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The ILS The Past, Present and Future Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University.

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Presentation on theme: "The ILS The Past, Present and Future Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The ILS The Past, Present and Future Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University

2 Summary Breeding will provide an overview of where we have been and where we are going in the ILS (Integrated Library System) environment. ILSs have been around for 35 years and technology has changed exponentially during this timeframe. Breeding will provide a review of the evolutionary nature of the ILS and thoughts on what is coming in the next generation ILS.Breeding will provide an overview of where we have been and where we are going in the ILS (Integrated Library System) environment. ILSs have been around for 35 years and technology has changed exponentially during this timeframe. Breeding will provide a review of the evolutionary nature of the ILS and thoughts on what is coming in the next generation ILS.

3 Automation Trends Business environment where commercial companies prevail with proprietary systemsBusiness environment where commercial companies prevail with proprietary systems ILS developers struggle to adapt to changing technology expectations.ILS developers struggle to adapt to changing technology expectations. OCLC acquiring library automation companies –no one is really sure of OCLCs intentions and motivationsOCLC acquiring library automation companies –no one is really sure of OCLCs intentions and motivations Libraries hard at work creating library automation software, willing to share with peer institutionsLibraries hard at work creating library automation software, willing to share with peer institutions A major new ILS product created by a publicly funded library agencyA major new ILS product created by a publicly funded library agency Developers from that agency form a new company to promote and support that software in other librariesDevelopers from that agency form a new company to promote and support that software in other libraries

4 When?

5 1982!

6 The Ghost of ILS Past

7 Library automation 25 years ago

8 Technology Environment Age of turnkey systemsAge of turnkey systems Large-scale mainframes, transition to:Large-scale mainframes, transition to: MinicomputersMinicomputers Super-microsSuper-micros Very high hardware costsVery high hardware costs Limited telecommunications bandwidthLimited telecommunications bandwidth Proprietary operating systemsProprietary operating systems Proprietary programming languagesProprietary programming languages Open systems beginning to emergeOpen systems beginning to emerge –Unix –VMS

9 Top commercial vendors: CL Systems Inc / CLSICL Systems Inc / CLSI Cincinnati ElectronicsCincinnati Electronics Data Phase -- ALISData Phase -- ALIS Geac – GLIS 7000Geac – GLIS 7000 Biblio-Techniques -- BLISBiblio-Techniques -- BLIS Universal Library Systems -- UTLASUniversal Library Systems -- UTLAS VTLSVTLS Electric Memory – EMILS/3000Electric Memory – EMILS/3000 Card Datalog – DTI Data TrekCard Datalog – DTI Data Trek Carlyle Systems – TOMUS (The Online Multiple User System)Carlyle Systems – TOMUS (The Online Multiple User System)

10 Major products Launched Sirsi begins offering Unicorn beyond original GA Tech siteSirsi begins offering Unicorn beyond original GA Tech site Innovative launches INNOVAQInnovative launches INNOVAQ Data Research Associates begins to market ATLASData Research Associates begins to market ATLAS Follett enters ILS market (1983)Follett enters ILS market (1983)

11 Libraries developing ILS products Penn State launches LIAS (1983)Penn State launches LIAS (1983) Northwestern launches NOTIS (1983)Northwestern launches NOTIS (1983) Georgetown LIS (1983)Georgetown LIS (1983) Washington University School of Medicine Library (St. Louis) BAGS (Bibliographic Access and Control System)Washington University School of Medicine Library (St. Louis) BAGS (Bibliographic Access and Control System) Tacoma Public Library – Alice-BTacoma Public Library – Alice-B

12 Companies Supporting Public Domain ILS ILS – Developed by NLM Lister Hills Laboratories for Biomedical Communications; owned by U.S. Government; essentially in the public domain.ILS – Developed by NLM Lister Hills Laboratories for Biomedical Communications; owned by U.S. Government; essentially in the public domain. Avatar – Provides Support for Lister Hills ILS – company created by ILS developers from NLMAvatar – Provides Support for Lister Hills ILS – company created by ILS developers from NLM Online Computer Systems – Marketed Lister Hills ILSOnline Computer Systems – Marketed Lister Hills ILS

13 OCLC makes its foray into the ILS OCLC develops LLS (Local Library System) internallyOCLC develops LLS (Local Library System) internally OCLC acquires Total Library System from Claremont CollegesOCLC acquires Total Library System from Claremont Colleges OCLC adopts public domain Lister Hill ILSOCLC adopts public domain Lister Hill ILS drops LLS development;drops LLS development; Joint development agreement with Online Computer SystemsJoint development agreement with Online Computer Systems Acquires Avatar in 1983Acquires Avatar in 1983 launched as LS 2000 in 1983 based on ILSlaunched as LS 2000 in 1983 based on ILS OCLC acquires ALIS I and ALIS II from failing DataPhase (1987)OCLC acquires ALIS I and ALIS II from failing DataPhase (1987)

