3 Psychology as a Science As science, uses the ______________________, as opposed to subjective opinion, to develop theories about variables to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes
4 Definition: a formulation of relationships underlying observed events TheoryDefinition: a formulation of relationships underlying observed eventsDescribe: The play activity of a 5 year oldExplain: Theory of why 5-year old developed such play activityPredict: What would occur with a different child with similar or different experiences?Control: How can we influence the development of play activity? (for the benefit of the individual, rather than to meet the goals or demands of others
5 Theory Based on assumptions about behavior and mental processes Contain statements about the principles and laws that may govern themDescribe: The play activity of a 5 year oldExplain: Theory of why 5-year old developed such play activityPredict: What would occur with a different child with similar or different experiences?Control: How can we influence the development of play activity? (for the benefit of the individual, rather than to meet the goals or demands of others
6 Theory Allow us to derive explanations and predictions ______________, ____________, ______________, _____________Describe: The play activity of a 5 year oldExplain: Theory of why 5-year old developed such play activityPredict: What would occur with a different child with similar or different experiences?Control: How can we influence the development of play activity? (for the benefit of the individual, rather than to meet the goals or demands of others
7 What Psychologists Do Wide variety of subject areas for psychologists Pure Research vs. Applied Research
8 What Psychologists Do________________: Conducted without concern for immediate applications to personal or social problems (research for its own sake)
9 What Psychologists Do_________________: Designed to find solutions to specific personal or social problems
10 Subfields of Psychology ClinicalCounselingSchoolEducational
11 Subfields of Psychology DevelopmentalSocial/PersonalityExperimentalCognitive
12 Subfields of Psychology Industrial/OrganizationalPhysiological/BiologicalEmerging Fields: Forensic & Health
13 Clinical PsychologySpecialize in helping people with psychological problems adjust to the demands of life Ex: anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunctions, loss of goalsEvaluate problems through structural interviews and psychological tests
14 Clinical PsychologyHelp clients resolve their problems and change maladaptive behavior through techniques of ______________ and ______________________
15 Clinical Psychology Psychotherapy: Application of psychological knowledge to the treatment of problem behavior
16 Clinical PsychologyBehavior Therapy:Application of learning to the direct _________________ of problem behavior
17 Clinical PsychologyWork in institutions for mentally ill, outpatient clinics, college clinics, private practice__________________ subgroup (what most people think when hear about psych)Differs from psychiatrist (medical doctors who specialize in treatment)
18 Counseling Counsel people facing challenges Use interviews and tests to define their clients problemsClients typically have ___________________ problems but not serious psychological disorders
19 CounselingClients may encounter difficulty in making academic or vocational decisions or making friends, marital and family conflicts, physical handicaps, adjustment problemsVarious counseling methods to help clients clarify goals and find ways of surmounting goals
20 CounselingEmployed at college counseling and testing centers, rehabilitation agencies
21 School PsychologistsFacilitating the social, intellectual, and emotional development of _____________Work in schoolsConsult with students with problems that interfere with _______________Ex: social, family, emotional problems, and specific learning disorders
22 School PsychologistsDefine problems through: interviews with parents, teachers, students, achievement and intelligence tests, classroom observationsConsult with teachers, school officials, parents, teachers and other professionalsPlacement of students in special education and remediation programs
23 Educational Psychologists Concerned with optimizing classroom conditions to _________________________Design educational programs and train teachers
24 Educational Psychologists Improvement of course planning and instructional methodsResearch interests include how motivation, intelligence, sociocultural factors such as poverty and acculturation and teacher behavior affect learning
25 DevelopmentalStudy the changes (physical, emotional, cognitive, and social) that occur throughout the life spanInfluences of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) on developmentTopics: effects of maternal drug use on the embryo, child rearing practices, adolescent conflicts, adjustment among older people
26 Social/personalityHow we influence and interact with ____________________Define human traits, determine influence on thought processes, feelings and behavior, explain psychological disordersHuman issues (anxiety, aggression, gender roles)
27 Social and external influences Social/personalitySocial and external influencesAttitude formation and change, interpersonal attractions and likings, stereotypes, conformity to group norms, group decision making processesPersonality: tend to look within the person for explanations of behavior
28 ExperimentalConduct _______________ into fundamental processes relevant to more applied specialtiesNervous system, sensation, perception, learning, memory, thought, motivation, emotionMore likely to engage in basic or pure research (usually study animals)
29 Industrial/Organizational Behavior in the ______________; improving businesses in areas such as personnel, organizational efficiencyRelationships between people and workAssist in processes such as hiring, training, and promotion
30 Industrial/Organizational Devise tests that predict successful performance of various jobs (gallup poll)Make technical systems (computer) more user friendlyStrategies to appeal to the ________________
31 Emerging Fields_______________: expertise within the criminal-justice systemServe as expert witnesses, testify about competence of defendants to stand trial or describe mental disorders and how affect _____________________________Counsel officers help with stress, hostage situations, suicide threats
32 Emerging Fields________________:examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes such as attitudes are related to physical healthHeadaches, cardiovascular disease, cancerPatient compliance with medical adviceGuide clients to take undertake more healthy behaviors such as exercising, quitting smoking, healthy diet
33 Which subfield are you most interested in and why?
34 Where does Psychology Come From? A Brief History
35 Psychology is as old as history and as modern as today Aristotle: Greek philosopherPeri Psyches (About the Psyche)-nature of mind behaviorPeople are basically motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain (modern view)
36 Psychology is as old as history and as modern as today Democritus: behavior as body and a mindBehavior influenced by external stimulationFirst to raise issue of free will or choice
37 Psychology is as old as history and as modern as today If we are influenced by external forces, can we be said to control our own behavior?Question: where do the influences of others end and our “real selves” begin?
