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Time Lines Roger Bailey

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1 Time Lines Roger Bailey

2 Time Concepts Get over it! Sun is the Essence of Time
Daily rotation of earth gives hours of the day, sunrise, high noon and sunset, days of the year Yearly orbit around the sun gives solstices, equinoxes and seasons Sundials show solar time cycles Clock time is arbitrary and regulated We are continuously challenged to have sundials show clock time Get over it! Solar time is reality. The clocks are wrong!

3 Sundial Time Sundials can show time in many ways
Day divided into hours Normally 24 hours, equal or unequal Start: noon & midnight, sunrise or sunset Mark prayer times, Canonical or Moslem Year divided into seasons, months, or zodiac signs based on solar declination & mark dates Regular equal hours common in N America on sundials with polar gnomons Older cultures used different hours and timelines on historical sundials with perpendicular gnomons. Interesting timelines!

4 Time, Timelines and Culture
Night time for sleep, Daytime is active Meal time divides the day Prayer times were the first markers Canonical and Moslem - First sundials Watch times – Eight bells for ships Hours of daylight: Seasonal then Equal Time regulated by sundials and clocks Astronomical, standard then Atomic time

5 Polar Gnomon Sundials Polar gnomon is parallel to the earth’s axis
Angle with horizontal plane = Latitude Angle in meridian plane with vertical = Co-Lat (90-Latitude) Hour lines radiate from the gnomon base Date or declination lines from tip or nodus Olde English Gnomon By Tony Moss

6 Point Gnomon Sundials Gnomon is perpendicular to the plane
Time lines set by shadow paths from the tip of the gnomon Determine altitude and azimuth of sun at the time Project point onto the plane Hour lines do not radiate from the gnomon base Ref: Fer De Vries: “A Uniform Method to Compute Flat Sundials usable all over the World” & “Zon 2000”

7 Timelines Equal hours: 24 hours/day,
2 x 12, starting at midnight and or noon Babylonian hours: Start at sunrise Noon and sunset times vary Italian hours: Start at sunset Sunrise and noon times vary Also Bohemian or Jewish hours Unequal hours: 12 hours per day, sunrise to sunset. Biblical hours Length varies with season

8 Time Lines Italian Hours (sunset) Solstices Equal Hours Equinox
Babylonian Hours (sunrise) Prague Klementinum 1 Students Court East Facing Time Lines

9 Prague Klementinum Sundials
6 7 8 9 10 5 16 12 Vine Court Economics Court 4 15 11 3 13, 14,17 Astronomy Tower 2 Students Court 1 “St Clement” Jesuit University 1653

10 Equal (noon) Babylonian (Sunrise) Italian (Sunset) Klementinum 2: South Facing Students Court

11 Klementinum Astronomy Tower
East Face Morning West Facing Klementinum Astronomy Tower

12 Klementinum Economics Court

13 EC 9 S Equal Economics Court 9: South Face: Equal Hours

14 EC10 S Italian Economics Court 9: South Face: Italian Hours

15 EC11 E Equal Economics Court 11: East Face: Equal Hours

16 EC12 S Italian Italian Hours
Hours from Sunset “Horae ab occasum solis” Equal hours, 24 / day Noon varies, 18 at equinox Used in Europe 1200 to 1800 Reverse Italian Hours = Time to Sunset Economics Court 12: East Face: Italian Hours

17 Vine Court Sundials Klementinum Vine Court

18 VC3E Babylonian Vine Court 3: East Face: Babylonian Hours
A SOLIS ORTU FROM THE RISING OF THE SUN VC3E Babylonian Vine Court 3: East Face: Babylonian Hours

19 VC4E Italian Vine Court 4 East Face: Italian Hours
USQUE AD OCCASIUM THROUGH TO SUNSET VC4E Italian Vine Court 4 East Face: Italian Hours

20 VC5 E Equal Vine Court 5: S 68º E Face: Equal Hours

21 VC 7 S Equal Vine Court 7: South Face: Equal Hours

22 VC S 6 Babylonian Vine Court 6 South Face: Babylonian Hours

23 VC 8 S Italian Vine Court 8: S Face: Italian Hours

24 Prague Astronomical Clock
Timelines are not just on sundials Italian Sidereal (star) Unequal (Biblical) Sun rise & set Local equal Zodiac Lunar phases

