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Learning: Classical Conditioning

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Presentation on theme: "Learning: Classical Conditioning"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning: Classical Conditioning

2 Learning 1)Behaviorists:relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience 2) Cognitive:learning is made evident by behavioral change, but learning is defined as an internal and not directly observable process.

3 Classical Conditioning
Involves some of the ways in which we learn to associate events (red traffic light=stop) Ivan Pavlov:Salivating dogs Salivation in response to meat powder=Reflex (unlearned response to a stimuli)

4 Classical Conditioning
Stimulus: an environmental condition that elicits a response (ex:stopping because we see a red light) Pavlov discovered that reflexes can also be learned, or conditioned, through association (dogs began to salivate when they heard clinking of a food tray)

5 US,UR,CS,CR Unconditioned Stimulus (US):meat powder
Unconditioned response (UR):salivation in response to the meat powder is unlearned

6 US,UR,CS,CR Conditioned stimulus (CS): ringing of the bell (before it was just a neutral stimulus not associated with anything) Conditioned response (CR): salivation in response to the bell is learned

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8 More examples US: walking my puppy UR: puppy gets excited
CS: leash or running shoes CR: puppy gets excited _________________________ US: dancing with your crush to a love song UR: getting warm fuzzies CS: hearing the love song randomly CR: getting warm fuzzies

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10 Extinction The process by which conditioned stimuli (CS) lose the ability to elicit conditioned responses (CR) because the CSs are no longer associated with unconditioned stimuli (US) The CS no longer serves its predictive function (ex: bell and no food)

11 Spontaneous Recovery The recurrence of an extinguished response as a function of the passage of time Pairing the CS with the US once more will build response strength rapidly (ex: present food after ringing the bell)

12 Generalization Adaptation requires that we respond similarly to stimuli that are equivalent in function and that we respond differently to stimuli that are not Generalization:the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned (Ex:Little Albert)

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14 Discrimination Organisms must also learn
1)That many stimuli perceived as being similar are functionally different 2) Respond adaptively to each Ex: presenting circles and ellipses to salivating dogs, discriminate between houses, spouses, etc

15 Higher-Order Conditioning
A previously neutral stimulus comes to serve as a CS after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become the CS Ex: lightbellsalivate TV showcar in drivewaysqueal of happiness

16 Flooding Fear-evoking reduction technique in which the fear-evoking stimuli (CS) are presented continuously in the absence of harm so that fear responses (CR) are extinguished Ex: Little Albert-presenting rat without the banging noise until the fear is no longer evoked Can be unpleasant

17 Systematic Desensitization
Client is exposed gradually to fear-evoking stimuli under circumstances in which he or she is relaxed Ex: when Little Albert is relaxed, show him pictures of rats before gradually bringing them over

18 Counterconditioning A pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fear-evoking object, in this way counteracting the fear response Ex: Joneses experiment with 2 year old Peter. Placed rabbit in corner of room while Peter munched on cookies. Gradually, the animal was brought closer. Peter ate treats and touched the rabbit at the same time

19 Learning: Operant Conditioning

20 Operant Conditioning A simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced.

21 Edward L. Thorndike Cats in a box-trial and error As trials were repeated, it would take less time for the cat to pull the string Law of Effect: responses are “stamped in” by rewards (escaping from box and eating) and “stamped out” by punishments.

22 B.F. Skinner Reinforce: to follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the response Operant behavior: an organism learns to do something because of its effects or consequences

23 Classical conditioning-response was involuntary (salivation, eyeblink)
Operant Conditioning-response is voluntary (pressing lever, athletic skills)

24 “Skinner Box” Hungry rats in a cage
Sniffed around the cage and engaged in random behavior Rat’s first pressing of lever is by accident-food pellet dropped in cage Food pellet increased the probability that the rat would press lever again Pellet serves as a reinforcement for the lever pressing

25 Types of Reinforcers Positive: a reinforcer that when presented increases the frequency of the operant (pellet, approval, praise) Negative: a reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of an operant (removal of fear and pain)

26 Types of Reinforcers (food, water, warmth)
Primary-an unlearned reinforcer that are effective because of the biological makeup of the organism (food, water, warmth) Secondary- a stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers (money, attention, social approval)

27 Positive Reinforcer Studying  Positive reinforcer  
Behavior Consequence Change in Behavior Studying  Positive reinforcer   (Teacher approval) frequency of is presented behavior increases- when student ( student studies more) studies

28 Negative Reinforcer Studying  Negative reinforcer  
Behavior Consequence Change in Behavior Studying  Negative reinforcer   (Teacher disapproval) frequency of is removed behavior increases- when student ( student studies more) studies

29 Rewards and Punishments
Reward: a pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows

30 Rewards and Punishments
Punishments: an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows -although it works it is usually undesirable (pg ) -better to focus on rewarding behavior

31 Negative Reinforcer Studying  Negative reinforcer  
Behavior Consequence Change in Behavior Studying  Negative reinforcer   (Teacher disapproval) frequency of is removed behavior increases- when student ( student studies more) studies

32 Punishment Talking in  Punishment  
Behavior Consequence Change in Behavior Talking in  Punishment   class (detention) frequency of is presented behavior decreases- when student ( student talks less in talks in class class)

33 Discriminative Stimulus
Act as cues They provide information about when an operant (pecking a button) will be reinforced (food pellet dropping in cage) Learn social discriminative stimuli (smiles, tones of voice, body language)

34 Schedules of Reinforcment
Continuous reinforcement-a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforced Partial reinforcement-one of several reinforcement schedules in which not ever correct response is reinforced (gambling and slot machines)

35 Shaping A procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first reinforces approximation of the target behavior (smiling and saying good) Ex: driving stick shift car-first reinforce and say good when they shift without stalling

36 Token Economies An environmental setting that fosters desired behavior by reinforcing it with tokens (secondary reinforcers) Ex: giving tickets for good behavior and using the tickets to buy goodies Star stickers for reading: more stars allows you free time or buy more books etc.

37 Learning: Cognitive Factors

38 Contingency Theory Learning occurs when stimuli provides information about the likelihood of the occurrence of other stimuli. Ex: Rescorla’s dogs (tone and shock)

39 Latent Learning hidden or concealed Latent: Tolman’s rats:
Rats learned about mazes in which they roamed even when they were unrewarded for doing so Rats would acquire a cognitive map of the maze Learning remained hidden until they were motivated to follow the rapid routes for food goals

40 Observational Learning
The acquisition of knowledge and skills through the observation of others (who are called models) rather than by means of direct experience.

41 Observational Learning
May account for most human learning Not mechanically acquired through reinforcement We can learn by observation without engaging in overt responses at all Ex: observe parents cook, read, clean

42 Modeling Models may be live, symbolic, or verbal instruction
Behaviors learned: Academic skills: reading, problem-solving Aggression: doll experiment, media violence Moral thinking: generosity, self-control, temptation resistance

43 Modeling Learn new behaviors and ways of responding
Effects of modeling on Behavior: Learn new behaviors and ways of responding Reinforcement may facilitate or inhibit frequency of behaviors Increases similar behavior

44 Modeling Traits of Effective Models:
Perceived as competent, successful, and high status individuals Typically exhibit “gender-appropriate” behavior Relevant to observer’s situation


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