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IN THIS CHAPTER Spectacular Scenery Natural Wealth The American Creed Bilingualism in Canada The Geography of Home Foreclosures Immigration and the Future.

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Presentation on theme: "IN THIS CHAPTER Spectacular Scenery Natural Wealth The American Creed Bilingualism in Canada The Geography of Home Foreclosures Immigration and the Future."— Presentation transcript:

1 IN THIS CHAPTER Spectacular Scenery Natural Wealth The American Creed Bilingualism in Canada The Geography of Home Foreclosures Immigration and the Future of Multiculturalism NORTH AMERICA DEFINING THE REALM

2 NORTH AMERICA Population Clusters Cultural Pluralism people of different cultures live adjacent to each other but do not mix Canada East and South Asian United States Hispanic (16%) African American (13%) Other Ethnic Backgrounds Current US Population = 300-million +

3 NORTH AMERICAS PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Physiographic Regions Plains Coastal Plains Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Arctic Coastal Plain Interior Plains Interior Lowlands Great Plains Canadian Shield Mountains and Highlands Appalachian Highlands Interior Highlands Rocky Mountains Intermountain Basins and Plateaus Pacific Mountains and Valleys

4 NORTH AMERICA Climates Diversity of Environments Tropical A Southern tip of Florida Moist coastal zones C East Coasthumid Cfa West CoastCs and Cfb Arid Interior and West B Vegetation Scrub and brush Great Plains Northern D and Polar E Rain Shadow Effect West coast eastside of inland mountains Moisture-laden air arrives from the Pacific, precipitation on mountainous west, dry on east

5 NORTH AMERICA Native Americans and European Settlement Native Americans U.S. First Nations Canada Metis Inuit European Britain France Languages English is Lingua Franca; enhances mobility within realm

6 NORTH AMERICA Predominant Religions Baptists Southeast from Texas to Virginia Lutherans Upper Midwest Northern Great Plains Methodists Lower Midwest Mormons Interior West centered on Utah Roman Catholics United States SouthwestHispanics NortheastIrish and Italians Canada Quebec Federal States Canada 10 Provinces, 3 Territories United States 50 States

7 NORTH AMERICA Distribution of Natural Resources Water: rivers, lakes, ice Mineralsconcentrated in three zones: – Canadian Shield Iron ore, nickel, copper, gold, uranium, and diamonds – Appalachians Iron ore, lead, and zinc – Western Mountains Copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, uranium, silver, and gold Fossil Fuels – Oil and Natural Gas – Coal

8 NORTH AMERICA Energy and Mineral Deposits Oil/Natural Gas Production Areas: Gulf Coast Coastal zone and offshore Midcontinent District Western Texas to eastern Kansas Alaskas North Slope Facing and extending below the Arctic Ocean Canadas Northeastern Alberta (tar sands) Coal Reserves Appalachian Mountains Beneath the Great Plains Southern Midwest Rocky Mountains

9 NORTH AMERICA Industrialization and Urbanization Industrial Revolution American Manufacturing Belt Areas of Growth Movement of Goods

10 NORTH AMERICA Deindustrialization and Suburbanization Deindustrialization – Began in 1960s – loss of manufacturing (and jobs) due to automation Suburbanization – Outer cities became destination for economic activity (suburbs) Information Economy – Quaternary Sector Technology/Science/Business Centers Ex. Silicon Valley: NorCal global tech industry

11 NORTH AMERICA Polycentric Cities Gentrification Limited return of more affluent residents Construction of multiple- use high-rises Displacement of low- income local residents Raise real estate value, taxes, living costs Often spark resistance and conflict Los Angeles example: Metropolis with 6 nodes (YOU are in North West/San Fernando) Effects of Great Recession Housing Loss/Negative Equity

12 NORTH AMERICA Multicultural Realm Mobile Populations – East to SouthWest Migration – near constant immigration (large influx of people of Latino/Asian descent) Melting Pot or Mosaic Culture – Melting Pot – assumed assimilation to norm culture – Immigrant numbers in America sufficient to create durable societies within the national society, thus defying the melting pot idea (USA and Canada) – Complex ethnic and cultural mosaic (in US large number of people with African/Hispanic descent, in Canada Asian and Montreal large French descent)

13 U.S.-Canada Cross-Border Linkages The Hispanicization of the Southwest The Natural Riches of the Northern Frontier Miami: South of the South Chinas Impact on the Pacific Hinge The Alaskan Frontier and U.S. Geopolitics NORTH AMERICA REGIONS OF THE REALM

14 NORTH AMERICA REGIONS OF THE REALM North American Core Maritime Northeast French Canada Southeast Southwest Pacific Hinge Western Frontier Continental Interior Northern Frontier

15 NORTH AMERICA Canadas Spatial Structure Second largest country in the world territorially Atlantic Provinces Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Francophone Quebec Populous, heavily urbanized Ontario

16 NORTH AMERICA Canadas Spatial Structure Population Clustered Along 300-km (200-mi) of U.S. border Along ocean shores Population pattern creates cross-border affinities with major American cities Toronto-Buffalo Windsor-Detroit Vancouver-Seattle Western Canada Prairie Provinces Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Arctic North Yukon Northwest Territories NunavutOur Land Created in 1999 All of Canadas Eastern Arctic Inuit People

