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What Is Psychology? Chapter One. Psychology as a Science Definition:

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Presentation on theme: "What Is Psychology? Chapter One. Psychology as a Science Definition:"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Is Psychology? Chapter One

2 Psychology as a Science Definition:

3 Psychology as a Science As science, uses the ______________________, as opposed to subjective opinion, to develop theories about variables to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes

4 Theory Definition: a formulation of relationships underlying observed events

5 Theory Based on assumptions about behavior and mental processes Based on assumptions about behavior and mental processes Contain statements about the principles and laws that may govern them Contain statements about the principles and laws that may govern them

6 Theory Allow us to derive explanations and predictions Allow us to derive explanations and predictions ______________, ____________, ______________, _____________ ______________, ____________, ______________, _____________

7 What Psychologists Do Wide variety of subject areas for psychologists Pure Research vs. Applied Research

8 What Psychologists Do ________________: Conducted without concern for immediate applications to personal or social problems (research for its own sake)

9 What Psychologists Do _________________: Designed to find solutions to specific personal or social problems

10 Subfields of Psychology Clinical Clinical Counseling Counseling School School Educational Educational

11 Subfields of Psychology Developmental Developmental Social/Personality Social/Personality Experimental Experimental Cognitive Cognitive

12 Subfields of Psychology Industrial/Organizational Industrial/Organizational Physiological/Biological Physiological/Biological Emerging Fields: Forensic & Health Emerging Fields: Forensic & Health

13 Clinical Psychology Specialize in helping people with psychological problems adjust to the demands of life Ex: anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunctions, loss of goals Specialize in helping people with psychological problems adjust to the demands of life Ex: anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunctions, loss of goals Evaluate problems through structural interviews and psychological tests Evaluate problems through structural interviews and psychological tests

14 Clinical Psychology Help clients resolve their problems and change maladaptive behavior through techniques of ______________ and ______________________

15 Clinical Psychology Psychotherapy: Application of psychological knowledge to the treatment of problem behavior

16 Clinical Psychology Behavior Therapy: Application of learning to the direct _________________ of problem behavior

17 Clinical Psychology Work in institutions for mentally ill, outpatient clinics, college clinics, private practice Work in institutions for mentally ill, outpatient clinics, college clinics, private practice __________________ subgroup (what most people think when hear about psych) __________________ subgroup (what most people think when hear about psych) Differs from psychiatrist (medical doctors who specialize in treatment) Differs from psychiatrist (medical doctors who specialize in treatment)

18 Counseling Counsel people facing challenges Counsel people facing challenges Use interviews and tests to define their clients problems Use interviews and tests to define their clients problems Clients typically have ___________________ problems but not serious psychological disorders Clients typically have ___________________ problems but not serious psychological disorders

19 Counseling Clients may encounter difficulty in making academic or vocational decisions or making friends, marital and family conflicts, physical handicaps, adjustment problems Clients may encounter difficulty in making academic or vocational decisions or making friends, marital and family conflicts, physical handicaps, adjustment problems Various counseling methods to help clients clarify goals and find ways of surmounting goals Various counseling methods to help clients clarify goals and find ways of surmounting goals

20 Counseling Employed at college counseling and testing centers, rehabilitation agencies

21 School Psychologists Facilitating the social, intellectual, and emotional development of _____________ Facilitating the social, intellectual, and emotional development of _____________ Work in schools Work in schools Consult with students with problems that interfere with _______________ Consult with students with problems that interfere with _______________ Ex: social, family, emotional problems, and specific learning disorders

22 School Psychologists Define problems through: interviews with parents, teachers, students, achievement and intelligence tests, classroom observations Define problems through: interviews with parents, teachers, students, achievement and intelligence tests, classroom observations Consult with teachers, school officials, parents, teachers and other professionals Consult with teachers, school officials, parents, teachers and other professionals Placement of students in special education and remediation programs Placement of students in special education and remediation programs

23 Educational Psychologists Concerned with optimizing classroom conditions to _________________________ Concerned with optimizing classroom conditions to _________________________ Design educational programs and train teachers Design educational programs and train teachers

24 Educational Psychologists Improvement of course planning and instructional methods Improvement of course planning and instructional methods Research interests include how motivation, intelligence, sociocultural factors such as poverty and acculturation and teacher behavior affect learning Research interests include how motivation, intelligence, sociocultural factors such as poverty and acculturation and teacher behavior affect learning

25 Developmental Study the changes (physical, emotional, cognitive, and social) that occur throughout the life span Study the changes (physical, emotional, cognitive, and social) that occur throughout the life span Influences of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) on development Influences of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) on development Topics: effects of maternal drug use on the embryo, child rearing practices, adolescent conflicts, adjustment among older people Topics: effects of maternal drug use on the embryo, child rearing practices, adolescent conflicts, adjustment among older people

