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Size of Earths Atmosphere Air invisible, odorless, colorless and tasteless extends out 10,000 km (6000 miles) 98% is within 26km (16 miles) of sea level.

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Presentation on theme: "Size of Earths Atmosphere Air invisible, odorless, colorless and tasteless extends out 10,000 km (6000 miles) 98% is within 26km (16 miles) of sea level."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Size of Earths Atmosphere Air invisible, odorless, colorless and tasteless extends out 10,000 km (6000 miles) 98% is within 26km (16 miles) of sea level held by gravitational force makes life possible (oxygen for animals, carbon dioxide for plants) maintains water supply insulates us against extreme temperatures shields us from ultraviolet radiation

3 Atmospheric Gases Composition of the Atmosphere

4 Gases Nitrogen 78 % Oxygen 21 % Argon 0.9 % Neon Helium Krypton Hydrogen } Total < 0.09 % Important variable amount gases Water vapor (H2O) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Methane (CH4) Ozone (O3) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

5 Composition of the Atmosphere Atmospheric Particulates

6 More particulates: smoke from wild fires, meteorite debris, pollen grains, oceanic salt spray, volcanic ash, industrial emissions, dust storms, etc. Composition of the Atmosphere Natural Human-induced

7 Atmospheric Pressure Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere

8 Thermal Layers of the Atmosphere Meanings Exosphere = outer Thermosphere = heat Mesosphere = middle Stratosphere = layers Troposphere = mixing Each warm zone has a specific source of heat: Thermosphere - atoms and molecules absorbing UV and being split Stratosphere - ozone layer absorbs UV Visible light - absorbed by surface and lowest layer of troposphere

9 Troposphere Troposphere: Layer where weather occurs Extends 8-18 km (5-11 mi) outwards from the surface Deeper in summer and at tropics

10 Stratosphere - where the Ozone Layer is found

11 Atmospheric Composition Heterosphere: beyond 80 km (50 mi) the gases are layered according to molecular masses heterogenous composition Homosphere: throughout lowest 80 km (50 mi) the gases are distributed uniformly homogenous composition

12 Division of the Atmosphere Based on chemical composition Based on temperature (thermal layers) Based on function Homosphere (0-50 miles) Heterosphere (beyond 50 miles) Troposphere: to 11 miles Stratosphere: miles Mesophere: miles Thermosphere: 50 miles out, turning into exosphere Ozonosphere (9-30 miles) Ionosphere ( miles) Ozone absorbs UV radiation, protecting us from the sun Deep layer of electrically charged molecules and atoms (ions) important in long-distance communications (radio waves) and for aurora displays

13 Natural Ozone Formation Human-Induced Atmospheric Change

14 Ozone Destruction by CFCs Ozone hole over Antarctica Human-Induced Atmospheric Change

15 Consequences: 1.the hole in the ozone layer (UV-B, UV-C) 2.acid rain and smog (airborne pollution) 3.Ventura Countys worst offenders = particulate matter and ozone pollution Associated health problems: respiratory diseases skin cancers Depletion of Ozone Layer video Human-Induced Atmospheric Change

16 Ozone Loss over the Poles CFCs originate in Northern Hemisphere redirected by winds (toward poles) stratosphere high, thin cloud cover cold temperatures Chlorine atoms freed at high rates (poles) hole over Antarctica larger than Arctic Mid-lats also experiencing ozone thinning UV passes to Earths surface

17 Definitions Weather: short-term atmospheric conditions that exist in a specific location during a specific time Climate: long-term atmospheric conditions that exist in a location, localized or broad, during a prolonged period of time Weather/climate and the troposphere Weather and Climate

18 Elements of Weather and Climate Weather and Climate

19 Controls of Weather and Climate Weather and Climate

20 Latitude

21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere

22 General Circulation of the Oceans

23 Elevation/Altitude

24 Topographic Barriers

25 Storms

26 Coriolis Effect Coriolis effect: the apparent horizontal deflection of free-moving objects in response to the rotation of the Earth Northern Hemisphere: to the right Southern Hemisphere: to the left deflection is strongest at the poles deflection is zero at the equator the faster the object, the more deflection direction of movement affected, not speed Coriolis Effect video

27 Coriolis Effect

28 Homework 1.Have syllabus & textbook? ADD SLIPS – list/sign. 2. Read Chapter HW #1 Define the UV Index. Why is it important? Summarize, image, or alternative. Note: All homework due… the next week (or) before the midterm. Sub-tropical storm over Ventura County


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