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Identifying language for content learning Universidad de La Rioja, Keith Kelly
English-German School, Plovdiv
Speed reaction test
Which language? Subject-specific language Words you cant really do without General academic language Language of learning Peripheral language Classroom chat
750, ,000 40,000-45,000 Every 12 th 2500 = 80% 7500 = 90% 10% 1 Words you cant do without – which words?
Numbers 750,000 – words in English 650,000 – words in OED 40,000-45,000 – used by average speaker Every 12 th – the 2500 = 80% of all words we use 7500 = 90% of all words we use (star words) 10% = the rest, topic specific (black words)
Curriculum discourse analysis Task - Identify the black words in the text below, there are 12 of them. Infections Food and water are sources of infection. Raw food is covered in microorganisms. Most are harmless or do the body good. They grow in our intestines and protect them from more harmful germs, but others cause disease, especially if food's been contaminated by sewage or animal waste, or hasn't been cooked properly. Contact with animals also exposes us to new microorganisms. A bite from an infected dog could lead to rabies, for example. While cleaning out a lizard's cage could lead to salmonella.
Curriculum discourse analysis Infections
Curriculum discourse analysis Infections Food(***) and water(***) are sources(***) of infection(**). Raw(***) food(***) is covered in microorganisms. Most(***) are harmless(*) or do the body(***) good(***). They grow(***) in our intestines and protect(***) them from more harmful(*) germs, but others cause(***) disease(***), especially(***) if food's been contaminated by sewage or animal(*) waste(***), or hasn't been cooked properly(***). Contact(***) with animals(***) also(***) exposes(**) us to new(***) microorganisms. A bite(*) from an infected dog(***) could(***) lead(***) to rabies, for example(***). Cleaning(***) out a lizard's(*) cage(*) could lead to salmonella.
Textbook discourse analysis
Top 100 Science textbook words
Verbs and root words: form
The root word form
Concordancing software SCP - Simple concordancing programme SWF – Searching for words in files
Task – Take a look at this list of words Plant Reproduction: asexual sexual cuttings vegetative tissue culture natural artificial corm bulb germination sepals pistil receptacle flower pollination spores stamen style budding grafting fertilization dispersal rhizome stem tuber taproots runners filament anther ovary stigma What links and relationships can you see between the words in the list?
Task – Take a look at this list of words Cooking: eggs with sweet plaintains cornbread chicken tortillas rice with pigeon peas chili chicken chicken stew empanadas cheesy potato patties custard cookies ingredients garlic Look Tasty salty cook put ham peas flour water rice onions help delicious try mix yummy What links and relationships can you see between the words in the list?
What if all content vocabulary could be mapped?
Knowledge and language maps
Tools for learning - building word trees and diagrams
Tools for learning - annotating diagrams
Vocabulary / Glossaries Pronunciation Translation Contextualization Accessible Easy to organize
2 General academic language The language of thinking (Clegg) 2 Classifying Statements There arethree kinds types forms classes categories of ……… …….. fall intothree kinds types classes categories can bedivided classified We/you/one can classify … according to …criteria This class has…characteristics/features Teacher questions How would you classify…? How many kinds of …are there? Who can classify…?
The Language of Science Curriculum Specifications - Science Form 1 (11 year olds) Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 2003 Scientific Skills Observing Classifying Measuring and using numbers Inferring Predicting Communicating Using space-time relationships Interpreting data Defining operationally Controlling variables Hypothesising Experimenting Manipulative skills Thinking strategies Conceptualising Making decisions Problem solving Reasoning Thinking skills (Critical and creative) Critical thinking skills: Attributing Comparing and contrasting Grouping and classifying Sequencing Prioritising Analysing Detecting bias Evaluating Making conclusions Creative thinking skills: Generating ideas Relating Making inferences Predicting Making generalisations Visualising Making hypotheses Making analogies Inventing Malaysia
Critical thinking skills Attributing Identifying criteria such as characteristics, features, qualities and elements of a concept or an object. Comparing and Contrasting Finding similarities and differences based on criteria such as characteristics, features, qualities and elements of a concept or event. Grouping and Classifying Separating and grouping objects or phenomena into categories based on certain criteria such as common characteristics or features. The language Whats missing?