14 Library Automation M&A History

15 The Ghost of ILS Present

16 Technology Landscape Most ILS products from commercial vendors matureMost ILS products from commercial vendors mature –None less than a decade old –Approaching end of life cycle? Evolved systemsEvolved systems No success in launching new systemsNo success in launching new systems –Horizon 8.0 –Taos

17 Current Vintage ALEPH ALEPH Voyager 1995Voyager 1995 Unicorn1982Unicorn1982 Polaris1997Polaris1997 Virtua1995Virtua1995 Koha1999Koha1999 Library.Solution1997Library.Solution1997 Evergreen2004Evergreen2004

18 Business Landscape Library Journal Automated System Marketplace:Library Journal Automated System Marketplace: –An Industry redefined (April 1, 2007) An increasingly consolidated industryAn increasingly consolidated industry Moving out of a previous phase of fragmentation where many companies expend energies producing decreasingly differentiated systems in a limited marketplaceMoving out of a previous phase of fragmentation where many companies expend energies producing decreasingly differentiated systems in a limited marketplace VC and Private Equity playing a stronger role then ever beforeVC and Private Equity playing a stronger role then ever before Narrowing of product optionsNarrowing of product options Open Source opportunities rise to challenge the grip of traditional commercial modelOpen Source opportunities rise to challenge the grip of traditional commercial model

19 Other Business Observations Level of innovation falls below expectations, despite deep resources and large development teams.Level of innovation falls below expectations, despite deep resources and large development teams. Companies struggle to keep up with ILS enhancements and R&D for new innovations.Companies struggle to keep up with ILS enhancements and R&D for new innovations. Pressure within companies to reduce costs, increase revenuePressure within companies to reduce costs, increase revenue Pressure from libraries for more innovative productsPressure from libraries for more innovative products

20 Investor owned companies SirsiDynix -> Vista Equity Partners (Recently bought out Seaport Capital + Hicks Muse/HM Capital)SirsiDynix -> Vista Equity Partners (Recently bought out Seaport Capital + Hicks Muse/HM Capital) Ex Libris -> Francisco Partners (recently bought out Hebrew University + VCs)Ex Libris -> Francisco Partners (recently bought out Hebrew University + VCs) Endeavor -> Francisco Partners (recently bought out Elsevier)Endeavor -> Francisco Partners (recently bought out Elsevier) Infor (was Extensity, was Geac) -> Golden GateInfor (was Extensity, was Geac) -> Golden Gate Polaris -> Croydon CompanyPolaris -> Croydon Company –formerly part of Gaylord Bros (acquired by Demco)

21 Public companies: Auto-GraphicsAuto-Graphics –De-listed from SEC reporting requirements –Was OTC:AUGR now Pink Sheets:AUGR OpenTextOpenText –Spin-off form Battelle –Information Dimensions –Acquired by OCLC, run as for-profit business unit –Sold to Gores Technology Group –Acquired by OpenText Move involved in enterprise information management than ILSMove involved in enterprise information management than ILS

22 Founder / Family owned companies Innovative InterfacesInnovative Interfaces –100% ownership by Jerry Kline following 2001 buy- out of partner Steve Silberstein The Library CorporationThe Library Corporation –Owned by Annette Murphy family VTLS – tech spin-off from Virginia Tech, wholly owned by Vinod ChachraVTLS – tech spin-off from Virginia Tech, wholly owned by Vinod Chachra These companies not under the control of external financial interestsThese companies not under the control of external financial interests

23 ILS Migration Trends Few voluntary lateral migrationsFew voluntary lateral migrations Forced MigrationsForced Migrations –Vendor abandonment –Need to move from legacy systems –Exit from bad marriages with vendors –Exit from bad marriages with consortia

24 Products surrounding the ILS Its never been harder to justify investments in ILSIts never been harder to justify investments in ILS Need for products focused on electronic content and user experienceNeed for products focused on electronic content and user experience –Next-gen interfaces –Federated search –Linking –Electronic Resource Management

25 An age of less integrated systems Core ILS supplemented by:Core ILS supplemented by: –OpenURL Link Resolvers –Metasearch / Federated Search –Electronic Resource Management –Next Generation Library Interfaces

26 Next Generation Library Interfaces EndecaEndeca –North Carolina State University (direct) –McMaster University (direct) –Phoenix Public Library (TLC) –FCLA (direct) AquaBrowser LibraryAquaBrowser Library –100+ U.S. Public Libraries (TLC) –Recently acquired by Bowker EncoreEncore PrimoPrimo

