2 Aims and Objectives Target Audience : 5C Facilitators/Trainers, Operations and Support ManagementPurpose of Module :To give a full understanding of the 5 C’s, their importance and how they can be effectively introduced.Aims & Objectives :Understand the basis for 5CWhat each of the steps areMeasuring ImprovementSlideVerbalFlip ChartTrainingMatl.PhotoPreparedFlip chartExtra InfoAvailable
3 Contents Introduction 5C Overview / Getting Started Clear Out & ClassifyConfigureClean & CheckConformityCustom & PracticeTake the delegates through the contents of the moduleSlideVerbalFlip ChartTrainingMatl.PhotoPreparedFlip chartExtra InfoAvailable
4 ‘There are no world class manufacturing companies without 5C in place’ 5C Overview‘There are no world class manufacturing companies without 5C in place’This statement is a fact.1
5 The 5C Approach5C is a systematic approach to workplace organisation and housekeeping. Encouraging ownership and self discipline to sustain and further develop working practices.It aims to :-Remove waste from the workplace.Provide an environment where continuous improvement is embraced.Improve safety.Increase quality.Using the 5C toolset gives you a structured, methodical approach in generating the ideal environment in terms of the address and place of tooling/equipment and creating sustainable housekeeping practices which promote a professional and efficient operation.5C is typically a tool which is used early in the improvement cycle due to its simplicity and effectiveness in delivering substantial savings to the business. In many ways it’s the foundation to improvement.The benefits that can be achieved are considerable, a few examples can be seen on the slide. Talk the delegates through each of these benefits.
6 Things to consider before 5C Implementation WhoWhenWhatWhereHowBefore relocation of wanted items the following must be taken into consideration:Who do you need to speak to to get permission to clearout & classify and quarantine itemsWho should relocate these itemsWhat company rules,policies exist that may affect relocationWhere exactly will items be relocated toWhen is the best time to relocate itemsHow will you go about physically relocating these items….involving everyone with 100% communication!
7 5C Workplace Audit Establish current state. Using recommended audit sheets.Capture current state using colour photo’s.Record other problem areas, such as safety issues or machine breakdowns.Ensure that everyone is aware of the reason behind the initial audit.The initial audit reminds everyone of what the starting point is.Taking pictures provides a permanent reminder of where we have come from.Place the pictures on a story-board.Use a mark on the floor so that you can take before and after photo’s from the same place.
8 5C Workplace Audit ITEMS INDIVIDUAL INSTANCES IN WORKPLACE AREA AUDITEDTOTAL No.OFINSTANCESSCOREPOINTSDirt & rubbish on floor.(paper,cigsdunnage etc.)0 = No Dirt/Rubbish5 = Instances10 = >5 Instances510Oil,grease or other spillage’sevident.Machine & dirty andneglected.0 = All machines clean10 = 1 – 5 Machines15 = >5 Machines15Locations of materials notdefined.Mixed/ excess materialevident.0 = All locations defined10 = instances15 = >5 InstancesNotice boards untidy & out ofdate.No ref. to QCD.0 = QCDUp-to-Date5 = <50% incorrect10 = >50% incorrectSafety equipment/procedures notadhered to.0 = Safe operation15 = Some proceduresnot usedLights left switchedon.Airleaking,energy wasted.0 = No instances5 = <3 Instances10 = >3 InstancesUnnecessary materials &equipment in work areas.0 = All necessary5 = 1 – 5 InstancesReject parts not clearly identifiedor segregated.0 = All clearly identified /segregated15 = Not all identifiedCOMMENTSTOTALIMPROVEMENT POTENTIALIntroduce the audit check sheet.After completion of the audit sheet the team will decide what can be achieved during the activity.
