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1. Cones are different from rods in that:

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Presentation on theme: "1. Cones are different from rods in that:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Cones are different from rods in that:
A) rods respond to color. B) cones respond to color. C) cones need less light. D) B and C are true. 208

2 2. The center of the retina is the ___ and has mostly ___.
A) fovea; cones B) fovea; rods C) blind spot; ganglion cells D) optic disk; nerves 207

3 3. The lens thins or thickens to focus light in a process known as:
A) visual sharpening. B) lens bending. C) accommodation. D) optic chiasm. 205

4 4. Weber’s law has to do with the ___ of a stimulus.
A) absolute threshold B) just noticeable difference C) subliminal threshold D) sensory adaptation 202

5 If someone is severely damaged in the left visual cortex, they would be unable to see:
A) anything in their left eye. B) anything in their right eye. C) anything in their right visual field. D) anything in their left visual field. 208

6 6. Frequency is to ___ as amplitude is to ___.
A) pitch; loudness B) loudness; pitch C) pitch; timbre D) decibels; hertz 216

7 7. The sequence of hearing is in the order of:
A) eardrum, auditory canal, middle ear, inner ear. B) cochlea, eardrum, middle ear, inner ear. C) eardrum, middle ear, auditory canal, cochlea. D) auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea. 217

8 8. Normal conversation (60 decibels) is ___ times louder than a 20 decibel whisper.

9 9. The ___ has the sensory receptors for sound consisting of tiny, hair-like fibers.
A) ear canal B) stirrup C) basilar membrane D) tympanic membrane 217

10 10. Nerve deafness: A) can be caused by exposure to amplitude over 80 decibels. B) can be corrected by a hearing aid. C) is more likely the result of heavy traffic than by a rock concert. D) all of the above. 216

11 11. Unlike other senses, the sense of ___ does not travel to the thalamus, but goes directly to the cerebral cortex. A) gustation B) olfaction C) vestibular D) kinesthesia 231

12 12. Receptor cells have been identified for five tastes including sweet, salty, sour, ___ and ___.
A) wet; rough B) hot; bitter C) spicy; acrid D) bitter; umami 229

13 13. The kinesthetic sense involves:
A) the sense of balance or equilibrium. B) the sense of pain. C) the location and position of body parts in relation to each other. D) hair-like receptor cells in the semicircular canals. 233

14 14. The gate-control theory has to do with:
A) how the brain regulates pain. B) how the brain sensitizes us to feel more acutely. C) providing information about body position and movement. D) difference thresholds in the sense of touch. 227

15 15. Although Jeremy lost his left leg beneath the knee, he often experiences great pain in his left foot. This is known as: A) psychosomatic pain. B) phantom limb pain. C) substance P overload. D) ineffective pain gate. 227

16 B) bottom-up processing. C) natural order integration.
16. Analyzing that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of data is called: A) sensory processing. B) bottom-up processing. C) natural order integration. D) informational flow. 197

17 17. The minimum stimulus necessary to detect it 50% of the time is called the:
A) central tendency. B) minimum flash point. C) absolute threshold. D) sensory half-life. 199

18 18. A movie theater’s manager wants to sell more popcorn by flashing subliminal advertising during the previews. You tell him: A) subliminal persuasion doesn’t work. B) he needs to do it several times. C) he must accompany it with a bell. D) he has to time it differently for it to work on different people. 201

19 19. According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, the retina contains color receptors:
A) which pick up opponent colors of red/green, blue/yellow, black/white. B) of three types, sensitive to red, green and blue. C) of three types, sensitive to red, blue and yellow. D) none of the above. 198

20 20. Applying Weber’s Law to business, if a $5 meal has to increase to $5.50 for us to notice much of a difference, how much would a $20,000 car have to increase for us to notice? A) $2,000 B) $200 C) $5,000 D) $1,000 204

21 21. Mr. Jones has sensorineural hearing loss
21. Mr. Jones has sensorineural hearing loss.  His best chance of correcting his hearing is by: A) a hearing aid. B) using bone conduction. C) a cochlear implant. D) any of the above would be helpful. 200

22 B) Choice pattern recognition C) Signal detection
22. ___ theory assumes that stimulus detection depends on experience, expectations, motivation, and level of alertness. A) Stimulus-response B) Choice pattern recognition C) Signal detection D) Sensory consolidation 199

23 23. Unlike computers, our brain is able to perform several operations at once, called:
A) sensory redundancy. B) serial processing. C) cognitive flow. D) parallel processing. 210

24 Answers 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. 5. 6. 7. D 8. 9. C 10. A 11. B 12. D 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. C 18. A 19. 20. 21. D 22. 23. D

