Presentation on theme: "Employee Testing and Selection"— Presentation transcript:
1 Employee Testing and Selection Chater 6Employee Testing and Selection
2 Why Careful Selection is Important Organizational PerformanceLegal Obligations and LiabilityThe Importance of Selecting the Right EmployeesCosts of Recruiting and Hiring
3 Avoiding Negligent Hiring Claims Carefully scrutinize information on employment applications.Get written authorization for reference checks, and check references.Save all records and information about the applicant.Reject applicants for false statements or conviction records for offenses related to the job.Take immediate disciplinary action if problems arise.
4 Basic Testing Concepts ReliabilityConsistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with identical or equivalent tests.Are test results stable over time?Ways to estimate reliabilityRetest EstimateSame test to same people at different point in timeEquivalent form estimateAdminister a test and administer what believes to be an equivalent test.Internal comparison estimateAdminister a test & statistically analyze the degree to which responses of items vary. Apparently repetitive questions on some questionnaire to check internal consistency.ValidityIndicates whether a test is measuring what it is supposed to be measure.Does the test actually measure what it is intended to measure?
5 FIGURE 6–1 Sample Picture Card from Thematic Apperception Test Source: Reprinted by permission of the publishers from Henry A. Murray, THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST, Plate 12F, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1943.
6 Types of Validity Test Validity Criterion Validity Content Validity Face Validity
7 Steps in Test Validation How to Validate a TestSteps in Test Validation12Analyze the Job: predictors and criteria3Choose the Tests: test battery or single test4Administer the Tests: concurrent or predictive validation5Relate Your Test Scores and Criteria: scores versus actual performanceCross-Validate and Revalidate: repeat Steps 3 and 4 with a different sample
8 TABLE 6–1 Testing Program Guidelines Use tests as supplements.Validate the tests.Monitor your testing/selection program.Keep accurate records.Use a certified psychologist.Manage test conditions.Revalidate periodically.
9 Test Takers’ Individual Rights and Test Security Under the APA’s standard for educational and psychological tests, test takers have the right:To privacy and information.To the confidentiality of test results.To informed consent regarding use of these results.To expect that only people qualified to interpret the scores will have access to them.To expect the test is fair to all.
10 Legal Privacy Issues Defamation Avoiding Employee Defamation Suits Libeling or slandering of employees or former employees by an employer.Avoiding Employee Defamation SuitsTrain supervisors regarding the importance of employee confidentiality.Adopt a “need to know” policy.Disclose procedures impacting confidentially of information to employees.
11 Using Tests at Work Major Types of Tests Why Use Testing? Basic skills testsJob skills testsPsychological testsWhy Use Testing?Increased work demands = more testingScreen out bad or dishonest employeesReduce turnover by personality profiling
19 Management Assessment Centers 2 to 3 days simulations. Typical tasks include:The in-basketLeaderless group discussionManagement gamesIndividual presentationsObjective testsThe interview
20 TABLE 6–2 Evaluation of Assessment Methods on Four Key Criteria ValidityAdverse ImpactCosts (Develop/ Administer)Applicant ReactionsCognitive ability testsHighHigh (against minorities)Low/lowSomewhat favorableJob knowledge testMore favorablePersonality testsLow to moderateLowLess favorableBiographical data inventoriesModerateLow to high for different typesHigh/lowIntegrity testsModerate to highStructured interviewsHigh/highPhysical fitness testsHigh (against females and older workers)Situational judgment testsModerate (against minorities)Work samplesAssessment centersLow to moderate, depending on exercisePhysical ability testsNote: There was limited research evidence available on applicant reactions to situational judgment tests and physical ability tests. However, because these tests tend to appear very relevant to the job, it is likely that applicant reactions to them would be favorable.Source: Elaine Pulakos, Selection Assessment Methods, SHRM Foundation, 2005, p. 17. Reprinted by permission of Society for Human Resource Management via Copyright Clearance Center.
21 Background Investigations and Reference Checks Investigations and ChecksReference checksBackground employment checksCriminal recordsDriving recordsCredit checksWhy?To verify factual information provided by applicants.To uncover damaging information.
22 Background Investigations and Reference Checks (cont’d) Former EmployersCurrent SupervisorsWritten ReferencesSocial Networking SitesCommercial Credit Rating CompaniesSources of Information
23 Limitations on Background Investigations and Reference Checks Supervisor ReluctanceEmployer GuidelinesLegal Issues: PrivacyLegal Issues: Defamation
24 Making Background Checks More Useful(guidelines) Include on the application form a statement for applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a background check.Use telephone references if possible.Be persistent in obtaining information.Use references provided by the candidate as a source for other references.Ask open-ended questions to elicit more information from references.