What are living things made of? The Structure of Simple Cells Today, scientists using powerful microscopes are able to observe what makes up cells. They have discovered that every cell is a self-contained unit and that all cells are made up of a substance called protoplasm. Protoplasm is the basic living material. It is always made up of carbon (C), oxygen (02), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and very often sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P). Protoplasm is usually colourless and contains a large amount of water. It feels and looks like jelly. Only living things can make new proto plasm or repair damaged protoplasm. Cells are made up of two kinds of protoplasm: the nucleus and the cytoplasm. They are separated from their environment by an outer cell membrane, which restricts the passage of materials in and out of the cell. TaskFind and underline all of the verbs in the text which are used for talking about structure, function and location of cells and tissues.
Structure, function and location Verb phrasesAdverbial phrases Structure: … are made up of … … organized in … … is a self-contained unit … contains … … feels/looks like … … are separated from … by … … are small … … tend to be … … can take other shapes … … it includes … … have … … is a part that contains … … consist of … … are joined together … (to … ) Types: … there are … … have various shapes … … are divided into … … are arranged in … … resembles … Location: … is found in … … surrounded by … … form … … form one or several … … includes … … is located under/around … … is most abundant under … … is common in … … is found mainly in … … along … runs … Function: … have parts which … … builds up … … lines … … exhibits … … release … … connects … … has the function of … … provides … … builds up … … amidst … … often … … very often … … usually … … likely to be … … just …
Discourse analysis General academic school language Awareness of ALL of the language Opportunities for student access Embed the language in the content
3 Peripheral language Parachute jump
Which is the correct graph, why?
Parachute graph 3 MA – He jumps out of the plane, falls fast towards the ground after a few seconds his parachute opens. He slows down, and then falls to the ground at a steady speed. So, it is B, it is B, because the first little bit of the graph is the bit before his parachute opens, the second little bit is the bit after his parachute opens when hes going slower so its a more gradual decline, he doesnt go through as much, it takes longer to go through the same kind of distance, that means hes traveling slower. A and D both suggest a gradual slowing down, not an abrupt change with the parachute opening.
Explanation language analysis 2 Structures We know when … that … (which is …) -relative clauses and conjunctions The … is the … that … is … -definitions If we had a … it would be … -third conditional A graph of the … against … should be a … -modal auxiliary verb for deduction C is wrong because that would suggest that …-modal would to make statement sound less definite He goes from … to … in … (time) -prepositions … after a few seconds … and then … -sequencing phrases … it takes … so … that means … -concluding A and D both suggest …, not … -juxtaposing
Language as classroom environment rich input accessible input at the level of the learners scaffolded semi-scripted
Where to start? - Examples in Science Get to know the curriculum Explore content websites Try out resources Identify language Understand the skills Adapt materials to suit your students
Exploring the content curriculum
Your own GM person Create … … and present
The language of heredity Describing facial features S/He has / has got Her/His … is/are … (brown, green, blue, blond, red, grey) (round, thin, fat, long, short, flat, curly, straight, spiky, wavy) Naming parts of the face Eyes, nose, ears, earlobes, eyebrows, hair, chin, cheeks Describing inherited characteristics He gets his … from his … She gets her … from her … He looks like his … She looks like her … He takes after his … with his She takes after her … with her He has inherited his mothers … She has inherited her mothers …
CLIL - The Resources Science Across the World a) a bank of resources for general Science projects b) a database of contacts for carrying out a curriculum exchange project with a school in another country, c) an internet-based and ICT focus to learning. Example – What did you eat?
Food and drink diary
Ice Cream Consumption in Europe Who eats the most?
CLIL – The Skills - research work - dealing with data (gathering, presenting) - presentation work Example - Heredity Hair colour, eye colour, skin colour, height, ear lobes, mid finger hair, tongue rolling
CLIL – The language Three broad areas of language in content: i) subject-specific language ii) general academic language iii) peripheral language Knowing what this language is, and what to do with it, i.e., how to scaffold or support it, is what CLIL is all about.
Linear content input
Organizing content input
CLIL for Language Teachers - Conclusions 1) Explore the content curriculum: - resources - skills - the language 2) Identify an appealing aspect of this context for you and students - a skill - PPTs - a grammar area - passive voice - general academic language for the content curriculum - economy 3) Offer a focus in your language lesson.
Which language?All language. Subject-specific language question of organization and management General academic language as important as specific language Peripheral language equals rich context
References Forum for Across the Curriculum Teaching Young learners and teens group onestopclil discussion forum Gibbons, P (2002) Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning, Heinemann Science across the world Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, UK National Curriculum Website Association for Science Education