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RUSSIA CHAPTER 2 DEFINING THE REALM Topics

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1 RUSSIA CHAPTER 2 DEFINING THE REALM Topics
Geopolitics of the “heartland” Global warming in the Arctic From Czars to Soviets to 21st-century Russians Post-Soviet Russia and the Near Abroad Russia’s natural riches

2 RUSSIA MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES
Largest territorial state in the world Northernmost large and populous country Stretches west to east some 10,000 km (6,000 mi) and covers 9 time zones Major colonial power—Czars and Soviets to central government disarray Comparatively small population, concentrated in the west Development concentrated west of Ural Mountains, major cities, leading industrial regions, transport network, productive farming areas Landlocked multicultural state with few ports Emerging economy highly dependent on exports of oil and gas

3 RUSSIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Main Physiographic Regions (4) The Russian Plain Continuation of the North European Lowland Core Area Moscow Volga River Drains into Caspian Sea Heartland—deep within Eurasian landmass Major influence throughout history on the shaping of adjacent societies Siberia West Siberian Plain World’s largest unbroken lowland Ob River—flows north to Arctic Ocean Central Siberian Plateau High relief, sparsely populated Yenisey River, Lena River Eastern Highlands

4 RUSSIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Kamchatka and Sakhalin Contact with Pacific Ring of Fire volcanoes/earthquakes Sakhalin Island—Battleground between Russia and Japan Major oil and natural gas reserves RUSSIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The Southern Perimeter Central Asian Ranges Lake Baykal—More than 1,500 m (5,000 ft) deep Caucasus Mountains—between Black and Caspian Seas

5 RUSSIA CLIMATES Harsh Environments
Moscow farther north than most major cities St. Petersburg lies at the same latitude as the southern tip of Greenland Seasons: Winters—long, dark, bitterly cold Summers—short and growing season limited Continentality—Remote inland environment without moderating and moistening maritime influence Permafrost—permanently frozen groundwater Dfb and Dfc Climates Taiga—”Snowforest”—boreal forest dominated by coniferous trees E Climates—Arctic latitudes Tundra—mosses, lichens, patches of low grass and hardy shrubs

6 Climate and Peoples Climate—long-term average Weather—atmospheric conditions at a given place and time Majority of population concentrated in the west and southwest Population in east sparse and clustered along southern margin

7 Climate Change and Arctic Prospects
Long-term melting of large sections of Arctic Ocean ice cover Shrinking areas of permafrost May improve agriculture Ecologies at Risk Polar bear depends on ample floating ice to hunt and raise cubs Seal, bird, fish and other Arctic wildlife will be further endangered Inuit communities still pursuing traditional lives in the Arctic domain losing habitat/food supply Oil and gas exploration and exploitation, occurring in already-fragile offshore environments, will likely increase Possibility of Arctic ports open year-round—Russian maritime passage between Bering Strait and North Sea Russian government placed a metal Russian flag at the North Pole on the seafloor under permanent ice of the Arctic Ocean (2007)

8 RUSSIA NATURAL RICHES Vast and Varied Oil and natural gas Coalfields
From North Caucasus to Sakhalin Island From western Siberia to Caspian Basin Coalfields Ural Mountains and Siberia Iron ore From Kursk Magnetic Anomaly at Ukraine border to Siberia’s Arctic north Gold, lead, platinum, zinc, nonferrous (non-iron) metals In and around the Ural Mountains Large Forests and Timber industry Animal Trapping for fur Example: Amur Leopard (rarest big cat in the world because of hunting and trapping)

9 RUSSIA RUSSIAN ROOTS Rus—Slav settlements in the area of Ukraine
Kiev and Novgorod combined to form a large state Northern taiga forest to southern steppe (semiarid grassland) The Mongol Invasion Warfare for power/resources Turkic-speaking Tatars Around Slavic/Russian core in the Volga River Basin and Crimean Peninsula Tensions between Christian Slavs and Islamic Tatars Grand Duchy of Muscovy 14th Century Extended Moscow’s trade links from Baltic to Black Sea Religious ties with Eastern Orthodox Church, Constantinople 16th Century Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) Transformed into major military power and imperial state

10 RUSSIA BUILDING THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Czarist Russia Peter the Great ( ) Consolidated Russia’s gains Endeavored to make a modern European-style state Built St. Petersburg Forward capital Founder of modern Russia Catherine the Great ( ) Pushed Russia’s border to Black Sea Penetrated corridor between Black and Caspian Seas Cossacks advanced from east, crossed Bering Strait, entered Alaska U.S. purchase of Alaska in 1867 $7.2 million

11 RUSSIA BUILDING THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Nineteenth-Century Expansion Poland Finland Central Asia Beyond Amur River Vladivostok City Trans-Siberian Railroad (1892) Russo-Japanese War Defeated by Japan Forced out of Manchuria Multinational Empire Annexed and incorporated many nationalities and cultures More than 100 nationalities

12 RUSSIA THE SOVIET UNION
Political Framework Revolution of social movement by the multi-ethnic peoples Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Vladimir Lenin—communist leader and chief architect Divided into 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs) Russian Republic—largest SSR Broadly corresponded to a major nationality’s territory Minorities in areas designated as Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs) Lots of boundary disputes Phantom Federation Moscow maintained absolute control over the SSRs Russification Moved minority peoples eastward and replaced with Russians Substantial ethnic Russian minorities in all non-Russian republics Forced relocations

