SEQUITER © 2000 Wiley. Dist. by Universal Press Syndicate Reprinted with Permission

31 31 Conformity & Obedience Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another. We follow behavior of others to conform. Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance (obedience) toward authority. Conformity Obedience

32 32 The Chameleon Effect Conformity: Adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).

33 33 Group Pressure & Conformity Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard.

34 34 Group Pressure & Conformity An influence resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality. William Vandivert/ Scientific American

35 35 Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 1.One is made to feel incompetent or insecure. 2.The group has at least three people. 3.The group is unanimous. 4.One admires the groups status and attractiveness. 5.One has no prior commitment or response. 6.The group observes ones behavior. 7.Ones culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard.

36 36 Reasons for Conformity Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid rejection. A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected. Informative Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. If we are unsure of what is right, and if being right matters, we are receptive of others opinions.

37 37 Informative Social Influence Baron and colleagues (1996) made students do an eyewitness identification task. If the task was easy (lineup exposure 5 sec.), conformity was low in comparison to a difficult (1/2 sec. exposure) task.

38 38 Informative Social Influence Baron et al., (1996)

39 39 Obedience People comply to social pressures. How would they respond to outright command? Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience. Stanley Milgram ( ) Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center

40 40 Milgrams Study Both Photos: © 1965 By Stanley Miligram, from the film Obedience, dist. by Penn State, Media Sales

41 41 Milgrams Study: Results

42 42 Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Ash's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to follow their standards and be responsive to others. In Milgrams study, participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas and the experimenters orders.

43 43 Group Influence How do groups affect our behavior? Social psychologists study various groups: 1.One person affecting another 2.Families 3.Teams 4.Committees

44 44 Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social facilitation: Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others. Michelle Agnis/ NYT Pictures

45 45 Social Facilitation When others observe us we become aroused When being observed: –Perform better on well-learned tasks –Perform worse on unmastered tasks

46 46 Social Loafing The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually (Latané, 1981). * Group projects, tug of war

47 47 Group Behavior Diffusion of responsibility- the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group (group projects) Inhibits helping behavior in groups or crowds

48 48 Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Mob behavior

49 49 Effects of Group Interaction Group Polarization enhances a groups prevailing attitudes through a discussion. If a group is like- minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes.

50 50 Group Behavior Groupthink- a process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions.

51 51 Power of Individuals The power of social influence is enormous, but so is the power of the individual. Non-violent fasts and appeals by Gandhi led to the independence of India from the British. Gandhi Margaret Bourke-White/ Life Magazine. © 1946 Time Warner, Inc.

52 52 Social Relations Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one another through prejudice, aggression, and conflict to attraction, and altruism and peacemaking.

53 53 Prejudice Simply called prejudgment, a prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups.

54 54 Components of Prejudice 1.Beliefs (stereotypes) 2.Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) 3.Predisposition to act (to discriminate)

55 55 Prejudice The belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial, ethnic, sexual, or other features, will possess negative characteristics or perform inadequately Connected with avoidance, aggression, and discrimination

56 56 Discrimination The denial of privileges to a person or group because of prejudice Takes many forms including: denial of access to jobs, housing, voting booth, eye contact

57 57 Stereotypes Prejudices about groups that lead people to interpret their observations in a biased fashion.

58 58 Sources of Prejudice 1)Assumptions of dissimilarity 2)Social conflict 3)Social learning 4)Social categorization 5)Victimization by prejudice

59 59 Reign of Prejudice Prejudice works at the conscious and [more at] the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice is more like a knee- jerk response than a conscious decision.

60 60 How Prejudiced are People? Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality, and minorities have decreased.

61 61 Racial & Gender Prejudice Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist.

62 62 Race Nine out of ten white respondents were slow when responding to words like peace or paradise when they saw a black individuals photo compared to a white individuals photo (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003).

63 63 Gender Most women still live in more poverty than men. About 100,000,000 women are missing in the world. There is a preference for male children in China and India, even with sex-selected abortion outlawed.

64 64 Gender Although prejudice prevails against women, more people feel positively toward women than men. Women rated picture b [feminized] higher (665) for a matrimonial ad (Perrett, 1998). Professor Dave Perrett, St. Andrews University

65 65 Social Roots of Prejudice Why does prejudice arise? 1.Social Inequalities 2.Social Divisions 3.Emotional Scapegoating

66 66 Social Inequality Prejudice develops when people have money, power, and prestige, and others do not. Social inequality increases prejudice.

67 67 In and Out Groups Ingroup: People with whom one shares a common identity. Outgroup: Those perceived as different from ones ingroup. Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor ones own group.

68 68 Emotional Roots of Prejudice Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame. After 9/11 many people lashed out against innocent Arab-Americans.

69 69 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice One way we simplify our world is to categorize. We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them.

70 70 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice In vivid cases such as the 9/11 attacks, terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices (terrorism). Most terrorists are non-Muslims.

71 71 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice The tendency of people to believe the world is just, and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (the just-world phenomenon). © The New Yorker Collection, 1981, Robert Mankoff from All Rights Reserved.

72 72 Hindsight Bias After learning an outcome, the tendency to believe that we could have predicted it beforehand may contribute to blaming the victim and forming a prejudice against them.

73 73 Aggression Aggression can be any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. It may be done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end. Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges from the interaction of biology and experience.

74 74 The Biology of Aggression Three biological influences on aggressive behavior are: 1.Genetic Influences 2.Neural Influences 3.Biochemical Influences

75 75 Influences Genetic Influences: Animals have been bred for aggressiveness for sport and at times for research. Twin studies show aggression may be genetic. In men, aggression is possibly linked to the Y chromosome. Neural Influences: Some centers in the brain, especially the limbic system (amygdala) and the frontal lobe, are intimately involved with aggression.

