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Consciousness and Sleep

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Presentation on theme: "Consciousness and Sleep"— Presentation transcript:

1 Consciousness and Sleep

2 Consciousness Sensory Awareness Selective Aspect of Attention
Direct Inner Awareness Personal Unity Waking state

3 Exercise: Sensory vs. Inner Awareness
Close your eyes and imagine doing something in the room. Imagine it in detail. Now actually do the task How did they differ? How did you feel? What were you thinking?

4 Sensory Awareness Knowledge of the environment through perception of sensory stimulation Ex: Hearing -allows us to be conscious of, or to hear, a concert

5 Selective Attention Important for self-regulation
The focus on one’s consciousness on a particular stimulus Important for self-regulation Ex: driving, cocktail party effect -must focus on road rather than hunger or feelings about argument.

6 x

7 Direct Inner Awareness
Knowledge of one’s own thoughts, feelings, and memories without the use of sensory organs. Preconscious vs. Conscious

8 Preconscious Descriptive of material that is not in awareness but can be brought into awareness by focusing one’s attention Ex: student examples

9 Unconscious Descriptive of ideas and feelings that are not available to awareness Ex: painful memories, unacceptable sexual and aggressive impulses (Repress, suppression, nonconscious )

10 Repress To eject anxiety-provoking ideas, impulses, or images from awareness, without knowing that one is doing so. Escape from feelings of guilt and shame

11 Supression The deliberate, or conscious, placing of certain ideas, impulses, or images out of awareness

12 Nonconscious Descriptive of bodily processes such as the growing of hair, of which we cannot become conscious (recognize but cant directly experience the biological process)

13 Altered States of Consciousness
states other than the normal waking state Ex: sleep, meditation, hypnotic trance, distorted perceptions produced by use of some drugs

14 States of Consciousness
Iceberg drawing Conscious level: perception and thoughts Preconscious level: memories, and stored knowledge Unconscious level: immoral urges, selfish needs, fears, violent motives, sexual desires

15 Consciousness & Information Processing
The unconscious mind processes information simultaneously on multiple tracks, while the conscious mind processes information sequentially. Conscious mind-perceptions, thoughts Preconscious-memories, stored knowledge Unconscious mind-fears,violent motive, sexual desires

16 Sleep and Dreams Stages of sleep: Stage 1 Close eyes and relax
Brains emit many alpha waves (low amplitude brain waves of about 8-13 cycles per second)

17 Slow rolling eye movements
Stage 1 cont… As we enter stage 1, brain waves slow down from alpha to theta waves ( 6-8 cycles per second) Slow rolling eye movements

18 Hypnagogic state-dreamlike images that resemble vivid photographs
Stage 1 cont… Hypnagogic state-dreamlike images that resemble vivid photographs Lightest stage of sleep

19 Stage 2 Sleep spindles: short bursts of rapid brain waves
K Complex:bursts of brain activity that reflect external stimulation (book dropping in room, or tightness of leg)

20 Stage 3 and 4 Slower delta waves Stage 4 is the deepest stage of sleep
Most difficult to be awakened After half hour we rapidly journey upward through stages and enter REM

21 REM Rapid eye movement:
Level of arousal similar to waking state but difficult to wake If awakened we report dreaming 80% of time 5 trips through stages REM lasts longest towards the end of sleep

22 Functions of Sleep Sleep Deprivation:
Compared to people who drink heavily Performance impaired: memory, attention Sleep can help us recover from stresses of life REM-dreams occur most frequently

23 Dreams A sequence of images or thoughts that occur during sleep. Dreams may be vague and loosely plotted or vivid and intricate Most vivid during REM Flexible: black and white or color

24 Sigmund Freud Theorized that dreams reflect unconscious wishes and urges Believed dreams “protect sleep” by providing imagery that would help keep disturbing, repressed thoughts out of awareness Yet, our behavior in dreams is generally consistent with our waking behavior

25 Nightmares Generally products of REM sleep
College students reported 2 nightmares a month Traumatic events can spawn nightmares Frequent nightmares more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression, or psychological discomfort

26 Sleep Disorders Insomnia Narcolepsy Apnea Sleep terrors

27 Insomnia Difficulty falling asleep 2) Difficulty remaining alseep
3) Waking early -1/3 Americans suffer -woman more than men -Cant force sleep

28 Apnea A temporary cessation of breathing while asleep
times a night 4% men, 2% women Related to obesity, loud snoring, drowsiness during the day