25 Hotel Růže Český Krumlov Hotel Růže  Jesuit College 1586

26 Český Krumlov Italian Hours Reversed Babylonian Hours Hours of Daylight Date Lines: Zodiac Equal Hours

27 Reverse Italian Hours Time to Sunset
Modern uses for Italian Airports:Visual Flying Rules Mac Oglesby: Moore Field Royal Astronomical Society (RASC) Alberta Star Party Eccles Ranch Observatory Caroline AB (52.1, 114.7) Sidereal hours for Observatory sundial?

28 Karl Schwarzinger, Innsbruck
Gnomonicae Societas Austriaca

29 Birthday Lines Karl Swarzinger, Austrian Sundial Society
Franz Wuring sundial Family’s Birthday Lines

30 Caesartelli Sundial with Date Lines Fabio Casartelli Memorial
Col d’ Aspres Pyrênées, France Tour de France 1995

31 Casartelli Memorial Date Lines on Sundial Memorial Birth Olympic Gold
16 August 1970 Olympic Gold 3 August 1992 Death in crash 18 July 1995

32 Seasonal Markers: Sunrise Sunset Lines
2.80 2.80 Here is the result. There is a point that can be used as a seasonal sunrise marker aligned with the time and direction of sunrise. Stand on Marker, sight over date to see where the sun rises Stand on Date, sight over marker to see when the sun rises

33 Seasonal Markers: Sunrise Sunset Lines
This is a Delta Cad drawing showing the markers lines for each month. The close intersection point shows that Mike’s questions led to a brilliant idea. The marker line seem to converge to a point on the axis. I modified Fer De Vries Delta Cad macro posted on the NASS web site to create this drawing. Sunrise and sunset lines converge almost to points, Seasonal Markers on the major W/E axis

34 Seasonal Markers Sunset Sunrise Elliston Park, Calgary

35 Prayer Times: Canonical Hours
Often shown on Mass or scratch dials on old churches Seven times (tides) defined by St. Benedict’s Rule (6th Century) Matins (Lauds): midnight to dawn Prime: sunrise (first) Triece: mid-morning (third) Sext: noon (sixth) Nones: midafternoon Vespers: sunset Compline: sunset to midnight

36 CHAPTER XVI How the Work of God Is to Be Performed during the Day
Rule of St. Benedict CHAPTER XVI How the Work of God Is to Be Performed during the Day As the Prophet saith: "Seven times a day I have given praise to Thee" (Psalms 119:164), this sacred sevenfold number will be fulfilled by us in this wise if we perform the duties of our service at the time of Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Complin;


38 Mass Dials Orm’s dial is typical Horizontal gnomon
Equal time divisions Seasonal un-equal hours

39 Moslem Prayer Hours For devout Moslems, there are five prayer times, all determined by the altitude of the sun Fajr (morning): twilight to dawn Zuhr (noon): Shadow length: noon + ¼ gnomon height Asr (mid pm): Shadow length: noon + gnomon height to noon + 2 gnomon heights Maghrib (sunset): sundown to end of twilight Isha (night): twilight to dawn Zuhr and Asr are (were) set by shadow lengths Horizontal sundials with perpendicular gnomons

40 Monastic Moslem Daily Prayer Times Prime Matins Triece Sext Nones
Vespers Compline zuhr asr maghrib isha fajr Moslem duha Midnight Midday Sunrise Sunset Daybreak Nightfall Daily Prayer Times

41 Moslem Prayer Times Noon Defined by altitude of sun determined by shadow lengths Zuhr = Noon + ¼ gnomon height Asr = Noon + gnomon height to Noon + 2 gnomon heights Zuhr Asr Gnomon

42 Moslem Prayer Timelines
Zon 2000 Istanbul: Latitude 41º N Horizontal with Vertical Gnomon

43 Istanbul Topkapi Palace Complex sundial in Courtyard Asr prayer line
Italian Hours Babylonian Equal Hours Joël Robic ©

44 Italian Babylonian Asr

45 Topkapi Palace Ottoman Sundial
This is what the veiled women were viewing. A strange pattern of lines and Arabic writing. What does it mean? The lines are the hour lines for two different sundials and show four different systems of measuring time.