25 D) optical tracking illusion.
1. When two or more lights blink on and off in quick succession, it gives the appearance of movement. This is called the: A) movement illusion. B) phi phenomenon. C) visual capture. D) optical tracking illusion. 250

26 2. Even though these two figures are identical in size, one looks larger due to the ___ illusion.
A) visual capture B) Müller-Lyer C) Ponzo D) parallax 251

27 3. The Müller-Lyer illusion is caused by:
A) cultural experience. B) light and shadow. C) shape constancy. D) size constancy. 252

28 4. The St. Louis arch appears taller than it is wide. This is due to:
A) relative height. B) size constancy. C) shape constancy. D) nothing, it really is taller. 247

29 Because of motion parallax, when you are moving and fixate on something in the distance:
A) more distant objects appear to be standing still. B) the fixation point starts to move faster. C) it becomes more difficult to stay awake. D) closer objects appear to be moving in the opposite direction. 248

30 6. We sometimes reverse images because of changes in the relationship of:
A) light and shadow. B) figure-ground. C) size and dimension. D) connectedness. 243

31 7. We see this as two figures together rather than as many curved and straight lines because of the rule of: A) connectedness. B) proximity. C) continuity. D) similarity. 244

32 8. Relative Clarity helps us to determine ___ because:
A) size; clear objects appear larger. B) depth; clear objects appear farther. C) luminescence; nearer objects are brighter. D) depth; distant objects appear hazy. 247

33 9. If we assume that two objects are similar in size, the one that casts the smaller retinal image is assumed to be: A) closer. B) smaller. C) farther away. D) larger. 246

34 B) will have just as much depth. C) will have no depth.
10. Pablo is a landscape artist who was known for the depth of his paintings. After an accident, he had vision only from one eye. Since then, his paintings: A) will have less depth. B) will have just as much depth. C) will have no depth. D) may have depth but will lack in accuracy. 249

35 11. If a person were to wear glasses that distorted vision upside down, that person:
A) would eventually adapt. B) would never adapt. C) would have his vision permanently distorted. D) would adapt but now must always wear the glasses to see. 256

36 12. Psychics who claim to be clairvoyant are able to:
A) aid police departments in catching criminals. B) locate missing persons. C) sense when something bad will happen. D) make many guesses, some of which may be true. 265

37 A) clinical depression. B) context effect. C) depressogenic schemas.
13. Dave was listening to sad music when he heard the word, “morning,” which he mistook for, “mourning.” He was influenced by: A) clinical depression. B) context effect. C) depressogenic schemas. D) a low level of serotonin. 260

38 A) their brains were irreparably damaged.
14. Children who are visually impaired at birth, but are allowed to see clearly years later have difficulty perceiving because: A) their brains were irreparably damaged. B) they missed a critical period in visual development. C) their eyes have to fully mend. D) none of the above. 255

39 15. When watching a movie, we see the actors as moving because:
A) the film is moving. B) the pictures move in front of us. C) motion is constructed in our heads (stroboscopic effect) D) of strobe lights. 250

40 A) Clinical psychologist. B) Gestalt psychologist.
16. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” has been most associated with a: A) Clinical psychologist. B) Gestalt psychologist. C) Cognitive-Behavioral psychologist. D) Perceptual psychologist. 243

41 17. The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called: A) closure. B) constancy. C) interposition. D) convergence. 238

42 18. All of the following are monocular cues of depth perception except:
A) motion parallax. B) linear perspective. C) convergence. D) relative height. E) texture gradient. 246

43 A) bottom-up processing. B) previous abductions.
19. When we expect to see something because of prior learning experiences, such as seeing clouds as UFO’s, it is because of: A) bottom-up processing. B) previous abductions. C) hypnotic suggestion. D) perceptual set. 257

44 20. Human factors psychologists may use a technique called, “natural mapping,” which is:
A) drawing a plan of attacking a problem. B) moving your eyes in a repeated pattern. C) arranging controls to make them easier to understand. D) moving in precise directions. 262

45 21. Even though a door may reflect quite a different retinal image when it is open than when it is closed, we still see it as the same, rectangular door because of: A) illusory contours. B) shape constancy. C) retinal disparity. D) perceptual closure. 250

46 22: The fact that the Amazing Randi has never paid off on his claim illustrates that:
A) while ESP phenomena exist, replicating them in a laboratory is not possible. B) he fails to be convinced even though the evidence is obvious. C) he is a non-believer and a cheapskate. D) ESP phenomena have never been proven to be anything more than chance events or fakery. 267

47 23. As she gazed down from a bridge at the rapidly flowing river, Nancy felt as thought she were moving. Her experience best illustrates the phenomenon of: A) retinal disparity. B) perceptual adaptation. C) location constancy. D) visual capture. 242

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