13 RUSSIA THE SOVIET UNION
Soviet Economic Framework Centrally Planned Economy Two Objectives Accelerate industrialization Collectivize agriculture Sovkhoz—grain-and-meat factory with agricultural efficiency through maximum mechanization and minimum labor requirements Command Economy—assigned the production of particular manufactures to particular places Government controlled

14 RUSSIA THE NEW RUSSIA Soviet Union imploded (December 25, 1991)
Mikhail Gorbachev resigned SSRs declared their independence, depriving Russia of crucial agricultural and mineral resources Complex Cultural Mosaic Russians form the majority Non-Russian Caucasus Mountains Georgians Armenians Azeris Central Asia Turkic peoples

15 RUSSIA THE NEW RUSSIA Cities Near and Far 73% urbanization
Transcaucasus region less urbanized Tbilisi Baki (Baku) Yerevan Russian Core Moscow St. Petersburg Historic urban cities Novgorod Kazan Yekaterinburg Industrial cities Omsk Krasnoyarsk Novosibirsk Far East Vladivostok

16 RUSSIA THE NEW RUSSIA Near Abroad Countries Satellite States
Former eastern Europe and Soviet republics Near Abroad Newly formed countries that surround Russia Former Soviet republics from Baltic states to Kazakhstan Russia will intervene if threatened by surrounding states Power with UN Military might Realm in Flux Russian Federation – “managed democracy” Improvements in freedom and opportunity False-capitalism, corruption, and major income inequality 2011—antiregime street protests in Moscow and other cities

17 RUSSIA: REGIONS OF THE REALM
IN THIS CHAPTER Running a country with nine time zones Moscow: From Soviet capital to global city Where Russia meets China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula The cold beauty of Siberia Moscow’s explosive growth

18 RUSSIA Russia’s Changing Political Geography
Russia’s New Federal Structure 1992—Russian Federation Treaty Republics committed to cooperation in new federal system Some units refused to sign, Chechnya and Tatarstan 2000—Putin created new geographic framework Enhanced the power of Moscow over its regions Combined 83 units into 8 new administrative units Regional governors to be appointed rather than elected A Shrinking Population Population implosion Population declines as death rate exceeds birth or immigration rates Male life expectancy dropped Out-migration Volatile Economy - Emerging markets Private property, upstart companies, trade, foreign investments, stock exchange - BRICs World’s biggest emerging markets (Brazil, Russia, India, China)

19 RUSSIAN REGIONS The Russian Core The Southeastern Frontier Siberia
The Russian Far East

20 RUSSIA THE RUSSIAN CORE
Core Area Population concentration, biggest cities, leading industries, densest transportation networks, most intensively cultivated lands Extends from western border to the Ural Mountains Central Industrial Region Oriented toward Moscow Centrality—roads and railroads converge in Moscow from all directions The Urals Region Eastern edge Not particularly high Metallic mineral resources Povolzhye—Volga Region Canal links Volga River with the lower Don River and the Black Sea Significant oil and gas reserves

21 Moscow Urban, political, economic and transportation systems focus Population of 13 million Megacity hub of an area comprising some 50 million inhabitants (more than one-third of country’s population) St. Petersburg Formerly Leningrad Russia’s second city Population 4.6 million Outside Central Industrial Region

22 RUSSIA THE SOUTHEASTERN FRONTIER
Southeastern flank of the Ural Mountains to the headwaters of the Amur River Kuznetsk Basin (Kuzbas) Raw Materials, Iron, Coal Novosibirsk: Intersection of Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Ob River Lake Baykal Area Mining, lumbering, and farming Surrounded by rugged, remote, and forbidding country Irkutsk: Principal service center for Siberian region SIBERIA Ural Mountains to the Kamchatka Peninsula Larger than United States, population only 15 million Russia’s freezer Resources - Oil, natural gas, gold, diamonds, precious minerals, metallic ores including iron ore and bauxite Major rivers - Ob, Yenisey, Lena Flow northward/ Hydroelectric power in river basins

23 RUSSIA THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST
Largest Federal District Area beyond the Southeastern Frontier to the Pacific coast, the island of Sakhalin, the Kamchatka Peninsula Significant reserves of oil and natural gas Potential trade with Japan and China

24 RUSSIA THE SOUTHERN PERIPHERY
8 Ethnic Republics Kalmykiya Buddhism Adygeya Orthodox Christian Chechnya Refused to sign the Russian Federation Treaty Ingushetiya Dagestan North Ossetia Karachayevo-Cherkessiya Kabardino-Balkarita

25 RUSSIA TRANSCAUCASIA: RUSSIA’S EXTERNAL PERIPHERY
Georgia Orthodox Christian Conflicts with Russia Azerbaijan Islam Oil Exclave—Naxcivan on Iranian border Territorial Conflict with Armenia—Nagorno-Karabakh Armenia Christian Landlocked

26 Homework Read Textbook Chapter 2a/b Homework:
Choose one the Field Notes” subsection topic in Ch.2 textbook; research and summarize (1 page). OR Choose a realm/region within or adjacent to Russia to review in detail (1 page). Use Chapter 2b for ideas and information, research and summarize.


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