2 Three Kinds of Memory1). Episodic: memories of the events that happen to a person or take place in the person’s presenceBreakfast, Thanksgiving, birthdays
3 2). Semantic: general knowledge Three Kinds of Memory2). Semantic: general knowledgeConcerns meaningsHistory dates, authors, factsRemember = episodicKnow=semantic
4 3). Procedural: (skill memory) Knowledge of ways of doing things Three Kinds of Memory3). Procedural: (skill memory)Knowledge of ways of doing thingsRide a bike, drive a carPersevere even when you haven’t used it in a while
5 Mnemonic DeviceSystems for remembering in which items are related to easily recalled sets of symbols such as acronyms, phrases, or jinglesESP-episodic, semantic, procedural
6 Three Processes of Memory 1). Encoding:The first stage of information processingModifying information so that it can be placed in memoryExercise 1:Recall list of lettersa) Visual code-mental imageb) Acoustic code-sequence of soundsc) Semantic code-mental representation of information according to its meaningTHeUNitedSTatesOFAMericaTHUNSTOFAM
7 Three Processes of Memory 2). Storage: the maintenance of information over timeMaintenance rehearsal-mental repetition of information in order to keep it in memory
8 Three Processes of Memory 3). Retrieval: the location of stored information and its return to consciousnessNot able to retrieve list because:Not encoded the list in a useful wayNot entered the encoded information into storageStored the information but lacked the proper cues for remembering
9 Three Stages of Memory Sensory Short-term Long-term Linda? Janet?Tina? Lane?File Cabinet:People met atpartySensory Short-term Long-termMemory Memory Memory This is LindaStorage&RetrievalSensoryInputAttention
10 Three Stages of Memory1). Sensory Memory: the type or stage of memory first encountered by a stimulus. Sensory memory holds impressions briefly, but long enough so that series of perceptions are psychologically continuous
11 Sensory MemoryIconic- a mental representation of a visual stimulus that is held briefly in sensory memoryAccurate, photographic memory for brief timeEidetic imagery- maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutesDeclines with ageEchoic memory- sensory register that briefly holds mental representations of auditory stimuli
12 Three Stages of Memory 2). Short-term Memory: (working memory) the stage of memory that can hold information for up to a minute or so after the trace of the stimulus decaysphone #’s, told a name at the partyFade significantly after seconds if not rehearsed
13 Short-term Memory Serial-Position Effect: Exercise 2: Quarter Lists The tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a seriesPrimacy effect:Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of itemsRecency effect:Tendency to recall the last items in a series of items
14 GM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI Short-term MemoryExercise 3 & 4:Chunking:A stimulus or group of stimuli that are perceived as a discrete piece of informationExercise 3-tic tac toe gridExercise 4-move dash to leftGM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI
15 Short-term MemoryRote learning: mechanical associative learning that is based on repetitionInterference/Displace: to cause chunks of information to be lost from short-term memory by adding new items
17 Long-term Memory The third stage of processing of information capable of relatively permanent storagevast storehouse of information containing names, dates, places
18 Long-term Memories How accurate? Elizabeth Loftus: -schemas -memories are distorted by our biases and needs and by the ways in we conceptualize our worlds-schemas
19 SchemasA way of mentally representing the world, such as a belief or expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations
20 Example Loftus: Showed video on car crash Questionnaire asked how fast the cars were going at the time of the crash“Smashed” 41 mph“Hit”34 mphWords “hit” and “smashed” caused people to organize their knowledge about the crash in different ways
21 Eye-Witness Testimony Words chosen by an experimenter and those chosen by a lawyer interrogating a witness can influence the reconstruction of memories
22 Eye-Witness Testimony Hypnosis-can amplify and distort memoriesIdentification of criminals-people pay more attention to clothing rather than height, weight, facial featuresImprovement-describe what happened rather than pump witness with suggestions
23 Short-term to Long-term Maintenance rehearsal-repetition but not effective way to place info in permanent storagevs.Elaborative rehearsal: relating new material to well-known material (meaningful)Vocabulary
24 Flashbulb MemoriesExercise: First Kiss or LoveWe tend to remember events that occur under unusual, emotionally arousing circumstancesEx. 5-Write down your 3 most vivid memoriesEx: September 11th, first kiss, death of a loved one, heartache
25 Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon The feeling that information is stored in memory although it cannot be readily retrievedIncomplete or imperfect learningMay not know exact answer but we know somethingEx.6-List the 7 dwarfs
26 Two S’s, Two D’s, Three Emotions Seven DwarfsSleepy SneezyDopey DocGrumpy Bashful HappyTwo S’s, Two D’s, Three Emotions
27 Context-Dependent Memory Information that is better retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored, or learnedEx: Yen’s room? Scene of crime, under water experimentHow many of you visualize where you were when trying to remember a concept?
28 State-Dependent Memory Information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learnedEx: under the influence, mood-happy, angry, sad
29 ForgettingFailure to recognize a nonsense syllable that has been read beforeWe don’t encode info we don’t consider useful (questions)Memory tasks used in measuring forgettingRecognitionRecallRelearning
30 Exercise 7: Encoding Failure Which letters do not appear on the telephone dial?Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides do they typically have?In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch?What is pictured on the back of a $20?What four words besides “In God We Trust” appear on most US coins?
31 Answers Which letters do not appear on the telephone dial? (Q, Z) Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides do they typically have? (6)In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch? (Right)What is pictured on the $20? (White House)What four words besides “In God We Trust” appear on most US coins? (United States of America)
32 RecognitionEasiest type of memory task, involving identification of objects or events encountered beforeEx: multiple choice questionsRecognize photos of old classmates easier than recalling their names
33 Recall Retrieval or reconstruction of learned material More difficult than recognition (Ex.8-Draw both sides of a penny)Recall task-person must retrieve a syllable with another syllable serving as a cue (fill in the blank)Meaningful links help
35 RelearningA measure of retention. Material is usually relearned more quickly than it is learned initiallyEx: Future Psych classes
36 Interference TheoryWe forget material in short-term and long-term memory because newly learned material interferes with itRetroactive vs. Proactive
37 Retroactive Interference New learning interferes with the retrieval of old learningEx: Italian interfered with Spanish when I returnedYour examples?
38 Proactive Interference Old learning interferes with the capacity to retrieve more recently learned materialEx: Spanish made learning Italian more difficultYour examples?
39 RepressionFreud:We are motivated to forget painful memories and unacceptable ideas because they produce anxiety, guilt, and shame
40 Infantile AmnesiaExercise: Write down your earliest memoryInability to recall events that occur prior to the age or 2 or 3No meaningful stories or connectionsNo reliable use of language to symbolize or classify events
41 Anterograde AmnesiaFailure to remember events that occur after physical trauma because of the effects of the traumaH.M.-couldn’t transfer info from short-term to long-term
42 Retrograde AmnesiaFailure to remember events that occur prior to physical trauma because the effects of the trauma
43 Which one?Anterograde AmnesiaOrRetrograde Amnesia
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