2PersonalityThe distinct patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings that characterize a person’s adaptation to life.
3Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud Emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as forces that determine behaviorDynamic struggleDrives (sex, aggression, superiority) conflict with moral codes, laws, and social rules
4Mind is like an Iceberg Conscious-self awareness Preconscious-capable of being brought into awareness by focusing attentionUnconscious-not available to awareness by simple attention
6Psychic StructureIn psychodynamic theory, a hypothesized mental structure that helps explain different aspects of behaviorIdEgoSuperego
7IdPresent at birthRepresents physiological drives and is fully unconsciousPleasure principle-demands instant gratification without consideration of law, social custom, or the needs of others
8EgoDevelops during the first year of lifeStands for “reason and good sense”Characterized by self-awareness, planning, and delay gratificationStands between id and superegoReality Principle-considers what is practical and possible in gratifying needs
10FixationA lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage.Where conflicts were unresolved.Orally fixated people may need to chain smoke or chew gum.Or denying the dependence by acting tough or being very sarcastic.Anally fixated people can either be anal expulsive or anal retentive.
11Defense MechanismsThe ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by distorting reality.Never aware they are occurring.Seven major types.
12Repression The Mac Daddy defense mechanism. Push or banish anxiety driven thought deep into unconscious.Why we do not remember lusting after our parents.
13RegressionWhen faced with anxiety the person retreats to a more infantile stage.Thumb sucking on the first day of school.
14Reaction FormationEgo switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites.Being mean to someone you have a crush on.
15ProjectionDisguise your own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.Thinking that your spouse wants to cheat on you when it is you that really want to cheat.
16RationalizationOffers self-adjusting explanations in place of real, more threatening reasons for your actions.You don’t get into a college and say, “I really did not want to go there it was too far away!!”
17Displacement Shifts the unacceptable impulses towards a safer outlet. Instead of yelling at a teacher, you will take anger out on a friend by peeing on his car).
18SublimationRe-channel their unacceptable impulses towards more acceptable or socially approved activities.Channel feeling of homosexuality into aggressive sports play.
19Superego Develops throughout early childhood Functions as the moral guardian and sets forth high standards for behaviorIdentification-values of parentsMoral principle-hands out judgments of right and wrong, floods the ego with shame and guilt
20Psychosexual Development Sexual impulses are pivotal factors in personality development even among children5 stages:Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
21Oral Stage Weaning could lead to frustration Fixation-stuck in the stage and displays traits of that stageOral traits-dependency, gullibility, optimism/pessimismOral fixation-exaggerated desires for “oral activities” such as smoking, nail biting, overeating, alcohol abuseclinging, dependent relationships
22Oral Stage 0-18 months Pleasure center is on the mouth. Sucking, biting and chewing.
23Anal StageSexual gratification is attained through contraction and relaxation of the muscles that control the elimination of waste productsBegin the second year of lifeChildren learn to control their urge to eliminatemay cause conflict between parent and child
24Anal Stage 18-36 months Pleasure focuses on bladder and bowel control. Controlling ones life and independence.Anal retentive
25Anal Stage Anal-retentive: excessive use of self-control Anal fixation may lead to two traits:Anal-retentive: excessive use of self-controlAnal-expulsive: unregulated self expression (messiness, carelessness, sadism)
26Phallic Stage 3-6 years Pleasure zone is the genitals. Coping with incestuous feelings.Oedipus and Electra complexes.
27Phallic Stage Occurs in the third year Major erogenous zone is the phallic region (penis, clitoris)Parent-child conflict over masturbationChildren may develop strong sexual attachments to the parent of the opposite gender and view the same gender parent as a rival (marry mommy and daddy)
28Phallic StageOedipus complex:conflict for boys who wish to possess his mother sexually and perceives his father as a rival in loveElectra complex: girl longs for her father and resents her mother
29Oedipus and Electra Resolved by ages 5 and 6 Repress their hostilities toward and identify with the parent of same genderIn adolescence, feelings are displaced or transferred to socially appropriate members of the other gender
30Latency A phase characterized by repression of sexual impulses focus more on schoolworkengage in gender role behaviorsprefer to play with children of same age
31Latency Stage6- pubertyDormant sexual feeling.Cooties stage.