26 Social/personality How we influence and interact with ____________________ How we influence and interact with ____________________ Define human traits, determine influence on thought processes, feelings and behavior, explain psychological disorders Define human traits, determine influence on thought processes, feelings and behavior, explain psychological disorders Human issues (anxiety, aggression, gender roles) Human issues (anxiety, aggression, gender roles)

27 Social/personality Social and external influences Social and external influences Attitude formation and change, interpersonal attractions and likings, stereotypes, conformity to group norms, group decision making processes Attitude formation and change, interpersonal attractions and likings, stereotypes, conformity to group norms, group decision making processes Personality: tend to look within the person for explanations of behavior Personality: tend to look within the person for explanations of behavior

28 Experimental Conduct _______________ into fundamental processes relevant to more applied specialties Conduct _______________ into fundamental processes relevant to more applied specialties Nervous system, sensation, perception, learning, memory, thought, motivation, emotion Nervous system, sensation, perception, learning, memory, thought, motivation, emotion More likely to engage in basic or pure research (usually study animals) More likely to engage in basic or pure research (usually study animals)

29 Industrial/Organizational Behavior in the ______________; improving businesses in areas such as personnel, organizational efficiency Behavior in the ______________; improving businesses in areas such as personnel, organizational efficiency Relationships between people and work Relationships between people and work Assist in processes such as hiring, training, and promotion Assist in processes such as hiring, training, and promotion

30 Industrial/Organizational Devise tests that predict successful performance of various jobs (gallup poll) Devise tests that predict successful performance of various jobs (gallup poll) Make technical systems (computer) more user friendly Make technical systems (computer) more user friendly Strategies to appeal to the ________________ Strategies to appeal to the ________________

31 Emerging Fields _______________: expertise within the criminal-justice system _______________: expertise within the criminal-justice system Serve as expert witnesses, testify about competence of defendants to stand trial or describe mental disorders and how affect _____________________________ Serve as expert witnesses, testify about competence of defendants to stand trial or describe mental disorders and how affect _____________________________ Counsel officers help with stress, hostage situations, suicide threats Counsel officers help with stress, hostage situations, suicide threats

32 Emerging Fields ________________:examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes such as attitudes are related to physical health ________________:examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes such as attitudes are related to physical health Headaches, cardiovascular disease, cancer Headaches, cardiovascular disease, cancer Patient compliance with medical advice Patient compliance with medical advice Guide clients to take undertake more healthy behaviors such as exercising, quitting smoking, healthy diet Guide clients to take undertake more healthy behaviors such as exercising, quitting smoking, healthy diet

33 Which subfield are you most interested in and why?

34 Where does Psychology Come From? A Brief History

35 Psychology is as old as history and as modern as today Aristotle: Greek philosopher Peri Psyches (About the Psyche)-nature of mind behavior People are basically motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain (modern view)

36 Psychology is as old as history and as modern as today Democritus: behavior as body and a mind Behavior influenced by external stimulation First to raise issue of free will or choice

37 Psychology is as old as history and as modern as today If we are influenced by external forces, can we be said to control our own behavior? Question: where do the influences of others end and our real selves begin?

38 Structuralism Willhelm Wundt: ____________________ ____________________________________ 1897: established first psychological laboratory in Leipzig,Germany Claimed that the mind was a natural event and could be studied scientifically (light, heat, flow of blood)

39 Structuralism Define makeup of conscious experience, breaking it down into objective sensations (light and taste) and subjective feelings (emotional responses, will, mental images) Believe that mind functions by creatively combining the ________________________________

40 Functionalism Emphasizes the uses or functions of the _____________ rather than the elements of experience Deals with overt behavior as well as consciousness

41 Functionalism William James (1842-1910): Wrote first modern psychology textbook, The Principles of Psychology

42 Functionalism Influenced by Darwins survival of the fittest theory The fittest behavior patterns survive Adaptive actions tend to be repeated and become habits

43 Behaviorism John Watson (1878-1958): Founder of behaviorism Psychology must limit itself to ________________, ____________________ events- to behavior

44 Behaviorism Examples: Pressing a lever, turning left or right, eating and mating, heart rate, dilation of the pupils

45 Behaviorism Psychology address the learning of measurable responses to environmental stimuli Pavlovs salivating dogs (conditioning not mental processes)

46 Behaviorism B.F Skinner (1904-1990): ___________________: organisms learn to behave in certain ways because they have been reinforced for doing so

47 Gestalt Focused on _________________ and on how perception influences thinking and problem solving

48 Gestalt Perceptions more than the sum of its parts Wholes that give meaning to parts

49 Gestalt Learning to solve problems, is accomplished by ________________, not by mechanical repetition Aha moment flash of insight

50 Psychoanalysis Emphasizes the importance of ________________ motives and ______________ as determinants of human behavior

51 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Believed that unconscious thought, especially sexual and aggressive impulses, were more influential than conscious thought in determining human behavior.