9 5C Office Audit ITEMS INDIVIDUAL INSTANCES IN OFFICE AREA AUDITED TOTAL No.OFINSTANCESSCOREPOINTSFloor & isleuntidy,waste bindirty/overflowing.Items left on floor0 = No Dirt/Rubbish5 = Instances10 = >5 Instances510Unnecessary items /documentsleft on desks / tables.0 = All desks/ tables clean10 = 1 – 5 desk / tables15 = >5 desks / tables15Document& equipment storagenot defined Locations ofdocuments not defined.0 = All locations defined10 = instances15 = >5 InstancesNotice / bulletin boards untidy &out ofdate.No ref. to QCD data.0 = QCDUp-to-Date5 = <50% incorrect10 = >50% incorrectFire equipment/ safety proceduresnot adhered to.0 = Safe operation15 = Some proceduresnot usedLights left switched on, energywasted.0 = No instances5 = <3 Instances10 = >3 InstancesUnnecessary items & equipmentin work areas / conference rooms.0 = All necessary5 = 1 – 5 InstancesOut-of-date documents not clearlyidentified or segregated.0 = All clearly identified /segregated15 = Not all identifiedCOMMENTSTOTALIMPROVEMENT POTENTIALIntroduce the audit check sheet.After completion of the audit sheet the team will decide what can be achieved during the activity
10 What are the 5 C ? Custom & Practice Conformity Clean and Check The ‘C’ are five words, which provide the steps to improvement.Custom & PracticeConformityClean and CheckExplain the followingCLEAR OUT AND CLASSIFY - Decide what is needed to do the job.We only want what we need.Remove all items that are not used on a regular basis from the area.Use long term storage facilities for such items that need to be kept yet are not used on a regular basis.CONFIGURE - Items that are needed,organise tools & equipment close to the workstations.A place for everything and everything in its place.CLEAN AND CHECK - Clean the rest of the area.Fix any broken pieces of equipment.CONFORMITY- Make a standard operating procedure that the whole area can use to ensure that the 5C,s are carried out on a regular basis.CUSTOM AND PRACTICE- Embed the new philosophy into a standard working practice observed by the whole area.ConfigureClearout and Classify
11 1st Step - Clear Out & Classify Conduct major clean-down.Remove all items that are not required or have become unnecessary over a period of time.Includes repairing broken tools & equipment.Frequently used items should be stored at the work area.Infrequent used items stored away from the work area and dispose of items that are not needed.Never assume. Ensure everyone is in agreement.Once the initial audit has been completed the team are now ready to begin the 5C process.CLEAR OUT AND CLASSIFY to determine what is required and what is not.Tags are used to identify all equipment in the area that people do not use as part of their day-to-day work.Once all the work area has been covered we will remove all tagged items to quarantine, these items are then held pending action after CONFIGURE….Remember! Redundant items cost money tostore - If you don’t need it, don’t keep it!2
12 Classify Classify tooling / equipment by frequency of use Code DescriptionActionHIGHMEDIUMLOWHourlyDaily/WeeklyQuarterly/6 MonthlyKeep atworkplaceStore atdept storeStore awayfrom areaor disposeDuring the CLEAR OUT out stage the team will create storage or holding points for equipment that have been identified.One point will be KEEP and the other QUARANTINE.The disposal action will be determined by the frequency of use of an item or by its relative importance to the area.High frequency of use items i.e. Hourly/Daily should be kept on the person or stored in the correct orientation at the workplace.Items which are used Weekly/Quarterly should be stored at a location that is near to the workplace but not in it,preferable at a central location within the factory.Items that are used infrequently i.e. twice a year or less should be to try and eliminate the need by combining its use with something else or stored away and archived somewhere appropriate that can be retrieved in a speedy manner.…….within the LOW category, retrieval MUST still be quick!!
13 Red Tag StrategyThis means putting red tags on any items not required for the current production, any items kept in excessive amounts and any items used infrequently. Then removing these items from the area/cell.A Red Tag Exercise is conducted to essentially remove all the un-necessary items (tool, chairs, tables, paperwork etc.) from the area being assessed. A structured process must be followed if success is to realised, the following slides will take the delegates through the structured approach which must be taken and the proformas that are to be used.