29 Sleep Terrors Frightening dreamlike experiences that occur during the deepest stage of NREM sleep (stage 4). Nightmares, in contrast, occur during REM sleep Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) 15 % sleepwalk (Somnambulism) Tranquilizer often helps

30 Narcolepsy A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable seizures of sleep during the waking state Afflicts 100,000 people and runs in the family “Sleep Attack” may last about 15 minutes Disorder of REM functioning

31 Altering Consciousness Through Drugs

32 Drugs Substances that distort perceptions and change mood
Drugs can make you feel up, down, and move you all over the place Alcohol is the most popular drug on high school and college campuses Stimulants Depressants

33 Substance Abuse Persistent use of a substance even though it is causing or compounding problems in meeting the demands of life.

34 Tolerance Habituation to a drug, with the result that increasingly higher doses of the drug are needed to achieve similar effects

35 Abstinence Syndrome A characteristic cluster of symptoms that results from sudden decrease in an addictive drug’s level of usage Ex: Alcohol Anxiety, tremors, restlessness, weakness, rapid pulse, high blood pressure

36 Causal Factors Psychological View:
Control or express unconscious needs and impulses Positive effects on mood and reduction of unpleasant sensations (anxiety, fear) Those who are physiologically dependent will avoid withdrawal symptoms Escape from boredom Peer pressure

37 Causal Factors Genetic predispositions
Biological View: Genetic predispositions Inherited tendency toward alcoholism may involve a combination of greater sensitivity to alcohol (enjoyment and tolerance)

38 Depressant A drug that lowers the rate of activity of the nervous system Alcohol most popular Sedative: a drug that soothes or quiets restlessness or agitation


40 Alcohol Used as a sedative, social facilitator, celebration, kill germs, tranquilizer, sign of maturity 85-88% of high school population has used it occasionally

41 Alcohol Most abused drug 10-20 million Americans are alcoholics
Drug of choice among adolescents (more than marijuana)

42 World of Diversity Men are more likely than women to become alcoholics (social constraints, less enzyme to metabolize in stomach) Ethnic factors: Native Americans and Irish Jewish Americans Asians “flushing response”

43 Effects of Alcohol Our interpretations of drug’s effects are influenced by our expectations Beliefs: reduces tension, free from worry, enhances pleasure, increases social ability, and transforms experiences for the better

44 Effects of Alcohol Depends on dose and duration of use
Low doses: stimulating High doses: sedative effect depressant Short term use: lessen depression Long term: increase depression

45 Effects of Alcohol Relaxes and deadens minor aches and pains
Intoxicates: impairs cognitive functioning,slurs the speech, reduces motor coordination Connected with drop off in sexual activity Inhibits impulses-less likely to foresee the consequences of their behavior

46 Effects of Alcohol Liberated social role “it’s the alcohol, not me”
Alcohol is fattening: high in calories but lacks nutrients such as vitamins and proteins Cirrhosis of the liver-impedes the circulation of blood Drinking while pregnant can harm embryo


48 Opiates A group of narcotics (relieve pain and reduce sleep) derived from the opium poppy, or similar in chemical structure, that provide a euphoric rush and depress the nervous system

49 Opioids Morphine: introduced during Civil War Deaden pain from wounds
Heroin: “cure” for morphine addiction Provides euphoric rush Illegal: inject or snort High doses cause drowsiness, stupor, altered time perception, impaired judgment

50 Withdrawal Symptoms Narcotics:distressing abstinence symptoms
Flu-like symptoms Tremors Cramps Chills alternating with sweating Rapid pulse Vomiting and diarrhea Insomnia High blood pressure

51 Barbiturates Addictive depressant that relieves anxiety or induce sleep Can treat epilepsy, high blood pressure, and insomnia Street drug: relaxes muscles and produce mild euphoric state High doses: motor impairment, slurred speech, poor judgment, irritability

52 Stimulants A drug that increases the activity of the nervous system
Contribute to feelings of euphoria and self-confidence Amphetamines Cocaine Cigarettes (nicotine)

53 Amphetamines Often used for euphoric rush especially in high doses
Called: speed, uppers, dexies May stay awake and “high” for days “Crash” down can cause depression or deep sleep (suicide often occurs during crashing) Known among students, dieters, truck drivers

54 Amphetamines Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Ritalin: increases attention span, decreases aggressive and disruptive behavior, and can lead to academic gains Spurs cortex to exercise control over more primitive centers in the lower brain

55 Amphetamines Psychologically dependent especially when coping with depression High doses: restlessness, insomnia, loss of appetite, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, irritability