27 No longer an ILS-centric industry Portion of revenues derived from core ILS products diminishing relative to other library tech productsPortion of revenues derived from core ILS products diminishing relative to other library tech products Many companies and organizations that dont offer an ILS are involved in library automation:Many companies and organizations that dont offer an ILS are involved in library automation: –OCLC –Cambridge / Bowker –WebFeat –Muse Global

28 Cambridge Information Group / Bowker Serials SolutionsSerials Solutions Syndetic SolutionsSyndetic Solutions –Electronic Resource Management –Federated Search –E-Journals data AquaBrowserAquaBrowser –Next-gen Interface

29 OCLC in the ILS arena? Increasingly overlapped with library automation activitiesIncreasingly overlapped with library automation activities WorldCat Local recently announcedWorldCat Local recently announced –Pilot in University of Washington Libraries –UC System will migrate Melvyl to WorldCat Local –Penetrating deeper into local libraries Library-owned cooperative on a buying binge of automation companies:Library-owned cooperative on a buying binge of automation companies: –Openly Informatics –Fretwell-Downing Informatics –Sisis Informationssysteme –PICA (now 100%) –DiMeMa (CONTENTdm) ILS companies concerned about competing with a non-profit with enormous resources and the ability to shift costs.ILS companies concerned about competing with a non-profit with enormous resources and the ability to shift costs.

30 Open Source Alternatives Explosive interest in Open Source driven by disillusionment with current vendorsExplosive interest in Open Source driven by disillusionment with current vendors Beginning to emerge as a practical optionBeginning to emerge as a practical option TOC (Total Cost of Ownership) still roughly equal to proprietary commercial modelTOC (Total Cost of Ownership) still roughly equal to proprietary commercial model Open Source still a risky AlternativeOpen Source still a risky Alternative Commercial/Proprietary options also a riskCommercial/Proprietary options also a risk

31 Market share / Perspective Open Source ILS implementations still a very small percentage of the total pictureOpen Source ILS implementations still a very small percentage of the total picture Initial set of successful implementations will likely serve as a catalyst to pave the way for othersInitial set of successful implementations will likely serve as a catalyst to pave the way for others Successful implementations in wider range of libraries:Successful implementations in wider range of libraries: –State-wide consortium (Evergreen) –Multi-site public library systems (Koha) –School district consortia (OPALS-NA)

32 The Open Source Front Index DataIndex Data –Founded 1994; No ILS; A variety of other open source products to support libraries: search engines, federated search, Z39.50 toolkit, etc LibLimeLibLime –Founded Provides development and support services for Koha ILS. Acquired original developers of Koha in Feb Equinox.Equinox. –Founded Feb 2007; staff formerly associated with GPLS Pines development team Care AffiliatesCare Affiliates –Founded June 2007; headed by industry veteran Carl Grant.

33 Open source ILS Benchmarks Most decisions to adopt Open Source ILS based on philosophical reasonsMost decisions to adopt Open Source ILS based on philosophical reasons Open Source ILS will enter the main stream once its products begin to win through objective procurement processesOpen Source ILS will enter the main stream once its products begin to win through objective procurement processes –Hold open source ILS to the same standards as the commercial products –Hold the open source ILS companies to the same standards: Adequate customer support ratios, financial stability, service level agreements, etc.Adequate customer support ratios, financial stability, service level agreements, etc. Well-document total cost of ownership statements that can be compared to other vendor price quotesWell-document total cost of ownership statements that can be compared to other vendor price quotes

34 The Ghost of ILS Yet to Come

35 Working toward a new ILS Vision How libraries work has changed dramatically over the last 20 years.How libraries work has changed dramatically over the last 20 years. ILS built largely on workflows cast more than 25 years agoILS built largely on workflows cast more than 25 years ago Based on assumptions that have long since changedBased on assumptions that have long since changed Digital resources represent at least half of most libraries collection budgetsDigital resources represent at least half of most libraries collection budgets

36 Change demanded Level of dissatisfaction with the current slate of ILS products is very high.Level of dissatisfaction with the current slate of ILS products is very high. Large monolithic systems are unwieldyvery complex to install, administer and maintain.Large monolithic systems are unwieldyvery complex to install, administer and maintain. Continue to be large gaps in functionalityContinue to be large gaps in functionality –Interlibrary loan –Collection development –Preservation: print / digital –Book binding –Remote storage operations

