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Time Lines Roger Bailey. Time Concepts Sun is the Essence of Time –Daily rotation of earth gives hours of the day, sunrise, high noon and sunset, days.

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Presentation on theme: "Time Lines Roger Bailey. Time Concepts Sun is the Essence of Time –Daily rotation of earth gives hours of the day, sunrise, high noon and sunset, days."— Presentation transcript:

1 Time Lines Roger Bailey

2 Time Concepts Sun is the Essence of Time –Daily rotation of earth gives hours of the day, sunrise, high noon and sunset, days of the year –Yearly orbit around the sun gives solstices, equinoxes and seasons Sundials show solar time cycles Clock time is arbitrary and regulated We are continuously challenged to have sundials show clock time Get over it! Solar time is reality. The clocks are wrong!

3 Sundial Time Sundials can show time in many ways Day divided into hours –Normally 24 hours, equal or unequal –Start: noon & midnight, sunrise or sunset –Mark prayer times, Canonical or Moslem Year divided into seasons, months, or zodiac signs based on solar declination & mark dates Regular equal hours common in N America on sundials with polar gnomons Older cultures used different hours and timelines on historical sundials with perpendicular gnomons. Interesting timelines!

4 Time, Timelines and Culture Night time for sleep, Daytime is active Meal time divides the day Prayer times were the first markers –Canonical and Moslem - First sundials Watch times – Eight bells for ships Hours of daylight: Seasonal then Equal Time regulated by sundials and clocks Astronomical, standard then Atomic time

5 Polar Gnomon Sundials Polar gnomon is parallel to the earths axis Angle with horizontal plane = Latitude Angle in meridian plane with vertical = Co-Lat (90-Latitude) Hour lines radiate from the gnomon base Date or declination lines from tip or nodus Olde English Gnomon By Tony Moss

6 Point Gnomon Sundials Gnomon is perpendicular to the plane Time lines set by shadow paths from the tip of the gnomon Determine altitude and azimuth of sun at the time Project point onto the plane Hour lines do not radiate from the gnomon base Ref: Fer De Vries: A Uniform Method to Compute Flat Sundials usable all over the World & Zon 2000

7 Timelines Equal hours: 24 hours/day, –2 x 12, starting at midnight and or noon –Babylonian hours: Start at sunrise Noon and sunset times vary –Italian hours: Start at sunset Sunrise and noon times vary Also Bohemian or Jewish hours Unequal hours: 12 hours per day, sunrise to sunset. Biblical hours –Length varies with season

8 Time Lines Prague Klementinum 1 Students Court East Facing Equal Hours Italian Hours (sunset) Babylonian Hours (sunrise) Solstices Equinox

9 Prague Klementinum Sundials Vine Court Students Court Economics Court 13, 14,17 Astronomy Tower St Clement Jesuit University 1653

10 Klementinum 2: South Facing Students Court Babylonian (Sunrise) Equal (noon) Italian (Sunset)

11 West Facing East Face Morning Klementinum Astronomy Tower

12 Klementinum Economics Court Sundials

13 EC 9 S Equal Economics Court 9: South Face: Equal Hours

14 EC10 S Italian Economics Court 9: South Face: Italian Hours

15 EC11 E Equal Economics Court 11: East Face: Equal Hours

16 EC12 S Italian Economics Court 12: East Face: Italian Hours Italian Hours Hours from Sunset Horae ab occasum solis Equal hours, 24 / day Noon varies, 18 at equinox Used in Europe 1200 to 1800 Reverse Italian Hours = Time to Sunset

17 Vine Court KlementinumVine Court Sundials

18 VC3E Babylonian Vine Court 3: East Face: Babylonian Hours A SOLIS ORTUFROM THE RISING OF THE SUN

19 VC4E Italian Vine Court 4 East Face: Italian Hours USQUE AD OCCASIUM THROUGH TO SUNSET

20 VC5 E Equal Vine Court 5: S 68º E Face: Equal Hours LAUDABILE NOMEN DOMINI: PRAISE THE NAME OF THE LORD

21 VC 7 S Equal Vine Court 7: South Face: Equal Hours

22 VC S 6 Babylonian Vine Court 6 South Face: Babylonian Hours

23 VC 8 S Italian Vine Court 8: S Face: Italian Hours

24 Prague Astronomical Clock Timelines are not just on sundials Italian Sidereal (star) Unequal (Biblical) Sun rise & set Local equal Zodiac Lunar phases

25 Hotel Růže Český Krumlov Hotel Růže Jesuit College 1586

26 Český Krumlov Equal Hours Italian Hours Reversed Babylonian Hours Date Lines: Zodiac Hours of Daylight

27 Reverse Italian Hours Time to Sunset Modern uses for Italian Airports:Visual Flying Rules –Mac Oglesby: Moore Field Royal Astronomical Society (RASC) Alberta Star Party –Eccles Ranch Observatory –Caroline AB (52.1, 114.7) Sidereal hours for Observatory sundial?

