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Memory. Three Kinds of Memory 1). Episodic: memories of the events that happen to a person or take place in the persons presence Breakfast, Thanksgiving,

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Presentation on theme: "Memory. Three Kinds of Memory 1). Episodic: memories of the events that happen to a person or take place in the persons presence Breakfast, Thanksgiving,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory

2 Three Kinds of Memory 1). Episodic: memories of the events that happen to a person or take place in the persons presence Breakfast, Thanksgiving, birthdays

3 Three Kinds of Memory 2). Semantic: general knowledge Concerns meanings History dates, authors, facts Remember = episodic Know=semantic

4 Three Kinds of Memory 3). Procedural: (skill memory) Knowledge of ways of doing things Ride a bike, drive a car Persevere even when you havent used it in a while

5 Mnemonic Device Systems for remembering in which items are related to easily recalled sets of symbols such as acronyms, phrases, or jingles ESP-episodic, semantic, procedural

6 Three Processes of Memory 1 ). Encoding: The first stage of information processing Modifying information so that it can be placed in memory Exercise 1:Recall list of letters a) Visual code-mental image b) Acoustic code-sequence of sounds c) Semantic code-mental representation of information according to its meaning THeUNitedSTatesOFAMerica THUNSTOFAM

7 Three Processes of Memory 2). Storage: the maintenance of information over time Maintenance rehearsal-mental repetition of information in order to keep it in memory

8 Three Processes of Memory 3). Retrieval: the location of stored information and its return to consciousness Not able to retrieve list because: Not encoded the list in a useful way Not entered the encoded information into storage Stored the information but lacked the proper cues for remembering

9 Three Stages of Memory Sensory Short-term Long-term MemoryMemory Memory This is Linda Linda? Janet? Tina? Lane? File Cabinet: People met at party Sensory Input Attention Storage & Retrieval

10 Three Stages of Memory 1). Sensory Memory: the type or stage of memory first encountered by a stimulus. Sensory memory holds impressions briefly, but long enough so that series of perceptions are psychologically continuous

11 Sensory Memory Iconic- a mental representation of a visual stimulus that is held briefly in sensory memory – Accurate, photographic memory for brief time Eidetic imagery- maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutes – Declines with age Echoic memory- sensory register that briefly holds mental representations of auditory stimuli

12 Three Stages of Memory 2). Short-term Memory: (working memory) the stage of memory that can hold information for up to a minute or so after the trace of the stimulus decays phone #s, told a name at the party Fade significantly after seconds if not rehearsed

13 Short-term Memory Exercise 2: Quarter Lists Serial-Position Effect: The tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series Primacy effect: Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items Recency effect: Tendency to recall the last items in a series of items

14 Short-term Memory Exercise 3 & 4: Chunking: A stimulus or group of stimuli that are perceived as a discrete piece of information Exercise 3-tic tac toe grid Exercise 4-move dash to left GM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI

15 Short-term Memory Rote learning: mechanical associative learning that is based on repetition Interference/Displace: to cause chunks of information to be lost from short-term memory by adding new items

16 Memory

17 Long-term Memory The third stage of processing of information capable of relatively permanent storage vast storehouse of information containing names, dates, places

18 Long-term Memories How accurate? Elizabeth Loftus: -memories are distorted by our biases and needs and by the ways in we conceptualize our worlds -schemas

19 Schemas A way of mentally representing the world, such as a belief or expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations

20 Example Loftus: – Showed video on car crash – Questionnaire asked how fast the cars were going at the time of the crash – Smashed 41 mph – Hit 34 mph – Words hit and smashed caused people to organize their knowledge about the crash in different ways

21 Eye-Witness Testimony Words chosen by an experimenter and those chosen by a lawyer interrogating a witness can influence the reconstruction of memories

22 Eye-Witness Testimony Hypnosis-can amplify and distort memories Identification of criminals- people pay more attention to clothing rather than height, weight, facial features Improvement-describe what happened rather than pump witness with suggestions

23 Short-term to Long-term Maintenance rehearsal-repetition but not effective way to place info in permanent storage vs. Elaborative rehearsal: relating new material to well-known material (meaningful) – Vocabulary

24 Flashbulb Memories Exercise: First Kiss or Love We tend to remember events that occur under unusual, emotionally arousing circumstances Ex. 5-Write down your 3 most vivid memories Ex: September 11th, first kiss, death of a loved one, heartache

25 Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon The feeling that information is stored in memory although it cannot be readily retrieved Incomplete or imperfect learning May not know exact answer but we know something Ex.6-List the 7 dwarfs

26 Seven Dwarfs SleepySneezy Dopey Doc Grumpy Bashful Happy Two Ss, Two Ds, Three Emotions

27 Context-Dependent Memory Information that is better retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored, or learned Ex: Yens room? Scene of crime, under water experiment How many of you visualize where you were when trying to remember a concept?

28 State-Dependent Memory Information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learned Ex: under the influence, mood-happy, angry, sad

29 Forgetting Failure to recognize a nonsense syllable that has been read before We dont encode info we dont consider useful (questions) Memory tasks used in measuring forgetting 1) Recognition 2) Recall 3) Relearning

30 Exercise 7: Encoding Failure 1) Which letters do not appear on the telephone dial? 2) Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides do they typically have? 3) In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch? 4) What is pictured on the back of a $20? 5) What four words besides In God We Trust appear on most US coins?

31 Answers 1) Which letters do not appear on the telephone dial? (Q, Z) 2) Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides do they typically have? (6) 3) In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch? (Right) 4) What is pictured on the $20? (White House) 5) What four words besides In God We Trust appear on most US coins? (United States of America)

32 Recognition Easiest type of memory task, involving identification of objects or events encountered before Ex: multiple choice questions Recognize photos of old classmates easier than recalling their names

33 Recall Retrieval or reconstruction of learned material More difficult than recognition (Ex.8-Draw both sides of a penny) Recall task-person must retrieve a syllable with another syllable serving as a cue (fill in the blank) Meaningful links help

34

35 Relearning A measure of retention. Material is usually relearned more quickly than it is learned initially Ex: Future Psych classes

36 Interference Theory We forget material in short-term and long- term memory because newly learned material interferes with it Retroactive vs. Proactive

37 Retroactive Interference New learning interferes with the retrieval of old learning Ex: Italian interfered with Spanish when I returned Your examples?

38 Proactive Interference Old learning interferes with the capacity to retrieve more recently learned material Ex: Spanish made learning Italian more difficult Your examples?

39 Repression Freud: – We are motivated to forget painful memories and unacceptable ideas because they produce anxiety, guilt, and shame

40 Infantile Amnesia Exercise: Write down your earliest memory Inability to recall events that occur prior to the age or 2 or 3 – No meaningful stories or connections – No reliable use of language to symbolize or classify events

41 Anterograde Amnesia Failure to remember events that occur after physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma H.M.-couldnt transfer info from short-term to long- term

42 Retrograde Amnesia Failure to remember events that occur prior to physical trauma because the effects of the trauma

43 Which one? Anterograde Amnesia Or Retrograde Amnesia


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