17 NORTH AMERICA Canadas Cultural Contrasts CapitalOttawa Located on Ottawa River Between English-speaking Ontario and French-speaking Quebec English-Speaking Canada 60% of population Head of State Queen Elizabeth II Part of the British Commonwealth Represented by Governor General French-Speaking Canada 23% of population Quebec 80% French Canadian Historic, traditional, and emotional focus of French culture in Canada Nationalist movement Politics of Devolution Secession threat that weakens state (West vs. East)

18 NORTH AMERICA Canada: Ascendancy of Indigenous Peoples First Nations 1.4 million native people (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) Creation of Nunavut Treaties for self-government in northern British Columbia Cree Historic domain covers the northern half of Quebec James Bay Hydroelectric Project Cree attempted to block construction Dropped opposition in return for income from electricity Secured the right to control their own economic and community development

19 Regionalism and Ethnicity in the United States As compared with Canada… – No serious contemporary campaign for secession, or withdrawal for political independence, since the Civil War. – Indigenous peoples were weakened by westward push of European settlers: Loss of population and territory Little political power

20 NORTH AMERICA Regionalism and Ethnicity in the United States

21 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The North American Core Largest Cities and Federal Capitals Leading Financial Markets Largest Number of Corporate Headquarters Dominant Media Centers Prestigious Universities Cutting-Edge Research Complexes Busiest Airports and Intercity Expressways More than One-Third National Populations American Manufacturing Belt

22 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Maritime Northeast Northern Border of Massachusetts to Newfoundland Difficult Environments Maritime Orientation Limited Resources Rural Character Slow Economic Development Primary Industries Fishing, Logging, Farming, Recreation, and Tourism Discovery of offshore oil reserves of Newfoundland and Labrador

23 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America French Canada Southern Quebec Focused on St. Lawrence River ValleyMontreal to the Rivers Mouth French-speaking Acadians in New Brunswick Reject the notion of independence and promote efforts to keep Quebec within the Canadian federation Montreal Information Technology Telecommunications Biopharmaceuticals

24 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Southeast Sunbelt Migration in 1970s Core-region companies located subsidiary offices Atlanta, Charlotte, Miami-Fort Lauderdale, Tampa Racial segregation dismantled by civil rights movement New facilities: Airports (Atlanta) to theme parks, CNN, Cape Canaveral Gap between rich and poor wide New South Virginias Washington suburbs, North Carolinas Research Triangle, Tennessees Oak Ridge complex, Atlantas corporate campuses Old South Appalachia and rural Mississippi Tobacco, cotton, and sugar plantations Climate Warmer and more humid than Core and Southwest

25 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Southwest East Texas to Eastern Southern California Environment AridSteppe and Desert Culture Anglo Hispanic Native American Economy Oil and Natural Gas TechnopolesState-of-the- Art, High Technology Industrial Complexes NAFTA

26 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Pacific Hinge Californias border with Mexico to Vancouver, British Columbia California, western portions of Oregon and Washington San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle California Americas most populous state Economy within worlds ten largest Productive agricultural region Californias Central Valley Spectacular economic growth Culturally diverse population Involvement in the economic growth of countries on opposite shores of the Pacific Ocean Key interface between North American realm and the Pacific Rim China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Singapore

27 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Western Frontier From the Sierra Nevada Mountains and Cascades to the Rocky Mountains Parts of southern Alberta and British Columbia, eastern Washington State and Oregon, all of Nevada, Utah, and Idaho, western Montana, Wyoming, Colorado Las Vegas Fast-growing metropolitan area 40 million visitors annually Now, foreclosure, unemployment, due to national and global economic crises

28 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Continental Interior Interior Canada to the borders of the Southeast and Southwest Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Winnipeg AgricultureBreadbasket Meat Beltbeef and pork Corn Beltanimal feed and ethanol Soybean Spring WheatDakotas and Prairie Provinces Winter WheatKansas Food processing, packing, marketing, flour milling, soybean, sunflower and canola oil production


30 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Northern Frontier Largest region of the realm 90% of Canada and Alaska Isolated settlement Resources Canadian Shield Metallic ores such as nickel, uranium, copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc Yukon and Northwest Territories Gold and diamonds

31 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Northern Frontier Alberta Oil reservesTar sands Vast deposits of oil sands petroleum is mixed with sand Expensive, complicated, damaging process to extract Athabasca Tar Sands constitute one of the worlds largest reserves Open-pit mining, Fort McMurray

32 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Northern Frontier Alaska North Slope oil exploitation kilometer (800-mi) Trans-Alaska Pipeline Brooks Range to Arctic Ocean Dwindling supplies at Prudhoe Bay Additional reserves in Alaskas north Opposition from preservationist groups Climate Change Global Warming very observable Recession of Arctic ice Fauna threatened Altered shipping routes and intercontinental distances

33 NORTH AMERICA Regions of North America The Northern Frontier Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement Involves 21 logging firms, 9 environmental organizations, and the Canadian government Moratorium on logging within certain areas Boreal forest Dense stands of coniferous needle leaf trees (spruce, fir, and pine) Habitat of endangered wildlife species (caribou, lynx, American black bear, and wolverine)

34 Homework 1.Read Textbook Chapter 3a/b 2.Homework: Choose the Field Notes subsection topic in Ch.3 textbook; research and summarize (1 page). OR Choose a realm/region within or adjacent to North America to review in detail (1 page). Use Chapter 3b for ideas and information, research and summarize.

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