76 76 Influences Biochemical Influences: Animals with diminished amounts of testosterone (castration) become docile, and if injected with testosterone aggression increases. Prenatal exposure to testosterone also increases aggression in female hyenas.

77 77 The Psychology of Aggression Four psychological factors that influence aggressive behavior are: 1.Dealing with aversive events 2.Learning aggression is rewarding 3.Observing models of aggression 4.Acquiring social scripts

78 78 Aversive Events Studies in which animals and humans experience unpleasant events reveal that those made miserable often make others miserable. Ron Artest (Pacers) attack on Detroit Pistons fans. Jeff Kowalsky/ EPA/ Landov

79 79 Environment Even environmental temperature can lead to aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with the temperature in Houston.

80 80 Frustration-Aggression Principle A principle in which frustration (caused by the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression.

81 81 Learning that Aggression is Rewarding When aggression leads to desired outcomes, one learns to be aggressive. This is shown in both animals and humans. Cultures that favor violence breed violence.

82 82 Observing Models of Aggression Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R- and X-rated movies.

83 83 Acquiring Social Scripts The media portrays social scripts and generates mental tapes in the minds of the viewers. When confronted with new situations individuals may rely on such social scripts. If social scripts are violent in nature, people may act them out.

84 84 Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence? The general consensus on violent video games is that, to some extent, they breed violence. Adolescents view the world as hostile when they get into arguments and receive bad grades after playing such games.

85 85 Summary

86 86 Conflict Conflict is perceived as an incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. A Social Trap is a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

87 87 A Game of Social Trap By pursuing our self-interest and not trusting others, we can end up losers.

88 88 Enemy Perceptions People in conflict form diabolical images of one another. George Bush Evil Saddam Hussein Wicked Pharaoh

89 89 Psychology of Attraction 1.Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction (mere exposure effect). A rare white penguin born in a zoo was accepted after 3 weeks by other penguins just due to proximity. Rex USA

90 90 Psychology of Attraction 2.Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity affords contact, the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance. Brooks Kraft/ Corbis

91 91 Psychology of Attraction 3.Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen. Similarity breeds content!

92 92 Romantic Love Passionate Love: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. 1.Physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal 2.Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion depending upon what we interpret or label the arousal Two-factor theory of emotion

93 93 Romantic Love Companionate Love: A deep, affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. Courtship and Matrimony (from the collection of Werner Nekes)

94 94 Attraction A force that draws bodies, or people, together-an attitude of liking or (disliking) Positive attractions Negative attractions

95 95 What is beautiful? Is Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder? British and Japanese-large eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jaws Todays society-tallness an asset for men, negative for women Body weight and shape-culturally determined

96 96 Attractiveness Men-more swayed by physical appearance, cooking ability, thrift Women-personal qualities such as warmth, assertiveness, need for achievement, wit, fondness of children Universally appealing-good complexion, good hair, teeth, clear eyes, firm muscle tone, steady gait, cleanliness

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101 101 Stereotyping the Pretty Attractive people less likely to develop psychological disorders Correlates positively with popularity, social skills, sexual experience More likely judged innocent of crimes and given less severe sentences Children expected to be well-behaved, get good grades, talented, popular

102 102 Matching Hypothesis People tend to choose persons similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationships Fear of rejection Opposites attract? Most likely not…(examples?) Similarity important-religion, politics, food and music tastes, children, motivation

103 103 Triangular Model of Love Sternbergs view that love involves combination of three components: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment Intimacy-couples closeness Passion-romance and sexual feelings Decision/commitment-in love, maintaining relationships Consummate Love

104 104 Triangular Model of Love Liking=Intimacy Alone (true friendships w/o passion or long-term commitment) Romantic Love= Intimacy+Passion (lovers physically and emotionally attracted but w/o commitment- summer romance) Companionate Love= Intimacy+Commitment (long-term committed friendship or marriage w/o passion) Infatuation= Passion Alone (passionate and obsessive love at first sight w/o intimacy or commitment) Fatuous Love= Passion+Commitment (Shallow relationship such as a whirlwind courtship. without time for intimacy to develop.) Empty Love= Decision/Commitment (decision to love each other without intimacy or passion.) Consummate Love= Intimacy+Passion+ Commitment (complete love -an ideal difficult to attain)

105 105 An unselfish regard for the welfare of others. Altruism Equity: A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give. Self-Disclosure: Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

106 106 Bystander Effect Tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.

107 107 Bystander Intervention The decision-making process for bystander intervention. Akos Szilvasi/ Stock, Boston

108 108 Kitty Genovese 28-year old stabbed and murdered in New York Killer stalked her for more than half an hour and stabbed her in 3 separate attacks while she screamed 38 neighbors heard the commotion Twice their voices and lights interrupted the assault, each time the attacker returned No one got involved or called the police Why? I didnt want to get involved. I was tired. I dont know.

109 109 Bystander Effect Bystanders that are reluctant to help others in distress Reasons: –Not fully understand what they are seeing and fail to recognize that emergency exists –Not certain they possess the competencies to take charge of situation and stay on sidelines for fear of looking like a fool –Believe others get what they deserve –Fear of getting hurting themselves

110 110 The Norms for Helping Social Exchange Theory: Our social behavior is an exchange process. The aim is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. Reciprocity Norm: The expectation that we should return help and not harm those who have helped us. Social–Responsibility Norm: Largely learned, it is a norm that tells us to help others when they need us even though they may not repay us.

111 111 Superordinate Goals are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. Peacemaking Communication and understanding developed through talking to one another. Sometimes it is mediated by a third party. Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works

112 112 Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party. Peacemaking

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