14 How do we Red Tag ? RED TAG Physical Areas Types of items Inventory Floor, walkways, staging, benches,walls, shelves, racks, etcInventoryRaw materials, procured partsassembly parts, etcMachines, tools, jigsconsumable items, chairs,cabinets, trolleys, etcEquipmentBefore a red tag exercise is started the facilitator must explain to the team what items can be red tagged. If this process is not followed, items that are currently used for production may be accidently removed from the area. Ever effort must be made ensure needed items are not removed.The slide gives numerous examples of items the team is likely to come across which may be red tagged and ultimately removed from the area/cell.DocumentsNotices, minutes,drawings, reports, etc…...Red Tag Targets
15 Red Tag Auction Team evaluate Red Tagged items Options : Keep item where it is.Move to new location of work area.Store away from work area.Hold in Red Tag Quarantine Area for evaluation.Dispose of e.g throw away, return to stores.Agree min/max quantities.Record ResultsRecords need to be kept of items moved to a Red Tagging Area or disposed of.To ensure the participating team all agree on the items that are to be removed, it is recommended that the facilitator conducts a Red Tag Auction. This auction will take place in the area where the items have been quarantined, involving all the key decision makers (to ensure a decision can be immediately made on whether to dispose of an item or not).The team should briefly cover off every item that’s been red tagged and use the OPTIONS within the slide to decide what to do with each tagged item eg.- Dispose of the item immediately- Store in an area away from the shop floor- Find a suitable location at point of use. EtcIt is recommended that the team capture all actions on red tagged items for future analysis using the ‘RED TAG ANALYSIS SHEET’ that can be seen on the following slide.
16 Red Tag Analysis Sheet REQUIRED NO. ITEM YES NO ACTION WHO WHEN VALUE(£)The presenter simply talks the training delegates through each of the items on the ‘Red Tag Analysis Sheet’.Re-iterating the importance of completing this form.Note : Value Categories are £ / £ / £1000+
17 Why Clear Out & Classify ? Frees up space.Removes clutter/obstacles.Stops people adding to it.Stops hoarding.Improves safety.Gives control of what is in your area.Begins the orderliness process.Explain the key learning points from each stage.Give examples for each of the bullet points.
18 2nd Step - ConfigureTo arrange all necessary items for economy of movement.Place according to frequency of use.To have a designated place for everything to label, classify and make easily visible.A place for everything and everything in it’s place.Provide safe storage - heavy items low, light items high.Explain what the team are trying to achieve by CONFIGURING the area , items should be placed in such a manner to assist flow.How everything has an appointed ‘home’ and its where it lives.The need to think about those items which are used most frequently and stored for regular use.Those items and materials which are regarded as being relevant for daily operation determines the optimum place to keep them and the orientation in which they should be stored.A PLACE FOR EVERYTHING AND EVERYTHING IN ITS PLACE.2
19 Configure Examples Personal Identity Tags Shadow Board used The slide shows some examples within the configure stage, such as :-Top Left :When an operator takes a tool he will place a personalised tag in the tool location within the cabinet, this assists when another operator needs to use the same tool ---- because they will know who’s currently using it!!!!Bottom Left :A forward photograph of the toolbox that’s been explained above, clearly showing the wide variety of tools that are shadowed within the box.Bottom Right :A blown up photograph showing how the tag is located when an operator takes a tool.
20 Configure Examples Colour coded rubbish stations i.e..Blue - Metallic materialsRed Electrical wiringColour coded Direct Line Feedi.e..Green - RivetsRed - FastenersThe slide shows some examples within the configure stage, such as :-Top Left :An example of some of the colour coded bins that are usedTop Right :This clearly shows labelled, colour coded bins to ensure segregationBottom Left :An example of colour coded solution for fasteners and rivets. The parts are also located to reflect the order of usage, to make it as easy as possible for the operators.
21 Why Configure ? Makes things easier to find, use and return. Removes frustration of searching for items.Creates a better working environment.Reduces accidents.Assists cleanliness.Begins standardisation.Explain the key learning points from each stage.Give examples for each of the bullet points.