56 Cocaine A stimulant that produces state of euphoria, reduces hunger, deadens pain, and increases self-confidence Popular in 1980’s Now 1% use it regularly:majority believe it is harmful

57 Cocaine Brewed from coca leaves Snorted in powder form
Injected in liquid form constricts blood vessels in nose, drying which exposes cartilage and perforating septum cosmetic surgery

58 Cocaine Sudden rises in blood pressure
“Snow” or “Coke” Sudden rises in blood pressure Decreases oxygen supply to heart Quickens heart rate Respiratory or cardiovascular collapse Overdoses: insomnia, tremors, headaches, nausea, convulsions, hallucinations, delusions

59 Cigarettes (Nicotine)
420,000 Americans die from smoking related illnesses a year More than car accidents, suicide, alcohol, homicide combined Every cigarette steals about 7 minutes of a person’s life Carbon monoxide impairs blood’s ability to carry oxygen causing shortness of breath

60 Cigarettes Passive smoking (secondhand smoking): connected with respiratory illnesses, asthma, and other diseases 50,000 deaths per year

61 Cigarettes Nicotine: incites discharge of the hormone adrenaline
Enhance attention, improve performance on simple, repetitive tasks, enhance mood,, and reduce stress

62 Cigarettes Does not improve memory or functioning on complex tasks
Depresses the appetite and raises the metabolic rate Very addictive: withdrawals headaches, fatigue, irregular bowels, cramps, tremors, sweating Habit rather than an addiction



65 Hallucinogenic Produce hallucinations-sensations and perceptions in the absence of external stimulation Relaxes the individual, euphoria, or panic

66 Marijuana Helps people relax and elevate their mood
Produces mild hallucinations Impairs motor coordination and perceptual functions, short term memory, and slows learning, instances of anxiety and confusion Increases heart rate up to beats per minute


68 Psychoactive Effects Intoxication levels Early: calmness
Fair: increases in self-insight, creativity, empathy of others Strong: time passes slowly, heightens sexual sensations, disorientation

69 Psychoactive Effects Does not cause physiological dependence
Usage often needs less than more to achieve same effects Substances in marijuana takes long time to metabolize in body

70 LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide “acid”
Expands consciousness and opens new worlds Great insights Produces vivid and colorful hallucinations 6% of high school population 2% college population

71 LSD Flashbacks:distorted perceptions or hallucinations that occur days or weeks after LSD usage but mimic the LSD experience May stem from chemical changes in the brain or ability to allow one’s thoughts to wander


73 Altering Consciousness Through Meditation, Biofeedback, Hypnosis
Chapter 5

74 Meditation As a method for coping with stress, a systematic narrowing of attention that slows the metabolism and helps produce feelings of relaxation

75 Meditation Effects reflect whatever bodily changes are induced by meditation and one’s expectations about meditation Spiritual force but not scientifically verifiable

76 Transcendental Meditation
TM: the simplified form of meditation brought to the United States by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Mantras: a word or sound that is repeated in TM

77 Meditation Spiritual goals and worldly goals: reducing anxiety, normalizing blood pressure. Meditate 2 times a day-produce relaxation response Benson’s term for a group of responses that can be brought about by meditation (metabolic rate decreases, blood pressure decrease)

78 Meditation Although meditation has been shown to normalize blood pressure, some argue that it has same relaxing effects as if you were to just rest quietly Pg. 199

79 Biofeedback Neil E. Miller: trained rats to increase or decrease their heart rates voluntarily “pleasure center” of hypothalamus (BFT):The systematic feeding back to an organism about their bodily function so that the organism can gain control of that function.

80 Biofeedback Electromyograph (EMG): an instrument that measures muscle tension Widely used among athletes to help control tension and anxiety

81 Hypnosis A condition in which people appear to be highly suggestible and behave as though they are in a trance Used as an anesthetic in dentistry, childbirth, prompt memories of witnesses

82 Hypnotic Trance Narrow attention and focus on hypnotist’s voice, limbs become heavy and relaxed, become sleepy (not sleep though) Hypnotic suggestibility- people have positive attitudes and expectations about hypnosis and want to be hypnotized

83 Changes in Consciousness
Narrowed attention Pseudomemories or hypermnesia (witnesses) Playing unusual roles (age regression) Perceptual distortions (thirsty) Postthypnotic Amnesia

84 Neodissociation Theory
A theory that explains hypnotic events in terms of the splitting of consciousness We can selectively focus our attention on one thing and dissociate ourselves from the things going on around us.

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