25 Using Preemployment Information Services Acquisition and Use of Background Information12Disclosure to and authorization by applicant/employee3Employer certification to reporting agency4Providing copies of reports to applicant/employeeNotice of adverse action to applicant/employee
26 TABLE 6–3 Collecting Background Information Suggestions for collecting background information include the following:Check all applicable state laws.Review the impact of equal employment laws.Do not obtain information that you’re not going to use.Remember that using arrest information will be highly suspect.Use information that is specific and job related.Keep information confidential and up to date.Never authorize an unreasonable investigation.Always require applicants to fill out a job application.Compare the application to the résumé (people tend to be more imaginative on their résumés than on their application forms, where they must certify the information).Particularly for executive candidates, include background checks of such things as involvement in lawsuits, and of articles about the candidate in local or national newspapers.Separate the tasks of (1) hiring and (2) doing the background check (a recruiter or supervisor anxious to hire someone may cut corners when investigating the candidate’s background).Source: Adapted from Jeffrey M. Hahn, “Pre-Employment Services: Employers Beware?” Employee Relations Law Journal 17, no. 1 (Summer 1991), pp. 45–69; and Shari Caudron, “Who Are You Really Hiring?”, Workforce, 81, no. 12 (November 2002), pp. 28–32.
27 The Polygraph and Honesty Testing Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988Generally prohibits polygraph examinations by all private employers unless:The employer has suffered an economic loss or injury.The employee in question had access to the property.There is a reasonable prior suspicion.The employee is told the details of the investigation, as well as questions to be asked on the polygraph test itself.Exceptions:Private security employeesNuclear power related employeesHiring personnel with access to drugsEmployees with access to highly classified informationNational defense and security (FBI)
28 Honesty Testing Programs: What Employers Can Do Ask blunt questions.Listen, rather than talk.Check all employment and personal references.Use paper-and-pencil honesty tests and psychological tests.Test for drugs.Establish a search-and-seizure policy and conduct searches.
29 FIGURE 6–9 Handwriting Exhibit Used by Graphologist Source: Kathryn Sackhein, Handwriting Analysis and the Employee Selection Process (New York: Quorum Books, 1990), p. 45. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
30 Physical Examination Reasons for preemployment medical examinations: To verify that the applicant meets the physical requirements of the position.To discover any medical limitations to be taken into account in placing the applicant.To establish a record and baseline of the applicant’s health for future insurance or compensation claims.To reduce absenteeism and accidents.To detect communicable diseases that may be unknown to the applicant.
31 Substance Abuse Screening Types of ScreeningBefore formal hiringAfter a work accidentPresence of obvious behavioral symptoms e.g. chronic latenessRandom or periodic basisTransfer or promotion to new positionTypes of TestsUrinalysisHair follicle testing
32 FIGURE 6–10 Procedure in Complying with Immigration Law Hire only citizens and aliens lawfully authorized to work in the United States.Advise all new job applicants of your policy.Require all new employees to complete and sign the verification form (the “I-9 form”) designated by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to certify that they are eligible for employment.Examine documentation presented by new employees, record information about the documents on the verification form, and sign the form.Retain the form for three years or for one year past the employment of the individual, whichever is longer.If requested, present the form for inspection by INS or Department of Labor officers. No reporting is required.
33 Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Comprehensive Automated Applicant Tracking and Screening Systems“Knock out” applicants who do not meet job requirementsCan match “hidden talents” of applicants to available openingsBenefits of Applicant Tracking SystemsAllow employers to extensively test and screen applicants online
34 FIGURE 6–11 Checklist: What to Look for in an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) The employer thinking of adopting an ATS should seek one that meets several minimum functionality requirements. Among other things, the ATS should be:Easy to use.Capable of being integrated into the company’s existing HRIS platform, so that, for instance, data on a newly hired candidate can flow seamlessly into the HRIS payroll system.Able to capture, track, and report applicant EEO data.Able to provide employee selection performance metrics reports, including “time to fill,” “cost to hire,” and “applicant source statistics.”Able to facilitate scheduling and tracking of candidate interviews, communications, and completed forms, including job offers.Able to provide automated screening and ranking of candidates based upon job skill profiles.Able to provide an internal job posting service that supports applications from current employees and employee referral programs.Able to integrate the ATS job board with your company’s own Web site, for instance, by linking it to your site’s “careers” section.Able to provide for requisition creation and signoff approvals.