22 3rd Step - Clean & Check ……...Agree & Visualise Identify Cleaning Zones.It is everybody’s responsibility.Set targets and work to them.Keep your area clean and tidy on a continual basis.Cleanliness extends to non-seen areas (eg behind cupboards etc).Routine maintenance may be incorporated (TPM).Explain that clean and check is not just a one off event but it is a continual process.A five minute daily sweep will prevent the need to ‘Blitz’ the area.Cleaning is inspection and the first stage to Total Productive Maintenance.In the 5C programme this step introduces the concept of solving problems in the area,particularly machine or equipment related problems.The saying is that ’through cleaning you touch ,through touching you find faults thereby fixing them’.Use cleaning to inspect equipment and find abnormalities early.The team needs to start promoting visual standards, and get team buy in!!……...Agree & Visualise3
23 Clean & Check Overall Situation Major cleaning operations and Can be divided into 3 sections :-OverallSituationMajor cleaning operations andplan to find sources of dirt.IndividualCleaning workplace andall equipment.DetailedPreventing defects by cleaning & checking machines, jigs andtools (Equipment 5C).Explain the 3 sections, being :-Overall situationLooks at what the overall strategy will look like for the area as a whole. Not to get bogged down in detail cleaning activities.Individual situationThis step is more focused on the operators immediate area and what they need to do, and when, to maintain an agreed standard of cleanliness. This activity needs to be enforced in the early stages to ensure the process is maintained.Detailed situationThis is more focused on the maintenance of individual items of equipment. For example, if a tool was used it would be the operators responsibility to ensure it was adequately cleaned after use and all necessary pins were attached to the tool, before being returned to a storage area.…..Creating a spotless workplace
24 Clean & Check …..through cleaning you touch, through touching you find Machine concern / fault analysisExample of how cleaning is the first stage to Total Productive Maintenance.In a 5C programme, this step introduces the concept of solving problems in the area,particularly machine or equipment related problems.The saying is that ’through cleaning you touch ,through touching you find when you find you fix’.Use cleaning to inspect equipment and find abnormalities early.…..through cleaning you touch, through touching you findwhen you find, you fix !!3
25 Clean & Check Fault Finding Sheet Machine:M/c 1265Date: 15/08Completed by: J BrownNoLocation / FaultCodeclassCauseTempPermCountermeasureWhoWhen1Pressure Gauge notwithin limitH3Poor labellingTPEnsure manual setting onlabelWrite Setting on SettingsheetTeam1/112Measuring probeunprotected next topalletE9Poor designCover to be madeReview machinespecificationNCMTMRWk 263Oil Leak next totwin palletL4Poorly installedFix leakReview installationprocedureMaintWk 25Wk 27EElectricalMMechanicalLLubricationHHydraulicPneumaticWWaterClassLooseWornBroken4Leaking5Missing6Dirty7Difficult to clean8Location / Routing9Take the delegates through how the sheet is used.Relate the included text example back the the machine on the previous slide.Explain the coding system and give the following example :-Example No Code Class - H3H - Hydraulic3 - Broken(Give further examples of the codes if necessary)
26 Clean & Check Fault Finding Sheet Machine:Completed by:NoLocation / FaultCodeclassCauseTempPermCountermeasureWhoWhenEElectricalMMechanicalLLubricationHHydraulicPPneumaticWWaterClass1Loose2Worn3Broken4Leaking5Missing6Dirty7Difficult to clean8Location / Routing9Poor designDateBlank sheet of the Clean and Check Fault Finding Sheet.
27 Clean & Check Concern / Fault Analysis CODE CLASSE = ELECTRICALM = MECHANICALL = LUBRICATIONH = HYDRAULICW = WATERP = PNEUMATIC1 = LOOSE2 = WORN3 = BROKEN4 = LEAKING5 = MISSING6 = DIRTY7 = DIFFICULT TO CLEAN8 = LOCATION & / OR ROUTING9 = POOR DESIGNConcern / Fault Analysis sheet is used after machine Clean and Check stage to analyse faults and concerns that need to be fixed
28 Clean & Lubrication Sheet - Example Date:Machine:Cleaning ItemsLatheProcess:JIG REMOVALCItem to Clean1LOCATING PINTLE2AREA AROUND SHAFT3SUPPORTING ACTUATOR SHAFT4GENERAL AREAC1 + D1Lubrication & Inspection ItemsDItem1LOCATING PINTLE - INSPECT FORExample of a completed Cleaning and Lubrication sheet to ensure the appropriate checks where done on a regular basis to ensure elimination of all downtime.This is posted at the appropriate machine(s),to enable the operator to regularly clean and lubricate the listed items.Give an example of some of the checks and inspections on the sheet, and explain that corrective action would have to be actioned immediately if an irregularity was spotted.WEAR, LUBE WHERE NECESSARY2SUPPORTING ACTUATOR SHAFT -C3 + D2AS ABOVE3REPORT ANY DAMAGE TO TEAMLEADER
29 Clean & Lubrication Sheet Date:Machine:Cleaning ItemsLubrication & Inspection ItemsNo.ItemItem to CleanProcess:Blank sheet of the Cleaning and Lubrication Sheet.