37 Less Proprietary / More Open Libraries demand more opennessLibraries demand more openness Open source movement greatest challenge to current slate of ILS productsOpen source movement greatest challenge to current slate of ILS products Demand for open access to dataDemand for open access to data –APIs essential –Beyond proprietary APIs –Ideal: Industry-standard set of APIs implemented by all systems –Current NISO effort to define API for an ILS for decoupled catalogs

38 Comprehensive automation Need the ability to automation all aspects of library workNeed the ability to automation all aspects of library work Suite of interoperable modulesSuite of interoperable modules Single point of management for each category of informationSingle point of management for each category of information Not necessarily through a single monolithic systemNot necessarily through a single monolithic system

39 More lightweight approach More elegant and efficientMore elegant and efficient Easier to install and administerEasier to install and administer Automation systems that can be operated with fewer number of technical staffAutomation systems that can be operated with fewer number of technical staff

40 Redefining the borders Many artificial distinctions prevail in todays ILS modelMany artificial distinctions prevail in todays ILS model Online catalog / library portal / institutional portalOnline catalog / library portal / institutional portal Circulation / ILL / Direct consortial borrowing / remote storageCirculation / ILL / Direct consortial borrowing / remote storage Collection Development / Acquisitions / budget administrationCollection Development / Acquisitions / budget administration Library acquisitions / Institutional ERPLibrary acquisitions / Institutional ERP Cataloging / Metadata document ingestion for digital collectionsCataloging / Metadata document ingestion for digital collections Digital / Print workflowsDigital / Print workflows

41 Separation of front-end from back- end ILS OPAC not necessarily best library interfaceILS OPAC not necessarily best library interface Many efforts already underway to offer alternativesMany efforts already underway to offer alternatives Too many of the resources that belong in the interface are out of the ILS scopeToo many of the resources that belong in the interface are out of the ILS scope Technology cycles faster for front-end than for back- end processes.Technology cycles faster for front-end than for back- end processes.

42 Service-oriented Architecture Work toward a service-oriented business applicationWork toward a service-oriented business application Suite of light-weight applicationsSuite of light-weight applications Flexibility to evolve in step with changes in library services and practicesFlexibility to evolve in step with changes in library services and practices

43 Enterprise interoperability Interoperate with non-library applicationsInteroperate with non-library applications Course managementCourse management Accounting, finance, ERM applicationsAccounting, finance, ERM applications External authentication servicesExternal authentication services Other portal implementationsOther portal implementations

44 Massively consolidated implementations State/Province-wide ILS implementationsState/Province-wide ILS implementations Increased reliance on consortiaIncreased reliance on consortia Increased Software as a Service / ASP options hosted by vendorsIncreased Software as a Service / ASP options hosted by vendors Radical simplification of library policies affecting services offered to patronsRadical simplification of library policies affecting services offered to patrons

45 The Global Enterprise Leverage capabilities of search engines: Google, Google Scholar, Microsoft Live, Ask, etcLeverage capabilities of search engines: Google, Google Scholar, Microsoft Live, Ask, etc OCLC WorldCatOCLC WorldCat Sort out the relationships between the global enterprise and local systemsSort out the relationships between the global enterprise and local systems

46 Revise assumptions regarding Metadata Reliance on MARC widely questionedReliance on MARC widely questioned XML widely deployedXML widely deployed The next-gen ILS must natively support many flavors of metadata: MARC, Dublin Core, Onix, METS, etcThe next-gen ILS must natively support many flavors of metadata: MARC, Dublin Core, Onix, METS, etc LCSH / FASTLCSH / FAST Approaching a post-metadata where discovery systems operate on actual digital objects themselves, not metadata about themApproaching a post-metadata where discovery systems operate on actual digital objects themselves, not metadata about them –High-quality metadata will always improve discovery Incorporate content from mass digitization effortsIncorporate content from mass digitization efforts Increasing proportions of rich media content: audio, videoIncreasing proportions of rich media content: audio, video

47 New models of Software Development Role of commercial partnersRole of commercial partners –Break out of marketing / consumer model –Substantial dialog that shapes the direction of product development Increased partnershipsIncreased partnerships Accelerated development cyclesAccelerated development cycles Cost-effective / realistic cost expectationsCost-effective / realistic cost expectations

48 Evolution vs Revolution What we have today is a result of 35 years of evolutionWhat we have today is a result of 35 years of evolution Is it possible to break free of the constraints of these evolved systems toward a new generation that will offer a fresh approach?Is it possible to break free of the constraints of these evolved systems toward a new generation that will offer a fresh approach? How much are we willing to let the ghosts of ILS past and present constrain the ILS of Times Yet to Come?How much are we willing to let the ghosts of ILS past and present constrain the ILS of Times Yet to Come?

49 Questions / Comments


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