38 StructuralismWillhelm Wundt: ____________________ ____________________________________1897: established first psychological laboratory in Leipzig,GermanyClaimed that the mind was a natural event and could be studied scientifically (light, heat, flow of blood)
39 StructuralismDefine makeup of conscious experience, breaking it down into objective sensations (light and taste) and subjective feelings (emotional responses, will, mental images)Believe that mind functions by creatively combining the ________________________________
40 FunctionalismEmphasizes the uses or functions of the _____________ rather than the elements of experienceDeals with overt behavior as well as consciousness
41 FunctionalismWilliam James ( ): Wrote first modern psychology textbook, The Principles of Psychology
42 Functionalism The “fittest” behavior patterns survive Influenced by Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theoryThe “fittest” behavior patterns surviveAdaptive actions tend to be repeated and become habits
43 BehaviorismJohn Watson ( ): Founder of behaviorismPsychology must limit itself to ________________, ____________________ events-to behavior
44 Behaviorism Examples: Pressing a lever, turning left or right, eating and mating, heart rate, dilation of the pupils
45 BehaviorismPsychology address the learning of measurable responses to environmental stimuliPavlov’s salivating dogs (conditioning not mental processes)
46 Behaviorism B.F Skinner (1904-1990): ___________________: organisms learn to behave in certain ways because they have been reinforced for doing so
47 GestaltFocused on _________________ and on how perception influences thinking and problem solving
48 Gestalt Wholes that give meaning to parts Perceptions more than the sum of its partsWholes that give meaning to parts
49 GestaltLearning to solve problems, is accomplished by ________________, not by mechanical repetition“Aha moment” flash of insight
50 PsychoanalysisEmphasizes the importance of ________________ motives and ______________ as determinants of human behavior
51 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Believed that unconscious thought , especially sexual and aggressive impulses, were more influential than conscious thought in determining human behavior.
52 Psychoanalysis People motivated to gratify these impulses and urges Thought mind was unconscious, consisting of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.People motivated to gratify these impulses and urges
53 PsychoanalysisFreud: gained his understanding of people through clinical interviews with patientsGain insight into deep-seated conflicts and find socially acceptable ways of expressing wishes and gratifying needs
57 Neuroscience Perspective Focus on how the physical body and brain creates our emotions, memories and sensory experiences.Study hormones, genes, and activity of the central nervous system, especially the ________________.
58 Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on Darwinism.We behave the way we do because we __________ those behaviors.Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors ________________.How could this behavior ensured Homer’s ancestors survival?
59 Approaches cont. Evolutionary/Sociobiological Focus is on how certain behaviors may have helped our ancestors survive. (mother nature practicing selective breeding)
60 Psychodynamic Perspective Fathered by Sigmund ___________.Our behavior comes from _____________ drives.Usually stemming from our __________.What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?
61 PsychoanalysisEmphasizes the importance of ____________ motives and ___________ as determinants of human behaviorPsychology 7e in Modules
62 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Believed that unconscious thought , especially sexual and aggressive impulses, were more influential than conscious thought in determining human behavior.Psychology 7e in Modules
63 Psychoanalysis People motivated to gratify these impulses and urges Thought mind was unconscious, consisting of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.People motivated to gratify these impulses and urgesPsychology 7e in Modules
64 PsychoanalysisFreud: gained his understanding of people through clinical __________ with patientsGain insight into deep-seated conflicts and find socially acceptable ways of expressing wishes and gratifying needsPsychology 7e in Modules
65 Behavioral Perspective Focuses on our ____________ behaviors.Only cares about the behaviors that impair our living, and attempts to change them.If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.
66 BEHAVIORISTS How people learn __________ and ________________ John B. WatsonJohn B. WatsonPsychology 7e in Modules
67 Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how we think (or encode information)How do we see the world?How did we learn to act to sad or happy events?Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you __________.Meet girlGet Rejected by girlDid you learn to be depressedOr get back on the horse
68 Approaches cont. Perceptions more than the sum of its parts GESTALTconsider behavior in context rather than in isolation (age, race, gender, money, time, family, etc.)Perceptions more than the sum of its partsWholes that give meaning to partsCOGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGYnot just rewards and punishmentHow people perceive, store and interpret informationHow thought processes develop over time (10 years old compared to today)
69 Social-Cultural Perspective Focus on how your _________ effects your behavior.Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation
70 Humanistic Perspective Focuses on positive growthAttempt to seek _________________Therapists use active __________ and _____________ positive regard.Mr. Rogers would have made a great Humanistic Therapist!!!
71 Approaches cont. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY ECLECTIC people try to achieve their maximum potential (self actualization)Promote health and self-growthECLECTICCombination of approaches
72 Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsNeuroscienceHow the body and brain enables emotions?How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?EvolutionaryHow the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes?How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?Behavior geneticsHow much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences?To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?Although debates arise among the psychologists working from differing perspectives, each point of view addresses important questions.Psychology 7e in Modules
73 Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsPsychodynamicHow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts?How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?BehavioralHow we learn observable responses?How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
74 Psychology’s Current Perspectives FocusSample QuestionsCognitiveHow we encode, process, store and retrieve information?How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?Social-culturalHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?How are we — as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?