2Learning1)Behaviorists:relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience2) Cognitive:learning is made evident by behavioral change, but learning is defined as an internal and not directly observable process.
3Classical Conditioning Involves some of the ways in which we learn to associate events (red traffic light=stop)Ivan Pavlov:Salivating dogsSalivation in response to meat powder=Reflex (unlearned response to a stimuli)
4Classical Conditioning Stimulus: an environmental condition that elicits a response (ex:stopping because we see a red light)Pavlov discovered that reflexes can also be learned, or conditioned, through association (dogs began to salivate when they heard clinking of a food tray)
5US,UR,CS,CR Unconditioned Stimulus (US):meat powder Unconditioned response (UR):salivation in response to the meat powder is unlearned
6US,UR,CS,CRConditioned stimulus (CS): ringing of the bell (before it was just a neutral stimulus not associated with anything)Conditioned response (CR): salivation in response to the bell is learned
8More examples US: walking my puppy UR: puppy gets excited CS: leash or running shoesCR: puppy gets excited_________________________US: dancing with your crush to a love songUR: getting warm fuzziesCS: hearing the love song randomlyCR: getting warm fuzzies
10ExtinctionThe process by which conditioned stimuli (CS) lose the ability to elicit conditioned responses (CR) because the CSs are no longer associated with unconditioned stimuli (US)The CS no longer serves its predictive function (ex: bell and no food)
11Spontaneous RecoveryThe recurrence of an extinguished response as a function of the passage of timePairing the CS with the US once more will build response strength rapidly(ex: present food after ringing the bell)
12GeneralizationAdaptation requires that we respond similarly to stimuli that are equivalent in function and that we respond differently to stimuli that are notGeneralization:the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned (Ex:Little Albert)
14Discrimination Organisms must also learn 1)That many stimuli perceived as being similar are functionally different2) Respond adaptively to eachEx: presenting circles and ellipses to salivating dogs, discriminate between houses, spouses, etc
15Higher-Order Conditioning A previously neutral stimulus comes to serve as a CS after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become the CSEx: lightbellsalivateTV showcar in drivewaysqueal of happiness
16FloodingFear-evoking reduction technique in which the fear-evoking stimuli (CS) are presented continuously in the absence of harm so that fear responses (CR) are extinguishedEx: Little Albert-presenting rat without the banging noise until the fear is no longer evokedCan be unpleasant
17Systematic Desensitization Client is exposed gradually to fear-evoking stimuli under circumstances in which he or she is relaxedEx: when Little Albert is relaxed, show him pictures of rats before gradually bringing them over
18CounterconditioningA pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fear-evoking object, in this way counteracting the fear responseEx: Joneses experiment with 2 year old Peter.Placed rabbit in corner of room while Peter munched on cookies. Gradually, the animal was brought closer. Peter ate treats and touched the rabbit at the same time
20Operant ConditioningA simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced.
21Edward L. ThorndikeCats in a box-trial and errorAs trials were repeated, it would take less time for the cat to pull the stringLaw of Effect: responses are “stamped in” by rewards (escaping from box and eating) and “stamped out” by punishments.
22B.F. SkinnerReinforce: to follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the responseOperant behavior: an organism learns to do something because of its effects or consequences
23Classical conditioning-response was involuntary (salivation, eyeblink) Operant Conditioning-response is voluntary (pressing lever, athletic skills)
24“Skinner Box” Hungry rats in a cage Sniffed around the cage and engaged in random behaviorRat’s first pressing of lever is by accident-food pellet dropped in cageFood pellet increased the probability that the rat would press lever againPellet serves as a reinforcement for the lever pressing
25Types of ReinforcersPositive: a reinforcer that when presented increases the frequency of the operant (pellet, approval, praise)Negative: a reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of an operant (removal of fear and pain)
26Types of Reinforcers (food, water, warmth) Primary-an unlearned reinforcer that are effective because of the biological makeup of the organism(food, water, warmth)Secondary- a stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers(money, attention, social approval)
27Positive Reinforcer Studying Positive reinforcer Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorStudying Positive reinforcer (Teacher approval) frequency of is presented behavior increases-when student ( student studies more)studies
28Negative Reinforcer Studying Negative reinforcer Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorStudying Negative reinforcer (Teacher disapproval) frequency of is removed behavior increases-when student ( student studies more)studies
29Rewards and Punishments Reward: a pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows
30Rewards and Punishments Punishments: an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows-although it works it is usually undesirable (pg )-better to focus on rewarding behavior
31Negative Reinforcer Studying Negative reinforcer Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorStudying Negative reinforcer (Teacher disapproval) frequency of is removed behavior increases-when student ( student studies more)studies
32Punishment Talking in Punishment Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorTalking in Punishment class (detention) frequency of is presented behavior decreases-when student ( student talks less intalks in class class)
33Discriminative Stimulus Act as cuesThey provide information about when an operant (pecking a button) will be reinforced (food pellet dropping in cage)Learn social discriminative stimuli (smiles, tones of voice, body language)
34Schedules of Reinforcment Continuous reinforcement-a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforcedPartial reinforcement-one of several reinforcement schedules in which not ever correct response is reinforced (gambling and slot machines)
35ShapingA procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first reinforces approximation of the target behavior (smiling and saying good)Ex: driving stick shift car-first reinforce and say good when they shift without stalling
36Token EconomiesAn environmental setting that fosters desired behavior by reinforcing it with tokens (secondary reinforcers)Ex: giving tickets for good behavior and using the tickets to buy goodiesStar stickers for reading: more stars allows you free time or buy more books etc.
38Contingency TheoryLearning occurs when stimuli provides information about the likelihood of the occurrence of other stimuli.Ex: Rescorla’s dogs(tone and shock)
39Latent Learning hidden or concealed Latent: Tolman’s rats: Rats learned about mazes in which they roamed even when they were unrewarded for doing soRats would acquire a cognitive map of the mazeLearning remained hidden until they were motivated to follow the rapid routes for food goals
40Observational Learning The acquisition of knowledge and skills through the observation of others (who are called models) rather than by means of direct experience.
41Observational Learning May account for most human learningNot mechanically acquired through reinforcementWe can learn by observation without engaging in overt responses at allEx: observe parents cook, read, clean
42Modeling Models may be live, symbolic, or verbal instruction Behaviors learned:Academic skills: reading, problem-solvingAggression: doll experiment, media violenceMoral thinking: generosity, self-control, temptation resistance
43Modeling Learn new behaviors and ways of responding Effects of modeling on Behavior:Learn new behaviors and ways of respondingReinforcement may facilitate or inhibit frequency of behaviorsIncreases similar behavior
44Modeling Traits of Effective Models: Perceived as competent, successful, and high status individualsTypically exhibit “gender-appropriate” behaviorRelevant to observer’s situation