52 Psychoanalysis Thought mind was unconscious, consisting of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes. People motivated to gratify these impulses and urges

53 Psychoanalysis Freud: gained his understanding of people through clinical interviews with patients Gain insight into deep-seated conflicts and find socially acceptable ways of expressing wishes and gratifying needs

54 How Todays Psychologists View Behavior

55 Perspectives Biological (Neuroscience) Cognitive Humanistic-Existential Psychodynamic Behavioral (Learning) Socialcultural Evolutionary

56 56 Psychologys Perspectives The Big Seven

57 57 Neuroscience Perspective Focus on how the physical body and brain creates our emotions, memories and sensory experiences. Study hormones, genes, and activity of the central nervous system, especially the ________________.

58 58 Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on Darwinism. We behave the way we do because we __________ those behaviors. Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors ________________. How could this behavior ensured Homers ancestors survival?

59 59 Approaches cont. Evolutionary/Sociobiological Focus is on how certain behaviors may have helped our ancestors survive. (mother nature practicing selective breeding)

60 60 Psychodynamic Perspective Fathered by Sigmund ___________. Our behavior comes from _____________ drives. Usually stemming from our __________. What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?

61 61 Psychoanalysis Emphasizes the importance of ____________ motives and ___________ as determinants of human behavior

62 62 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Believed that unconscious thought, especially sexual and aggressive impulses, were more influential than conscious thought in determining human behavior.

63 63 Psychoanalysis Thought mind was unconscious, consisting of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes. People motivated to gratify these impulses and urges

64 64 Psychoanalysis Freud: gained his understanding of people through clinical __________ with patients Gain insight into deep-seated conflicts and find socially acceptable ways of expressing wishes and gratifying needs

65 65 Behavioral Perspective Focuses on our ____________ behaviors. Only cares about the behaviors that impair our living, and attempts to change them. If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.

66 66 BEHAVIORISTS How people learn __________ and ________________ John B. Watson

67 67 Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how we think (or encode information) How do we see the world? How did we learn to act to sad or happy events? Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you __________. Meet girl Get Rejected by girl Did you learn to be depressed Or get back on the horse

68 68 Approaches cont. GESTALT consider behavior in context rather than in isolation (age, race, gender, money, time, family, etc.) Perceptions more than the sum of its parts Wholes that give meaning to parts COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY not just rewards and punishment How people perceive, store and interpret information How thought processes develop over time (10 years old compared to today)

69 69 Social-Cultural Perspective Focus on how your _________ effects your behavior. Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures. How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation

70 70 Humanistic Perspective Focuses on positive growth Attempt to seek _________________ Therapists use active __________ and _____________ positive regard. Mr. Rogers would have made a great Humanistic Therapist!!!

71 71 Approaches cont. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY people try to achieve their maximum potential (self actualization) Promote health and self-growth ECLECTIC Combination of approaches

72 72 Psychologys Current Perspectives PerspectiveFocusSample Questions NeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of ones genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?

73 73 Psychologys Current Perspectives PerspectiveFocusSample Questions PsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someones personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas? BehavioralHow we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?

74 74 Psychologys Current Perspectives PerspectiveFocusSample Questions CognitiveHow we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving? Social-culturalHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?

75 Human Diversity

76 Ethnic Diversity

77 Biculturalism Functions competently within:

78 Probing of human diversity Enables students to appreciate the cultural heritages and historical problems of various ethnic groups

79 Question How can psychologists hope to understand the aspirations and problems of individuals from an ethnic group without understanding the history and cultural heritage of that group?

80 Gender The state of being male or female Not simply a matter of anatomic sex

81 Gender Involves:

82 Question How can sciences such as psychology and medicine hope to understand the particular viewpoints, qualities, and problems of women if most research is conducted with men and by men?

83 Gender Even much of the scientific research into gender roles and gender differences assumes that male behavior represents the norm.

84 Other Kinds of Diversity

85 Contributors Know the different contributions made by women and different ethnic individuals.

86 Critical Thinking

87 Principles of critical thinking Recognizing common fallacies in arguments Critical thinking=education


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