Our standard & essential questions SSEMA1 The student will illustrate the means by which economic activity is measured. EQ: How do the patterns of expansion, recession and depression in the economy affect individual lives? –The students will define the stages of the business cycle as well as recession and depression
More essential questions EQ: How does government measure economic activity? –The students will define Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, unemployment, Consumer Price Index(CPI), inflation, stagflation and aggregate supply and aggregate demand. –The students will explain how economic growth, inflation and unemployment are calculated. EQ: How does economic activity affect individual lives? –The students will identify structural, cyclical and frictional unemployment.
Terms to look up 1.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 1.Nominal GDP 2.Real GDP 3.Per capita GDP 2.economic growth 3.unemployment 4.Consumer Price Index (CPI) 5.inflation 6.stagflation 7.business cycle 8.recession 9.depression
Causes and effects of economic instability Business cycles –expansions –contractions –recessions –depressions –causes Inflation –definition –types –causes Unemployment –definition –types –causes –solutions
Business Cycles & Fluctuations cycles: systematic ups and downs of the real GDP (which takes inflation into account) fluctuations: rise & fall of real GDP in a nonsystematic manner GDP refresher: –Real GDP is the value of the total production of goods and services within a country during a particular period time (usually one year). The number is adjusted for inflation so one year’s production can be compared with another’s. –Per Capita GDP is the GDP figure divided by the population of the country
Cycle Phases As GDP increases, there is expansion. When expansion reaches a peak, recession begins. Recession ends at the trough, and expansion (and recovery) begin at that point. The British call the peak a boom We call the line above the trend line.
Recession & Depression Recession: real GDP decreases for 2 quarters (6 months) in a row Depression: severe recession w/3 more elements –Very high unemployment –Acute shortages –Excess manufacturing capacity (idle or partially unused factories)
Business cycle causes Capital expenditures Inventory adjustments Innovation & imitation Monetary factors (Fed. credit/loan policies) External shocks
The “great” worst depression The United States had experienced several previous depressions; things had always improved with time. The Great Depression of the 1930s was the first depression that had not been “fixed” automatically by the action of the free market. Government interference with the market was a major cause of the Great Depression
The worst depression ever: Why? Overproduction E-Z consumer credit (even for stocks) Global economic troubles High tariffs=government interference Loans to foreign countries dropped drastically
The Downward Spiral of the Great Depression Stock market crashes Wealth disappears overnight Banks fail when depositors withdraw all their savings (No FDIC insurance yet) More wealth disappears Sales drop b/c there is no money Workers lose jobs Sales drop even more Money supply shrinks!
Business cycles since WWII Depression ends w/return to full production in US industry & agriculture Small recessions occur, followed by expansion as Am. spending increase Length of expansions increases w/fewer recessions over time
Unemployment unemployment rate calculation: Number of unemployed individuals Total # of persons in civilian labor force
Who is “Unemployed?” Three criteria: Available for work & made specific effort to find a job in the past month Worked for pay < 1 hour in the past week (people with part-time jobs are considered employed)
Types of unemployment Frictional: workers who are between jobs Structural: fundamental change in operation of the economy reduces need for workers & their skills Cyclical: directly related to swings in the business cycle Seasonal: due to changes in weather or change in demand for certain products Technological: workers replaced by machines
Inflation etc. Inflation: rise in general price level change in price level Inflation rate= beginning price level x 100 Creeping inflation: 1-3% per year Galloping inflation: intense; 100-300% per year Hyperinflation: 500% per year and above Deflation: decrease in general price level
Types of inflation & their causes Demand-pull: all sectors of economy try to buy more goods & services than the economy can produce (too much money chasing too few goods & services) Federal government’s deficit: gov. spends more than it takes in taxes & it must borrow funds Cost –push: rising input costs (CELL);esp. labor Self-perpetuating spiral of wages & prices Excessive money supply: money supply grows faster than real GDP
inflation images When the price level rises, this is called inflation; the purchasing power of the dollar goes down 1900’s dollar is 2000’s nickel
In case anybody asks: All you need to know about the Lorenz curve The Lorenz curve shows how much the actual distribution of income differs from an equal distribution Reasons for inequality include education, wealth, discrimination, ability and monopoly power