5Population Distribution Where in the World People Live and WhyPopulation DistributionDescriptions of Earth’s surface locations where individuals or groups (depending on the scale) live.Population distributions commonly visualized as dot maps [1 dot represents a certain number of a population]. Ex. 1:100,000 people
8Reliability of Population Data Where in the World People Live and WhyReliability of Population DataCensus: Federal government funding depends on population data.Political implications of under-representation of populations.United Nations, World Bank, and Population Reference Bureau collect data on world populations.Ex. USA Annual Census.
10East Asia Almost 25% of world’s population Population concentrated in Korea, Japan, ChinaOver 1.3 billion people in ChinaLargest human populations on Earth!
11South Asia Physical geography barriers separate population clusters Himalaya Mountains; Indus River ValleyConfined region with rapidly growing populationBangladesh: 152 million people in an area the size of IowaNatural hazards affect populations unequallyEx. Hurricanes/floods
12North America Megalopolis Huge urban agglomerations; Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.CThis accounts for more than 20% of US population!What region of country?
13Population: Rise and Fall (Global Place Perspective) Thomas Malthus: An Essay on the Principles of Population (British economist; 1798)Grows faster than food supply; food grows linearly, population grows exponentially; population crash expected.Births – Deaths = Natural IncreaseDoes not factor immigration (in-migration) or emigration (outmigration) into the equation
14Population Growth: World, Regional, National Scales Crude Birth Rate (CBR)Number of births in a year per 1000Crude Death Rate (CDR)Number of deaths in a year per 1000Total Fertility Rate (TFR)Average number of children born to a woman ofchildbearing age
15Future Population Growth Stationary Population Level (SPL) –The level at which a national population ceases to growAnticipated dates for population stabilization are often moved backEx. India – major growth.
16Demographic Transition Factors limiting population growth:Famine, epidemics, plagues, warsFactors enhancing population growth:Agricultural advances, Industrial Revolution, sanitation, vaccinations
17Population Composition: Why it Matters Population composition: structure of a population in terms of age, sex, marital status, education and other properties.Age and sex = key indicatorsDemographers use population pyramids to represent traits.Young vs. elderly in any population will determine social needs.Geographers study spatial distribution and population composition.
18Figure 2.16 Age–Sex Population Pyramids for Countries with High Population Growth Rates. Countries with high total fertility rates, high infant mortality rates and low life expectancies will have population pyramids with wide bases and narrow tops.Data from: UN, World Population ProspectsData from: UN, World Population ProspectsFigure 2.17 Age–Sex Population Pyramids for Countries with Low Population Growth Rates. Countries with lower total fertility rates and longer life expectancies have population pyramids shaped more uniformly throughout.
19Geographies of Health: Influence on Population Dynamics Global Life Expectancy =Infant/Child Mortality – Africa/S. Asia highest
20Study Figure 2.19, the infant mortality rate (IMR) by state in the United States. Hypothesize why the IMR is low in some regions of the country and high in others. Shift scales in your mind, and take one state and choose one state to consider: how do you think IMR varies within this state? What other factors are involved at this scale and this level of generalization to explain the pattern of IMRs? Use the population Internet sites listed at the end of this chapter to determine whether your hypotheses are correct.Data from Centers for Disease Control
21Influence on Health and Well-Being Health closely related to location and environment.Disease outbreak - source and diffusion are studied, locational analysis to predict diffusion and prevent.Endemic vs.Pandemic.
22Infectious Diseases 65% of all diseases are infectious Malaria – Vectored = indirect contact with host. [mosquitos to human]300 million people infected todayTropics, high death and disability rateHIV/AIDS- Nonvectored = direct contact with host. [human to human]Major effect in short time (25 years)
24Chronic and Genetic Diseases Degenerative diseases afflict mostly middle/old age populations.USA Example -100 years ago: Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and heart diseases.Today: Cancer, heart disease, stroke and accidents leading causes of death.
25Population and Government Influence Expansive population policies:Encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increaseEugenic population policies:Designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others