30 Clean & Lubrication Standards Sheet - Example Cleaning ItemMethodFrequencyTools RequiredLubrication StandardTimeHydraulic TankMachine bodyMachine baseLiquid linesMotor Fan123456Pump789SpindlesLubricatorFilterRegulatorPress Gauge10111413Temp GaugeMain Spindle15WipeRagCleanStd / LubMinShiftDayWeek2 wkMon.WhoVisual2 Pushes1 Stroke2 StrokesBrushNo swarfPump handleGrease gunNo waterGP OilNo excessTo limitsIn limitsNo playTotalMachine: Gleason Process: Gear Cutting Date: 06/07/2000Example of Cleaning and Lubrication standards sheetThis is a live schedule which the team members need to be aware of, the checks stipulated on the sheet must be adhered to to ensure effective maintenance at all times.This sheet would be visualised near the equipment being checked.Give an example of some of the checks and inspections on the sheet, and explain that corrective action would have to be actioned immediately if an irregularity was spotted.
31 Clean & Lubrication Standards Sheet Machine: Process: Date:TimeFrequencyCleaning ItemMethodTools RequiredStd / LubMinShiftDayWeek2 wkMon.WhoLubrication StandardMethodTools RequiredStd / LubBlank sheet of the Cleaning and Lubrication Standards Sheet.TotalMin
32 Action Plan Sheet NO. ITEM ACTION WHO WHEN STATUS The Action Plan Sheet is used to action people with completion dates for things that can not be done on the day or during the activity .The team must ensure that the plan is achievable with regular review dates included.
33 Why Clean & Check ? Makes defects easier to detect. Better customer perception.Creates a better working environment.Aids efficiency and reduces accidents.Helps standardisation.Explain the key learning points from each stage.Give examples for each of the bullet points.
34 4th Step - Conformity …..the system must be controlled Use visual controls.To maintain the workplace at a level which uncovers and makes problems obvious.To continuously improve by continuous assessment and generating actions.To include routine health and safety.…..the system must be controlledand maintained (using agreedstandards.)The need to have a standard operating procedure to ensure that the first three parts of the 5C’s are not done once and then forgotten.Establishing and agreeing standards that everyone works to e.g.documentation ,filing systems,best practices.Making the standard such that any new comer can join the section and quickly work to the set standard.Over time the adherence to this new standard will become custom and practice.3
35 Conformity Location Indicators Aspect Method Address signboards Set limitsDanger indicatorsAddress signboardsLocation / limit linesLabelsHeight linesFixed length rackingStd container sizesWalkwaysDanger signsPrepare locations for containers or needed items.Limit space physically and visually to prevent accumulation.Use containers that hold only the standard number of parts.Make address for each itemsCorrect locationCorrect nomenclature Name,Part no………Correct quantity (max. / min ….indicators)The information and preparation for this should be under constant review.
36 5C Audit Check Sheet Continual assessment. Periodically but not scheduled.Help maintain the set standard.Apply common sense.Enables Plan, Do, Check, Action cycle.Promotes safety first.Publish scores on notice boards.Impresses the customer.Explain the bullet points in turn.The audit allows the team to clearly see whether a standard is being worked to or not. If the answer is NO, then the team needs to take action and ask WHY???If the standard is in appropriate the team must collectively agree to develop the standard in a timely manner.If the standard is APPROPRIATE then the team must be re-trained to ensure effective implementation.
37 Audit Process DAILY WEEKLY YES NO Minimum Requirement C/L to understand/address anyshortfalls then filein C/Ls OfficeThe handover documentto Cell / Shift Leader for archiveDAILYWEEKLYMgr + CELL / SHIFT LEADEROPS MANAGERT/LHandover- Daily -The incoming T/Lneeds to decidewhether the dept.is in anacceptable condition- Weekly -/Ops Manager must conduct anaudit using the Area Map (supportpersonnel to attend)- Weekly -Mgr with Cell / Shift Leader mustcomplete the Cell Performance/Workplace Mgnt Audit Sheet+adhoc dip check ofT/LHandover archive- Daily -T/L must completeat the end of shiftand hand to theincoming T/LYESNO- Weekly -Ops Manager to review theaudit with Mgrsbefore the HUD is updatedT/L off the previousshift to rectify theissues with immediateeffectT/L can nowcontinue to deployoperators onto station- Weekly -Results communicated toT/Ls at the morning brief,then communicated to Operations(via PMS Board)- Weekly -Mgr must then feedthe results into theHUDACCEPTABLEHANDOVER ?