32Genital Stage Begins during puberty Adolescents again have sexual urges for their mothers and fathers but the incest taboo encourages repression and displacement onto other adolescents or adultsSexual gratification through intercourseFreud’s view-oral and anal stimulation, masturbation, homosexual activitypregenital fixations-less mature
33Carl JungAnalytical psychology:Collective unconscious: racial memories that contain archetypes (young hero, nurturing mother, wise old man, wicked witches, rebirth and resurrection)Self-unifying force of personality that gives purpose and direction
34Alfred AdlerInferiority complex: feelings of inferiority serve as a central motivating forceCreative self-self-aware aspect of personality that strives to achieve its full potentialIndividual psychology
35Karen Horney Parent-child relationships extremely important Basic anxiety-lasting feelings of insecurity from harsh or indifferent parentsBasic hostility-lasting feelings of anger directed at nonfamily members in adulthood
36Erick Erickson More psychosocial than psychosexual Social relationships are more crucial determinants of personalityWe are the conscious architects of our personalitiesStages of psychosocial development-based on traits that may develop
37Trait PerspectiveA relatively stable aspect of personality that is inferred from behavior and assumed to give rise to consistent behavior.
39Raymond CattellReduced this universe of traits to smaller lists of traits that show common features.His new list of primary personality traits would enable us to predict the person’s behavior in various situations16 Personality Factors Scale
40Hans Eysenck Emotional stability vs. instability Introversion: characterized by intense imagination and the tendency to inhibit impulsesExtroversion: characterized by tendencies to be socially outgoing and to express feelings and impulses freelyEmotional stability vs. instability
42The Big FiveConscientiousness-organized/disorganized, careful/careless, disciplined/impulsiveAgreeableness-soft-hearted/ruthless, trusting/suspicious, helpful/uncooperativeNeuroticism-Emotional stabilityOpenness to experienceExtroversion/introversionCANOE
43Evaluation Trait theory is descriptive, not explanatory Circular explanations-merely restates its own concepts instead of offering additional information
44Social-Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura:See people as influencing the environment just as the environment influences themObservational learningPerson variables (expectancies, competencies, and values) influence behavior
45Social Cognitive Theory Focus on how we interact with our environment.Reciprocal Determinism: the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
46Social Cognitive Perspective Different People choose different environments.The TV you watch, friends you hang with, music you listen to were all chosen by you (your disposition)But after you choose the environment, it also shapes you.
47Social Cognitive Perspective Our personalities help create situations to which we react.If I expect someone to be angry with me, I may give that person the cold shoulder, creating the very behavior I expect.
48Personal ControlOur sense of controlling our environment rather than the environment controlling us.
49External Locus of Control The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate.
50Internal Locus of Control The perception that one controls one’s own fate.
51Learned HelplessnessThe hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
52Competencies Knowledge and skills Ex: academic skills, athletic skills, social skills, job skills, etc…
53ExpectanciesPersonal predictions about the outcomes of potential behaviorsBased on our observations of others and on our own experiencesSelf-efficacy expectations-beliefs to the effect that one can handle a task
54Humanistic/Existential Perspective Humanism:the view that people are capable of free choice, self-fulfillment, and ethical behaviorExistentialism:the view that people are completely free and responsible for their own behaviorAgree or disagree?
55Carl Rodgers Frames of reference: One’s unique patterning of perceptions and attitudes according to which one evaluates eventsSelf-esteem: one’s evaluation and valuing of oneself
56Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Perspective People are basically GOOD.We are like AcornsNeed Water, Sun and Nutrients to Grow into a big Oak Tree.We need genuineness, acceptance and empathy for us to grow.
57Genuineness Being open with your own feelings. Dropping your facade. Being transparent and self-disclosing.
58Acceptance Unconditional Positive Regard: An attitude of acceptance regardless of circumstances.Accepting yourself or others completely.
59Positive RegardUnconditional-accepting a person as having intrinsic merit regardless of their behavior at the momentConditional-accept them only when they behave in a desired mannercan lead to low self-worth
60EmpathyListening, sharing, understanding and mirroring feelings and reflecting their meanings.Preschool study
61Self-ConceptAll of thoughts and feelings about ourselves trying to answer the question….WHO AM I?
62Self-ConceptBoth Rogers and Maslow believed that your self-concept is at the center of your personality.If our self concept is positive….We tend to act and perceive the world positively.If our self-concept is negative….We fall short of our “ideal self” and feel dissatisfied and unhappy
64Self-Ideal A mental image of what we believe we ought to be Rodgers believed that the process of striving to meet meaningful goals, the good struggle, yields happiness
65Self-Serving Bias A readiness to perceive oneself favorable. People accept more responsibility for successes than failures.Most people see themselves as better than average.
66Acculturation and Self-Esteem Acculturation:the process of adaptation to the dominant culture and making behavioral and attitudinal changesBicultural-become fluent in the languages of their country of origin and their new country and integrate the customs and values of both cultureshighest self-esteem
67Measurements of Personality Objective tests-tests whose items must be answered in a specified, limited manner. Tests whose items have concrete answers that are considered correct.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Most widely used psychological test in the clinical setting
68Projective TestsTests that present ambiguous stimuli onto which the test taker projects his or her own personality in making a responseThematic Apperception TestRorschach Inkblot TestLETS TRY IT :)