28 Karl Schwarzinger, Innsbruck Gnomonicae Societas Austriaca

29 Birthday Lines Karl Swarzinger, Austrian Sundial Society Franz Wuring sundial Familys Birthday Lines

30 Caesartelli Fabio Casartelli Memorial Col d Aspres Pyrênées, France Tour de France 1995 Sundial with Date Lines

31 Casartelli Memorial Date Lines on Sundial Memorial –Birth 16 August 1970 –Olympic Gold 3 August 1992 –Death in crash 18 July 1995

32 Seasonal Markers: Sunrise Sunset Lines 2.80 Stand on Marker, sight over date to see where the sun rises Stand on Date, sight over marker to see when the sun rises

33 Seasonal Markers: Sunrise Sunset Lines Sunrise and sunset lines converge almost to points, Seasonal Markers on the major W/E axis

34 Seasonal Markers Elliston Park, Calgary Sunrise Sunset

35 Prayer Times: Canonical Hours Often shown on Mass or scratch dials on old churches Seven times (tides) defined by St. Benedicts Rule (6 th Century) –Matins (Lauds): midnight to dawn –Prime: sunrise (first) –Triece: mid-morning (third) –Sext: noon (sixth) –Nones: midafternoon –Vespers: sunset –Compline: sunset to midnight

36 Rule of St. Benedict CHAPTER XVI How the Work of God Is to Be Performed during the Day As the Prophet saith: "Seven times a day I have given praise to Thee" (Psalms 119:164), this sacred sevenfold number will be fulfilled by us in this wise if we perform the duties of our service at the time of Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Complin;


38 Mass Dials Orms dial is typical Horizontal gnomon Equal time divisions Seasonal un-equal hours

39 Moslem Prayer Hours For devout Moslems, there are five prayer times, all determined by the altitude of the sun –Fajr (morning): twilight to dawn –Zuhr (noon): Shadow length: noon + ¼ gnomon height –Asr (mid pm): Shadow length: noon + gnomon height to noon + 2 gnomon heights –Maghrib (sunset): sundown to end of twilight –Isha (night): twilight to dawn Zuhr and Asr are (were) set by shadow lengths Horizontal sundials with perpendicular gnomons

40 Daily Prayer Times Midnight Midday Sunrise Sunset Daybreak Nightfall Monastic Prime Matins Triece Sext Nones Vespers Compline zuhr asr maghrib isha fajr Moslem duha

41 Moslem Prayer Times Gnomon Noon Zuhr Defined by altitude of sun determined by shadow lengths Zuhr = Noon + ¼ gnomon height Asr = Noon + gnomon height to Noon + 2 gnomon heights Asr

42 Moslem Prayer Timelines Istanbul: Latitude 41º N Horizontal with Vertical Gnomon Zon 2000

43 Istanbul Topkapi Palace Complex sundial in Courtyard Asr prayer line Italian Hours Babylonian Equal Hours Joël Robic ©

44 Asr Italian Babylonian

45 Topkapi Palace Ottoman Sundial

46 Missouri Botanical Garden

47 Ottoman Sundial Topkapi Dial design for Ottoman Garden at Missouri Botanical Gardens, St Louis Paul Brockman: Project Coordinator Fazil Sutcu: Architect Abraham Mohler: Sculptor E.L. Bakewell Jr:Sponsor Roger Bailey: Designer


49 Proud Artisans Abraham Mohler Sculptor Roger Bailey Designer

50 Veni Camii Istanbul: New Mosque Yeni Camii

51 Vertical Declining Sundials

52 New Mosque Yeni Camii 1 -Local hours 20 -Italian hours -Asr 1 & 2 -Zhur? -Declination -Other curves

53 Yeni Camii: New Mosque 45º Qibla 151.7º Mecca

54 New Mosque Yeni Camii 2 Local hours 20 Polar Gnomon bent horizontal (Moslem style)

55 Overlay confirms declination lines, equinoctial and Asr Prayer line (N + G). Zuhr Prayer line and parallel curved time lines are different New Mosque Yeni Camii 3 Islamic sundial Prayer times Hours? 20

56 Blue Mosque: Istanbul

57 Ablutions

58 Blue Mosque: Istanbul 42º Qibla 151.7º Mecca

59 Modern computation (Zon 2000) Dial is crudely engraved Overlay shows slightly different results on equinox and Asr lines. Zuhr and other lines are unusual, parallel to Asr, not defined by shadows N + nG Zuhr Noon Asr 2 Post Asr Blue Mosque Sundial Vertical Declining S 42º W Shadow lengths defined prayer lines for Horizontal Date Lines for Equinox and Solstices Six time lines: Noon, Pre Zuhr, Zhur, Asr, 2 post Asr

60 Hagia Sophia: Istanbul Byzantine Cathedral: Saint Sophia Roman Emperor Justinian s Sultans Mosque, now museum

61 Hagia Sophia 36º Qibla 151.7º Mecca

62 Hagia Sophia Sundial Vertical declining S 36 W Multiple timelines similar to prayer lines Modern calculation overlay confirms noon, equinoctial and declination. Asr prayer line ~OK Zuhr prayer line is tilted, parallel, like other lines

63 Republican Hours French Revolution Rational measures –Metric system –Decimalization Republican Hours –10 hours, 10 x 10 min1 –1 Republican = 2.4 hrs Vallouise, Les Vigneaux –North Declining East –5 to 9:30 am = 2 to 4 LAtelier Tournesol 1989 Relativistic Hours

64 Analemma Dennis di Cicco: Declination Equation Of Time

65 Standard Time Sundials

66 Standard Time Sundials R D Swensen Dial 1995 by Prof John Shepherd University of Wisconsin Analemma Hour Lines

67 Berlin, Charlottenburg, Pestalozzistr Meine Sonnenuhren by Karl Schwarzinger © 2004

68 St Ulrich in Gröden Rumanonstr

69 Modern Timelines The shadow of the Golden Arches C.Huff © Leo Burnett, USA

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