38 T/L Self Audit / Hand-over ProcessEvery day Team Leader self audits workplace & performance against a check list.Forms part of the Team Leader handover from shift to shift.Agreement between Team Leaders on the current state.Looking for:Housekeeping to the required standard.Performance management measures up to date and on target.Quality standards are adhered to.Work is being performed to the standard.Issues identified & customer protection/counter measure underway.The first step in the process requires Team Leaders, with their Teams, to take responsibility for their work areas.This sheet can be part of a Team Leader hand-over book and should be agreed by both out going and incoming team leaders- Does this reflect the state of the team area?
39 Ensure a clear standard exists for each element audited 5C Audit Check SheetProcessAt the appropriate frequency (min. once per week) the Mgr and Cell / Shift Leader to audit team performance.T/L to attend in appropriate area.Coach and task against non-conformancesAudit scores feed into a weekly HUD for the Dept. and/or CellDept. Audit Scores made available for Site HUDLooking for:5C to the required standard.Performance management measures up to date and on target.Quality standards are adhered to.Work is being performed to the standard.Issues identified & customer protection/counter measure underway.Ensure a clear standard exists for each element audited
40 Management Audit Scores DEPARTMENTManagement audit conducted weeklyOne of the KPIs for the department and as such reviewed regularly.Targets set and trends monitored.Displayed openly on section.The information from the audits is then a key measure for improving the workplace and its performance.
41 Housekeeping Area Map To be used by Ops Managers Once per week audit, Mgrs to lead Ops Manager around appropriate cells.Display on “Info. Centre” boardsMgr to feedback major non-conformance's back to Cell / Shift Leaders and T/Ls immediately following auditTalk the delegates through the bullets on the slide, which gives further detail surrounding the Housekeeping Area Map Process.
42 Why Conformity ? Provides schedule of 5C activities. Ensures deterioration does not occur.Gives a standard to work to.Starts problem solving/improvement activities.Makes first 3C’s a habit.Promotes ownership.Explain the key learning points from each stage.Give examples for each of the bullet points.Key Point involving the workforce in writing and defining the standards helps to ensure they will buy into and follow them.
43 5th Step - Custom & Practice Probably the most difficult of the 5C’s.Make it a habit.Setting review frequency.Cleaning checklist matrix.To maintain our habit we need to practice and report until it becomes a way of life.Visual communication instead of verbal!State how the whole process is a waste of time if we do not have the self discipline to capture the improvements that the team have made.Takes time and requires awareness,culture acceptance,structure support,recognition,satisfactionTools used to help sustain 5C cultureSlogans and posters campaignsPhotos and story boardsRegular audits and reviewsNewsletter incorporating success stories and 5C missionPocket manualsClear StandardsEffective training…..Ownership !!Without it the other steps will fail!“Its everyone’s responsibility”3
44 Operator Check List - Example Example of Housekeeping Frequency Matrix.Using this audit style ensures that 5C standards become CUSTOM & PRACTICEExplain – you add the checks that you think are the right checks to ensure that the standards are being followed.The results of these checks could be put on visual display as a graph to show improvement trends or to identify where there are problems to enable problem solving to take place.
45 Operator Check List - Example Blank showing the Operator Checklist.
46 Why Custom & Practice ? It makes 5C routine. Sustains all improvements.Builds on the improvements already made.Maintains agreed procedures.Ensures we don’t fall back into our old ways.Explain the key learning points from each stage.Give examples for each of the bullet points.
47 5C Summary Improves safety. A structured approach. Applicable to the General Manager and everyone else.Improves productivity.Improves quality.Improves morale and teamwork.Enjoy - working in a clean, organised, quality, successful, safe environment.You do it at home why not at work?Bullet point summary sheet of some of the advantages of 5C methodology.
48 Finally ….Improvements should be in-expensive. The more money we spend, the less ingenuity we use to find solutions.Read from the slide explaining that the low cost no cost approach should always be encouraged as a starting point.If radical expensive options are submitted straight away the management is likely to turn them down. Implement some quick hits were benefits are delivered, and the management will be more likely to consider more medium to long term costly options.Small incremental improvements are better. Don’t try and change the world in one hit.
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