46 Missouri Botanical Garden

47 Ottoman Sundial Topkapi Dial design for Ottoman Garden at Missouri Botanical Gardens, St Louis Paul Brockman: Project Coordinator Fazil Sutcu: Architect Abraham Mohler: Sculptor E.L. Bakewell Jr:Sponsor Roger Bailey: Designer From Istanbul to St Louis, an interesting project. To understand why we need a historical perspective. Lets go back to 1480 when the original dial was constructed. What was happening in the world at that time? Who were the superpowers, nations that influenced world politics beyond their bordersIn those days what


49 Walking Shadow Designs
Proud Artisans Abraham Mohler Sculptor Roger Bailey Designer Walking Shadow Designs

50 Istanbul: New Mosque Yeni Camii
Veni Camii

51 Vertical Declining Sundials

52 New Mosque “Yeni Camii” 1 Local hours 20’ Italian hours Asr 1 & 2
Zhur? Declination Other curves

53 Yeni Camii: New Mosque 45º Qibla 151.7º Mecca

54 New Mosque Yeni Camii 2 Local hours 20’ Polar Gnomon bent horizontal
(Moslem style)

55 New Mosque Yeni Camii 3 Islamic sundial Prayer times Hours? 20’
Overlay confirms declination lines, equinoctial and Asr Prayer line (N + G). Zuhr Prayer line and parallel curved time lines are different New Mosque Yeni Camii 3 Islamic sundial Prayer times Hours? 20’

56 Blue Mosque: Istanbul

57 Ablutions

58 Blue Mosque: Istanbul Qibla 151.7º Mecca 42º

59 Blue Mosque Sundial Vertical Declining S 42º W
Modern computation (Zon 2000) Dial is crudely engraved Overlay shows slightly different results on equinox and Asr lines. Zuhr and other lines are unusual, parallel to Asr, not defined by shadows N + nG Blue Mosque Sundial Vertical Declining S 42º W Shadow lengths defined prayer lines for Horizontal Date Lines for Equinox and Solstices Six time lines: Noon, Pre Zuhr, Zhur, Asr, 2 post Asr 2 Post Asr Asr Zuhr Noon

60 Hagia Sophia: Istanbul
Byzantine Cathedral: Saint Sophia Roman Emperor Justinian 537 1453’s Sultan’s Mosque, now museum

61 Hagia Sophia Qibla 151.7º Mecca 36º

62 Hagia Sophia Sundial Vertical declining S 36 W
Modern calculation overlay confirms noon, equinoctial and declination. Asr prayer line ~OK Zuhr prayer line is tilted, parallel, like other lines Vertical declining S 36 W Multiple timelines similar to prayer lines

63 Republican Hours French Revolution Rational measures Republican Hours
Relativistic Hours Republican Hours French Revolution Rational measures Metric system Decimalization Republican Hours 10 hours, 10 x 10 min1 1 Republican = 2.4 hrs Vallouise, Les Vigneaux North Declining East 5 to 9:30 am = 2 to 4 L’Atelier Tournesol 1989

64 Analemma Declination Equation Of Time Dennis di Cicco:

65 Standard Time Sundials

66 Standard Time Sundials
R D Swensen Dial 1995 by Prof John Shepherd University of Wisconsin Analemma Hour Lines

67 Berlin, Charlottenburg, Pestalozzistr.40 1992
D_ “Meine Sonnenuhren” by Karl Schwarzinger © 2004

68 “Meine Sonnenuhren” by Karl Schwarzinger © 2004
St Ulrich in Gröden Rumanonstr “Meine Sonnenuhren” by Karl Schwarzinger © 2004

69 The shadow of the Golden Arches
Modern Timelines The shadow of the Golden Arches C.Huff © Leo Burnett, USA

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